Das Capital, Volume 1
A Critical Analysis of Capitalist Production

Marx, Karl

Publisher:  Progress Publishers
Year Published:  1890   First Published:  1867
Pages:  767pp   ISBN:  0-7178-0018-0
Resource Type:  Book
Cx Number:  CX6196

Marx's great work sets out to grasp and portray the totality of the capitalist mode of production, and the bourgeois society that emerges from it. He describes and connects all its economic features, together with its legal, political, religious, artistic, philosophical and ideological manifestations.


Table of Contents

Preface to the First German Edition (Marx)
Afterword to the Second German Edition (Marx)
Preface to the French Edition (Marx)
Afterword to the French Edition (Marx)
Preface to the Third German Edition (Engels)
Preface to the English Edition (Engels)
Preface to the Fourth German Edition (Engels)

Book I: The Process of Production of Capital

Part I: Commodities and Money

Chapter I Commodities

Section 1. The Two Factors of a Commodity: Use Value and Value (the Substance of Value and the Magnitude of Value)

Section 2. The Twofold Character of the Labour Embodied in Commodities

Section 3. The Form of Value or Exchange Value

A. Elementary or Accidental Form of Value
1. The Two Poles of the Expression of Value: Relative Form and Equivalent Form
2. The Relative Form of Value
(a.) The Nature and Import of This Form
(b.) Quantitative Determination of Relative Value
3. The Equivalent Form of Value
4. The Elementary Form Of Value Considered as a Whole

B. Total or Expanded Form of Value
1. The Expanded Relative Form of Value
2. The Particular Equivalent Form
3. Defects of the Total or Expanded Form of Value

C. The General Form of Value
1. The Altered Character of the Form of Value
2. The Interdependent Development of the Relative Form of Value, and Of the Equivalent Form
3. Transition from the General Form of Value to the Money Form

D. The Money Form

Section 4. The Fetishism of Commodities and the Secret Thereof

Chapter II. Exchange

Chapter III. Money, or the Circulation of Commodities 103

Section 1. The Measure of Values

Section 2. The Medium of Circulation
a. The Metamorphosis of Commodities
b. The Currency of Money
c. Coin and Symbols of Value

Section 3. Money
a. Hoarding
b. Means of Payment
c. Universal Money

Part II: The Transformation of Money into Capital

Chapter IV The General Formula for Capital
Chapter V Contradictions in the General Formula of Capital
Chapter VI The Buying and Selling of Labour Power

Part III: The Production of Absolute Surplus Value

Chapter VII The Labour Process and the Process of Producing Surplus Value

Section 1. The Labour Process or the Production of Use Values

Section 2. The Production of Surplus Value

Chapter VIII Constant Capital and Variable Capital

Chapter IX The Rate of Surplus Value

Section 1. The Degree of Exploitation of Labour Power

Section 2. The Representation of the Components of the Value of the Product by Corresponding Proportional Parts of the Product Itself

Section 3. Senior's "Last Hour"

Section 4. Surplus Produce

Chapter X The Working Day

Section 1. The Limits of the Working Day

Section 2. The Greed for Surplus Labour. Manufacturer and Boyard

Section 3. Branches of English Industry Without Legal Limits to Exploitation

Section 4. Day and Night Work. The Relay System

Section 5. The Struggle for a Normal Working Day. Compulsory Laws for the Extension of the Working Day from the Middle of the 14th to the End of the 17th Century

Section 6. The Struggle for the Normal Working Day. Compulsory Limitation by Law of the Working Time. The English Factory Acts, 1833 to 1864

Section 7. The Struggle for the Normal Working Day. Reaction of the English Factory Acts on Other Countries

Chapter XI Rate and Mass of Surplus Value


Chapter XII The Concept of Relative Surplus Value

Chapter XIII Co-operation

Chapter XIV Division of Labour and Manufacture
Section 1. Two-fold Origin of Manufacture
Section 2. The Detail Labourer and his Implements
Section 3. The Two Fundamental Forms of Manufacture: Heterogeneous Manufacture, Serial Manufacture
Section 4. Division of Labour in Manufacture, and Division of Labour in Society
Section 5. The Capitalistic Character of Manufacture

Chapter XV Machinery and Modern Industry
Section 1. The Development of Machinery
Section 2. The Value Transferred by Machinery to the Product
Section 3. The Proximate Effects of Machinery on the Workman
a. Appropriation of Supplementary Labour Power by Capital. The Employment of Women and Children
b. Prolongation of the Working Day
c. Intensification of Labour
Section 4. The Factory
Section 5. The Strife Between Workman and Machine
Section 6. The Theory of Compensation as Regards the Workpeople Displaced by Machinery
Section 7. Repulsion and Attraction Of Workpeople by the Factory System. Crises in the Cotton Trade
Section 8. Revolution Effected in Manufacture, Handicrafts, and Domestic Industry by Modern Industry
a. Overthrow of Co-operation Based on Handicraft and on the Division of Labour
b. Reaction of the Factory System on Manufacture and Domestic Industries
c. Modern Manufacture
d. Modern Domestic Industry
e. Passage of Modern Manufacture, and Domestic Industry into Modern Mechanical Industry. The Hastening of This Revolution by the Application Of the Factory Acts to Those Industries
Section 9. The Factory Acts Sanitary and Educational Clauses of the Same Their General Extension in England
Section l0. Modern Industry and Agriculture


