But they speak, in fact (I can use the first person plural: I am not one of the taciturn) we speak also because we are invited to do so. Years ago, Norberto Bobbio wrote that the Nazi extermination camps were “not one of the events, but the monstrous, perhaps unrepeatable events of human history.” The others, the listeners, friends, children, readers, or even strangers, sense this, beyond their indignation and commiseration; they understand the uniqueness of our experience, or at least make an effort to understand it. So they urge us to speak and ask us questions, at times embarrassing us: it is not always easy to answer certain ways. We are neither historians nor philosophers but witnesses, and anyway, who can say that the history of human events obeys rigorous logic, patterns. One cannot say that each turn follows from a single why: simplifications are proper only for textbooks; they ways can be many, entangled with one another or unknowable, if not actually nonexistent. No historian or epistemologist has yet proven that human history is a deterministic process.
Among the questions that are put to us, one is never absent; indeed, as the years go by, it is formulated with ever increasing persistence, and with an ever less hidden accent of accusation. More than a single question, it is a family of questions. Why did you not escape? Why did you not rebel? Why did you not avoid capture “beforehand?” Precisely because of their inevitability, and their increase in time, these questions deserve attention.
The first comment on these questions, and their first interpretation, are optimistic. There exist countries in which freedom was never known, because the need man naturally feels for it comes after other much more pressing needs: to resist cold, hunger, illnesses, parasites, animal and human aggressions. But in countries in which the elementary needs are satisfied, today's young people experience freedom as a good that one must in no case renounce: one cannot do without it, it is a natural and obvious right, and furthermore, it is gratuitous, like health and the air one breathes. The times and places where this congenital right is denied are perceived as distant, foreign, and strange. Therefore, for them the idea of imprisonment is firmly linked to the idea of flight or revolt. The prisoner's condition is perceived as illegitimate, abnormal: in short, as a disease which must be healed by escape or rebellion. In any case, the concept of escape as a moral obligation has strong roots; according to the military code of many countries, the prisoner of war is under obligation to free himself at all costs, to resume his place as a combatant, and according to the Hague Convention, the attempt to escape must not be punished. In the common consciousness, escape cleanses and wipes out the shame of imprisonment.
Let it be said in passing: in Stalin's Soviet Union the practice,
if not the law, was different and much more dramatic. For the repatriated
Soviet prisoner of war there was neither healing nor redemption.
If he managed to escape and rejoin the fighting army he was considered
irremediably guilty; he should have died instead of surrendering,
and besides having been (perhaps only for a few hours) in the hands
of the enemy, he was automatically suspected of collusion. On their
incautious return home, many military personnel who had been captured
by the Germans, dragged into occupied territory, and who managed
to escape and join the Partisan bands active against the Germans
in Italy, France, or even behind the Russian lines were deported
to Siberia or even killed. In wartime Japan as well, the soldier
who surrendered was regarded with great contempt; hence the extremely
harsh treatment inflicted upon Allied military personnel taken prisoner
by the Japanese. They were not only enemies, they were also cowardly
enemies, degraded by having surrendered.
Now, this schematic image of prison and escape bears little resemblance to the situation in the concentration camps. Using this term in its broadest sense (that is, besides the extermination camps whose names are universally known, also the camps of military prisoners and internees), there existed in Germany several million foreigners in a condition of slavery, overworked, despised, undernourished, badly clothed, and badly cared for, cut off from all contact with their native land. They were not “typical prisoners,” they did not have integrity, on the contrary they were demoralized and depleted. An exception should be made for the Allied prisoners of war (American and those belonging to the British Commonwealth), who received foodstuffs and clothing through the International Red Cross, had good military training, strong motivations, and a firm esprit de corps, and had preserved a solid enough internal hierarchy. With a few exceptions, they could trust one another. They also knew that, should they be recaptured, they would be treated in accordance with international conventions. In fact, they attempted many escapes, some successfully.
