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Clicking on the title of an item takes you to the bibliographic reference for the resource, which will typically also contain an abstract, a link to the full text if it is available online, and links to related topics in the subject index. Particularly recommended items have a red Connexions logo beside the title.

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  1. African Americans' Forced Labor
    Against The Current vol. 147

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2010
    As Americans we are taught that slavery was abolished after the Civil War. A close reading of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution reveals, however, that this was not exactly the case. Although this amendment did outlaw slavery for the majority of American citizens, anyone convicted of a crime could still, quite legally, be kept in a state of bondage without claims on civil liberties and without remuneration for their forced labor.
  2. Convict Labor in America
    Book review

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1998
    Convict labour, like antebellum slavery, was an American way of life, a cultural practice that tied northern capitalists, plantation owners, university-trained social reformers, federal officials and advocates of "good roads" together in a powerful alliance.
  3. Democracy Is that it?
    New Internationalist June 2000

    Resource Type: Serial Publication (Periodical)
    First Published: 2000
    Democracy has become commonplace and its original meaning -- "rule by the people" -- has got lost. Real democracy depends on active citizenship, something that's missing from contemporary culture. Articles cover democracy in Canada and the developing world, economics in relation to democracy and politics in Pakistan.
  4. Focus Shifts to Trafficking of Men in Europe
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2009
    The public perception is that human trafficking victims are all vulnerable females forced into prostitution and sexual slavery. But this is not the case. It does not occur to many people that trafficking is much broader on its scale, and that it affects a sizeable amount of men.
  5. Forced Native Labor in Sixteenth-Century Central America
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1979   Published: 2009
    Presents a comprehensive investigation of the primary issue of the first century of Spanish American colonization: the massive system of Indian forced labour, ranging from outright slavery to the encomienda, upon which Spanish colonial society rested. This book traces the rupturing of Indian traditions and the fate that befell the Indian people.
  6. An introduction to the Indian Ocean slave trade
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2016
    The Indian Ocean slave trade encompassed Africa, Asia and the Middle East, with people from these areas involved as both captors and captives. The numbers of people enslaved and the exact length of the trans-Indian slave trade have not been definitively established, but historians believe that it preceded the transatlantic enslavement by centuries. Even though it is largely ignored as an international slave trade, examples of its impact abound. Writing on Indian Ocean slavery frequently mentions African people in China and Persia as well as in the Muslim holy cities of Mecca and Medina, which also served as central slave markets.
  7. One Dies, Get Another
    Convict Leasing in the American South, 1866-1928

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1996
  8. Other Voices: The Connexions Newsletter - July 22, 2017
    Secrecy and Power

    Resource Type: Serial Publication (Periodical)
    First Published: 2017
    Secrecy is a weapon the powerful use against their enemies: us. This issue of Other Voices explores the relationship of secrecy and power.
  9. Prison Labor: Workin' For The Man
    Article in Covert Action Quarterly #54, Fall 1995

    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 1995
    Article analysing the roots of prison labour in America.
  10. Resistance
    One Woman's Defiance in Occupied France

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2008   Published: 2009
    The memoir of a French resistance fighter and museum worker who chronicles the undergroud network of resistance in Paris during the occupation. She then chronicles her imprisonment and the slave labour she endured in Germany. The final section of her memoir recounts her release by the Americans and the time she spent helping them hunt Nazis after the war.
  11. Slavery by Another Name
    The Re-Enslavement of Black Americans from the Civil War to World War II

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2008
    An account of how African Americans were forcibly enslaved by a corrupt legal system in the southern States, from the end of the Civil War through WWII.
  12. Slavery still shackles Mauritania, 31 years after its abolition
    Resource Type: Article
    First Published: 2012
    Rigid caste system and ruling elite have enabled a centuries-old practice to continue into the 21st century.
  13. Trafficking and Prostitution Reconsidered
    New Perspectives on Migration, Sex Work, and Human Rights

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 2005
    This collection of essays underscores the interlocking relationship between prostitution, migration and trafficking. They reveal a deep seated anxiety about borders, economic resources and the fragility of the nation-state. Far from from helping women and children become free from explotaiton, the obession with women sex workers has led to the detriment of all by excluding the questions of human rights, freedon of movement, basics such as food and shelter and a living wage. The book is a call for all those involved -- governments, aid workers and trafickees -- to go beyond a paternalistic and colonial view of these issues and deal with them in a spirit of cooperation.
  14. Twice the Work of Free Labor
    The Political Economy of Convict Labor in the New South

    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1996
  15. 'Worse than Slavery': Parchman Farm and the Ordeal of Jim Crow Justice
    Resource Type: Book
    First Published: 1997
    After the abolition of slavery the white rulers of Mississippi developed a new system for keeping the ex-slaves in line: laws were passed to maintain white supremacy, including the system of convict leasing, a system whereby people could "hire" prisoners for physical labour outside the walls of prison.

Experts on Travaux forc‚s in the Sources Directory

  1. International Centre for Migration Policy Development
  2. International Labour Organization
  3. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

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