Chapter XVI Absolute and Relative Surplus Value
Chapter XVII Changes Of Magnitude in the Price of Labour Power and in Surplus Value
I. Length of the Working Day and Intensity of Labour Constant Productiveness of Labour Variable
II. Working Day Constant. Productiveness of Labour Constant. Intensity of Labour Variable
III. Productiveness and Intensity of Labour Constant. Length of the Working Day Variable
IV. Simultaneous Variations in the Duration, Productiveness, and Intensity of Labour
(1.) Diminishing Productiveness of Labour with a Simultaneous Lengthening of the Working Day
(2.) Increasing Intensity and Productiveness of Labour with Simultaneous Shortening of the Working Day

Chapter XVIII Various Formulae for the Rate of Surplus Value

Part VI: Wages

Chapter XIX The Transformation of the Value (and Respectively the Price) of Labour Power into Wages

Chapter XX Time Wages

Chapter XXI Piece Wages

Chapter XXII National Differences of Wages

Part VII: The Accumulation of Capital

Chapter XXIII Simple Reproduction

Chapter XXIV Conversion of Surplus Value into Capital

Section 1. Capitalist Production on a Progressively Increasing Scale. Transition of the Laws of Property that Characterise Production of Commodities into Laws of Capitalist Appropriation
Section 2. Erroneous Conception, by Political Economy, of Reproduction on a Progressively Increasing Scale
Section 3. Separation of Surplus Value into Capital and Revenue. The Abstinence Theory
Section 4. Circumstances that, Independently of the Proportional Division Of Surplus Value into Capital and Revenue Determine the Amount of Accumulation. Degree of Exploitation of Labour Power. Productivity of Labour. Growing Difference in Amount Between Capital Employed and Capital Consumed. Magnitude of Capital Advanced
Section 5. The So-called Labour Fund

Chapter XXV The General Law of Capitalist Accumulation

Section 1. The Increased Demand for Labour Power that Accompanies Accumulation, the Composition of Capital Remaining the Same

Section 2. Relative Diminution of the Variable Part of Capital Simultaneously with the Progress of Accumulation and of the Concentration that Accompanies it

Section 3. Progressive Production of a Relative Surplus Population or Industrial Reserve Army

Section 4. Different Forms of the Relative Surplus Population. The General Law of Capitalistic Accumulation

Section 5. Illustrations of the General Law of Capitalist Accumulation
(a) England from 1846 - 1866
(b) The Badly Paid Strata of the British Industrial Class
(c) The Nomad Population
(d) Effect of Crises on the Best Paid Part of the Working Class
(e) The British Agricultural Proletariat
(f) Ireland

Part VIII: The So-Called Primitive Accumulation

Chapter XXVI The Secret of Primitive Accumulation

Chapter XXVII Expropriation of the Agricultural Population from the Land

Chapter XXVIII Bloody Legislation Against the Expropriated, from the End of the 15th Century. Forcing down of Wages by Acts of Parliament

Chapter XIX Genesis of the Capitalist Farmer

Chapter XXX Reaction of the Agricultural Revolution on Industry. Creation of the Home Market for Industrial Capital

Chapter XXXI Genesis of the Industrial Capitalist

Chapter XXXII Historical Tendency of Capitalist Accumulation

Chapter XXXIII The Modern Theory of Colonisation

Notes and Indexes
Name Index
Index of Quoted and Mentioned Literature
Index of Periodicals

Title Page of the First German Edition of Volume I of Capital
Marx's letter to Lachatre of March 18, 1872, the facsimile of which is given in the French edition of Volume I of Capital
Title page of the first English edition of Volume I of Capital

Excerpt: From Chapter 32: "As soon as this process of transformation has sufficiently decomposed the old society from top to bottom, as soon as the laborers are turned into proletarians, their means of labor into capital, as soon as the capitalist mode of production stands on its own feet, then the further socialization of labor and further transformation of the land and other means of production into socially exploited and, therefore, common means of production, as well as the further expropriation of private proprietors, takes a new form. That which is now to be expropriated is no longer the laborer working for himself, but the capitalist exploiting many laborers. This expropriation is accomplished by the action of the immanent laws of capitalistic production itself, by the centralization of capital. One capitalist always kills many. Hand in hand with this centralization, or this expropriation of many capitalists by few, develop, on an ever-extending scale, the co-operative form of the labor-process, the conscious technical application of science, the methodical cultivation of the soil, the transformation of the instruments of labor into instruments of labor only usable in common, the economizing of all means of production by their use as means of production of combined, socialized labor, the entanglement of all peoples in the net of the world-market, and with this, the international character of the capitalistic regime. Along with the constantly diminishing number of the magnates of capital, who usurp and monopolize all advantages of this process of transformation, grows the mass of misery, oppression, slavery, degradation, exploitation; but with this too grows the revolt of the working-class, a class always increasing in numbers, and disciplined, united, organized by the very mechanism of the process of capitalist production itself. The monopoly of capital becomes a fetter upon the mode of production, which has sprung up and flourished along with, and under it. Centralization of the means of production and socialization of labor at last reach a point where they become incompatible with their capitalist integument. Thus integument is burst asunder. The knell of capitalist private property sounds. The expropriators are expropriated."

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