For everyone else, the pariahs of the Nazi universe (among whom must be included gypsies and Soviet prisoners, both military and civilian, who racially were considered not much superior to the Jews), the situation was quite different. For them escape was quite different and extremely dangerous; besides being demoralized, they had been weakened by hunger and maltreatment, they were and knew they were considered worth less than beasts of burden. Their heads were shaved, their filthy clothes were immediately recognizable, their wooden clogs made a swift and silent step impossible. If they were foreigners, they had neither acquaintances nor places of refuge in the surrounding region; if they were German, they knew they were under careful surveillance and included in the files of the sharp-eyed secret police, and that very few among their countrymen would risk freedom or life to shelter them.
The particular (but numerically imposing) case of the Jews was the most tragic. Even admitting that they managed to get across the barbed wire barrier and the electrified grill, elude the patrols, the surveillance of the sentinels armed with machine guns in the guard tower, the dogs trained for manhunts: In what direction could they flee? To whom could they turn for shelter? They were outside the world, men and women made of air. They no longer had a country (they had been deprived of their original citizenship or a home, confiscated for the benefit of citizens of good standing). But for a few exceptions, they no longer had a family, or if some relative of theirs was still alive they did not know where to find him or where to write to him without putting the police on his tracks. Goebbels and Streicher's anti-Semitic propaganda had borne fruit: the great majority of Germans, young people in particular, hated Jews, despised them, and considered them the enemies of the people; the rest, with very few heroic exception, abstained from any form of help out of fear of the Gestapo. Whoever sheltered or even assisted a Jew risked terrifying punishment. In this regard it is only right to remember that a few thousand Jews survived through the entire Hitlerian period, hidden, in Germany and Poland in convents, cellars, and attics by citizens who were courageous, compassionate, and above all sufficiently intelligent to observe for years the strictest discretion.
What's more, in all the Lagers the flight of even a single prisoner
was considered the most grievous fault on the part of all surveillance
personnel, beginning with the functionary-prisoners and ending with
the camp commander, who risked discharge. In Nazi logic, this was
an intolerable event: the escape of a slave, especially a slave
belonging to races of “inferior biological value,” seemed
to be charged with symbolic value, representing a victory by one
who is defeated by definition, a shattering of the myth. Also, more
realistically, it was an objective damage since every prisoner had
seen things that the world must not know. Consequently, when a prisoner
was absent or did not respond at roll call (a not very rare event:
often it was simply a matter of mistake in counting, or a prisoner
who fainted from exhaustion) apocalypse was unleashed. The entire
camp was put in a state of alarm. Besides the SS in charge of surveillance,
Gestapo patrols intervened; the Lager and its work sites, farmhouses,
and houses in the camp's environs were searched. The camp commander
arbitrarily ordered emergency measures. The co-nationals or known
friends or pallet neighbours of the fugitive were interrogated under
torture and then killed.
To illustrate how desperate an undertaking an escape was, but not only with this purpose in mind, I will here recall the exploit of Mala Zimetbaum. In fact, I would like the memory of it to survive. Mala's escape from the women's Lager at Auschwitz-Birkenau has been told by several persons, but the details jibe. Mala was a young Polish Jewess who was captured in Belgium and spoke many languages fluently, therefore in Birkenau she acted as an interpreter and messenger and as such enjoyed a certain freedom of movement. She was generous and courageous; she had helped many of her companions and was loved by all of them. In the summer of 1944 she decided to escape with Edek, a Polish political prisoner. She not only wanted to reconquer her own freedom: she was also planning to document the daily massacre at Birkenau. They were able to corrupt an SS and procure two uniforms. They left in disguise and got as far as the Slovak border, where they were stopped by the customs agents, who suspected they were dealing with two deserters and handed them over to the police. They were immediately recognized and taken back to Birkenau. Edek was hanged right away but refused to wait for his sentence to be read in obedience to the strict local ritual: he slipped his head into the noose and let himself drop from the stool.
Mala had also resolved to die her own death. While she was waiting in a cell to be interrogated, a companion was able to approach her and asked her, “How are things, Mala?” She answered: “Things are always fine with me.” She had managed to conceal a razor blade on her body. At the foot of the gallows, she cut the artery on one of her wrists, the SS who acted as executioners tried to snatch the blade from her, and Mala, under the eyes of all the women in the camp, slapped his face with her bloodied hand. Enraged, other guards immediately came running: a prisoner, a Jew, a woman, had dared defy them! They trampled her to death; she expired, fortunately for her, on the cart taking her to the crematorium.
This was not “useless violence.” It was useful: it served very well to crush at its inception any idea of escaping. It was normal for new prisoners to think of escaping, unaware of these refined and tested techniques; it was extremely rare for such a thought to occur to older prisoners. In fact it was common for escape preparations to be denounced by the members of the “gray zone” or by third parties, afraid of the reprisals I have described.
I remember with a smile the adventure I had several years ago in a fifth-grade classroom, where I had been invited to comment on my book* and to answer the pupils' questions. An alert-looking little boy, apparently at the head of the class, asked me the obligatory question: “But how come you didn't escape?” I briefly explained to him what I have written here. Not quite convinced, he asked me to draw a sketch of the camp on the blackboard indicating the location of the watch towers, the gates, the barbed wire, and the power station. I did my best, watched by thirty pairs of intent eyes. My interlocutor studied the drawings for a few instants, asked me for a few further clarifications, then he presented to me the plan he had worked out: here, at night, cut the throat of the sentinel: then, put on his clothes; immediately after this, run over to the power station and cut off the electricity, so the search lights would go out and the high tension fence would be deactivated; after that I could leave without any trouble. He added seriously: “If it should happen to you again, do as I told you. You'll see that you'll be able to do it.”
Within its limits, it seems to me that this episode illustrates quite well the gap that exists and grows wider every year between things as they were “down there” and things as they are represented by the current imagination fed by books, films, and myths that only approximate the reality. It slides fatally toward simplification and stereotype, a trend against which I would like to erect a dike. At the same time, however, I would like to point out that this phenomenon is not confined to the perception of the near past and historical tragedies; it is much more general, it is part of our difficulty or inability to perceive the experience of other, which is all the more pronounced the more distant these experiences are from ours in time, space, or quality. We are prone to assimilate them to ``related'' ones, as if the hunger in Auschwitz were the same as that of someone who has skipped a meal, or as if escape from Treblinka were similar to escape from any ordinary jail. It is the task of the historian to bridge this gap, which widens as we get farther away from the events under examination here.
With equal frequency, and an even harsher accusatory tone, we are asked: “Why didn't you rebel?” This question is quantitatively different from the preceding one but similar in nature, and is too based on a stereotype. It is advisable to answer it in two parts.
In the first place, it is not true that no rebellion ever took place in Lager. The rebellions of Treblinka, Sobibor, and Birkenau have been described many times, with an abundance of details; others took place in minor camps. These were exploits of extreme audacity worthy of the deepest respect, but not one of them ended in victory, if by victory one means the liberation of the camp. It would have been senseless to aim at such a goal: the excessive power of the guarding troops was such as to cause its failure within minutes, since the insurgents were practically unarmed. Their actual aim was to damage or destroy the death installations and permit the escape of the small nucleus of insurgents, something which at times (for example, in Treblinka, even though only in part) succeeded. However, there was never the thought of a mass escape: that would have been an insane undertaking. What sense, what use would it have been to open the gates for thousands of individuals barely able to drag themselves around, and for others who would not have known where, in an enemy country, to look for refuge?
Nevertheless there were insurrections; they were prepared with intelligence and incredible courage by resolute, still physically able minorities. They cost a fearful price in human lives and the collective sufferings inflicted in reprisal but served and still serve to prove that it is false to say that the prisoners of the German Lagers never tried to rebel. In the intentions of the insurgents they were supposed to achieve another, more concrete result: to bring the terrifying secret of the massacre to the attention of the free world. Indeed, those few whose enterprise were successful, and who after many depleting vicissitudes had access to the organs of information, did speak. But they were almost never listened to or believed. Uncomfortable truths travel with difficulty.
In the second place, like the nexus imprisonment-flight, the nexus oppression-rebellion is also a stereotype. I don't mean to say that it is never valid: I'm saying that it is not always valid. The history of rebellions, that is, of insurgencies or revolts from below by the “many oppressed” against the few powerful, is as old as the history of humanity and just as varied and tragic. There were a few victorious rebellions, many were defeated, innumerable others were stifled at the start, so early as not to have left any trace in the chronicles. The variables at play are many: the numerical, military, and idealistic strength of the rebels and those of the challenged authority as well, the respective internal authority as well, the respective internal cohesion or splits, the external assistance available to one or the other, the ability, charisma, or demonic power of the leaders, and luck. Yet in every case, one can see that it is never the most oppressed individuals who stand at the head of movements: usually, in fact, revolutions are led by bold, open-minded leaders who throw themselves into the fray out of generosity (or perhaps ambition), even though they personally could have a secure and tranquil, perhaps even privileged life. The image so often repeated in monuments of the slave who breaks his heavy chain is rhetorical; his chains are broken by comrades whose shackles are lighter and looser.
This fact is not surprising. A leader must be efficient: he must possess moral and physical strength, and oppression, if pushed beyond a certain very low level, deteriorates both. To arouse anger and indignation, which are the motor forces of all true rebellions (to be clear about it, those from below: certainly not the Putsches or “palace revolts”), oppression must certainly exist, but it must be of modest proportions, or enforced inefficiently.
In the Lagers oppression was of extreme proportions and enforced with the renowned and in other fields praiseworthy German efficiency. The typical prisoner, the one who represented the camp's core, was at the limits of depletion: hungry, weakened, covered with sores (especially on the feet: he was an ``impeded'' man in the original sense of the word not an unimportant detail!), and therefore profoundly downcast. He was a rag of a man, and as Marx already knew, revolutions are not made with rags in the real world but only in the world of literary and cinematic rhetoric. All revolutions, those which have changed the direction of world history and those miniscule ones which we are dealing with here, have been led by persons who knew oppression well, but not on their own skin. The Birkenau revolt, which I have already mentioned, was unleashed by the special Kommando attached to the crematoria: these were desperate, exasperated men but well fed, clothed, and shod. The revolt in the Warsaw ghetto was an enterprise worthy of the most reverent admiration. It was the first European “resistance” and the one conducted without the slightest hope of victory or salvation, but it was the work of a political elite which, rightly, had reserved for itself a number of basic privileges in order to preserve its strength.
I come now to the third variant of the question: Why didn't you run away “before?” Before the borders were closed? Before the trap snapped shut? Here too I must point out that many persons threatened by Nazism and fascism did leave ``before.'' These were political exiles, or intellectuals disliked by the two regimes: thousands of names, many obscure, some illustrious, such as Togliatti, Nenni, Saragat, Salvemini, Fermi, Emilio Segre, Lise Meitner, Arnaldo Momigliano, Thomas and Heinrich Mann, Arnold and Stefan Zweig, Brecht, and many others. Not all of them returned, and it was a hemorrhage that bled Europe irremediably. Their emigration (to England, to the United States, South America, and the Soviet Union, but also to Belgium, Holland, France, where the Nazi tide was to catch up with them a few years later: they were, as are we all, blind to the future) was neither flight nor desertion but a natural joining up with potential or real allies, in citadels from which they could resume their struggle and their creative activity.
Nevertheless, it is still true that for the greater part the threatened
families (the Jews, above all) remained in Italy and Germany. To
ask oneself and us why is once again the sign of a stereotyped and
anachronistic conception of history, more simply put, of widespread
ignorance and forgetfulness, which tends to increase as the events
recede further into the past. The Europe of the period 1930-1940
was not today's Europe. To emigrate is always painful; at that time
it was also more difficult and more costly than it is now. To emigrate
one needed not only a lot of money but also a “bridgehead”
in the country of destination: relatives or friends willing to offer
sponsorship and/or hospitality. Many Italians, peasants, above all,
had emigrated during the previous decades, but they were driven
by poverty and hunger and had a bridgehead, or thought they did.
Often they were invited and well received because locally there
was a scant supply of manual laborers. Nevertheless, for them and
their families leaving their “fatherland” was also a
Common to all were the organizational difficulties of emigrating.
Those were the times of grave international tension: the frontiers
of Europe, today almost non existent, were practically closed, and
England and the Americas had extremely reduced immigration quotas.
Yet greater than this difficulty was another of an inner, psychological
nature. This village or town or region or nation is mine, I was
born here, my ancestors are buried here. I speak its language, have
adopted its customs and culture; and to this culture I may even
have contributed. I paid its tributes, observed its laws. I fought
its battles, not caring whether they were just or unjust. I risked
my life for its borders, some of my friends or relations lie in
the war cemeteries. I myself, in deference to the current rhetoric,
have declared myself willing to die for the patria. I do not want
to nor can I leave it: if I die I will die “in patria;”
that will be my way of dying “for the patria.”
This happened to a greater extent in Germany than in Italy. The German Jews were almost all bourgeois and they were German. Like their ``Aryan'' quasi compatriots they loved law and order, and not only did they not forsee but they were organically incapable of conceiving of a terrorism directed by the state, even when it was already all around them. There is a famous, extremely dense verse by Christian Morgenstern, a bizarre Bavarian poet (not Jewish, despite his surname), which is quite apposite here,even though it was written in 1910, in the clean, upright, and law-abiding Germany described by J.K.Jerome in Three Men on the Bummel. A verse so German and so pregnant that it has become a proverb and cannot be translated except by a clumsy paraphrase: ``Nicht sein kann, was nicht sein darf'' (“What may not be cannot be”).
This is the seal of a small emblematic poem: Palmstrom, an extremely law abiding German citizen, is hit by a car in a street where traffic is forbidden. He gets up bruised and battered and thinks about it. If traffic is forbidden, vehicles may not circulate, that is, they do not circulate. Ergo he cannot have been hit: it is “an impossible reality,” an Unmogliche Tatsache(this is the title of the poem). He must have only dreamed it because, indeed, “things whose existence is not morally permissible cannot exist.”
One must beware of hindsight and stereotypes. More generally one must beware of the error that consists in judging distant epochs and places with the yardstick that prevails in the here and now, an error all the more difficult to avoid as the distance in space and time increases. This is the reason why, for us who are not specialists, comprehending biblical and Homeric texts or even the Greek and Latin classics is so arduous an undertaking. Many Europeans of that time -and not only Europeans of that time behaved and still behave like Palmstrom, denying the existence of things that ought not to exist. According to common sense, which Manzoni shrewdly distinguished from ``good sense'', man when threatened provides, resists, or flees, but the threats of those days which today seem evident were at that time obfuscated by willed incredulity, mental blocks, generously exchanged and self-catalyzing consolatory truths.
Here rises the obligatory question, a counter question: How securely
do we live, we men of the century's and millenium's end? And, more
specifically, we Europeans? We have been told, and there is no reason
to doubt it, that for every human being on the planet a quantity
of nuclear explosive is stored equal to three or four tons of TNT.
If even only 1 percent of it were used there would immediately be
tens of millions dead, and frightening genetic damage to the entire
human species, indeed to all life on earth, with the exception perhaps
of the insects. Besides, it is at least probable that a third world
war, even conventional, even partial, would be fought on our territory
between the Atlantic and the Urals, between the Mediterranean and
the Arctic. The threat is different from that of the 1930s: less
close but vaster; linked, in the opinion of some, to a demonism.
It is aimed at everyone, and therefore especially “useless.”
-translated by Raymond Rosenthal.
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