Toussaint Louverture

Franois-Dominique Toussaint Louverture
Toussaint Louverture
Toussaint Louverture
Alternate name(s): Toussaint L'Ouverture
Place of birth: Haiti
Date of death: 7 April 1803 (aged 59)
Place of death: France
Movement: Haitian Revolution
Religion: Roman Catholic
Toussaint Louverture
Allegiance France France
Service/branch Haitian Army
Years of service 1791 –1804
Rank General
Battles/wars Haitian Revolution

Franois-Dominique Toussaint L'ouverture About this sound pronunciation , also Toussaint Brda, Toussaint-L'Ouverture ( May 20, 1743 – April 7, 1803) was the leader of the Haitian Revolution. Born in Saint-Domingue, Toussaint led enslaved blacks in a long struggle for independence over French colonizers, abolished slavery, and secured "native" control over the colony, Haiti. In 1797 while nominally governor of the colony, he expelled the French commissioner Lger-Flicit Sonthonax, as well as the British armies, invaded Santo Domingo to free the slaves there, and wrote a Constitution naming himself governor-for-life that established a new polity for the colony.[1][2]

Especially between the years 1800 and 1802, Toussaint Louverture tried to rebuild the collapsed economy of Haiti and reestablish commercial contacts with the United States and Britain. His rule permitted the colony a taste of freedom which, after his death in exile, was gradually destroyed during the successive reigns of a series of despots. Translated from French "Tous Saints L'Ouverture", his name means "all saints" or "all souls opening". His last words were to his son in France, "My boy, you will one day go back to St. Domingo; forget that France murdered your father."[3]


[edit] Early life and career

General Toussaint Louverture.

Toussaint was born in Brda, Haiti to enslaved parents. His paternal grandfather, Gaou Guinou was a chief from Arrada in modern-day Benin.[4] Tradition says that he was driver and horse trainer on the plantation. His master freed him at age 33, when Toussaint married Suzanne.[5] He was a fervent Catholic, and a member of high degree of the Masonic Lodge of Saint-Domingue.[6][7] In 1790 slaves in the Plaine du Flowera rose in rebellion. Different forces coalesced under different leaders. Toussaint served with other leaders and rose in responsibility. On 4 April 1792, the French Legislative Assembly extended full rights of citizenship to free people of color or mulattoes (gens de couleur libres) and free blacks. In Saint-Domingue, this policy was resisted by many white colonists, and France sent three Commissioners to enforce it. Among them Lger-Flicit Sonthonax was the most radical, creating a bureaucracy of mulattoes at Le Cap in the North. After the execution of Louis XVI in early 1793, France went to war against Great Britain and Spain. As unrest and racial war[citation needed] continued to disrupt Saint-Domingue's institutions, Toussaint joined the Spanish army of Santo Domingo to find a way to end slavery. In August Sonthonax proclaimed emancipation for slaves in the north, where Toussaint and his allies were fighting; his fellow commissioners announced emancipation of slaves in the West and South, but an invasion by British troops in September overshadowed these changes. In 1793 Toussaint adopted as a surname his nickname of L'Ouverture and used it as his full signature from then on.

By early 1794 Toussaint Louverture was able to organize 4,000[citation needed] blacks into a band of loyal guerrilla troops, as he was a gifted, although untrained, leader and military strategist. It was not until February 1794 that the French Convention formally abolished slavery. Toussaint negotiated with General Laveaux and changed sides in May 1794. He then fought against the Spanish Empire, recovering all the forts of the Cordon de L'Ouest in less than two weeks and delivering the North to the French Republic. He also fought against the British Empire.

By 1795, Toussaint controlled most of two provinces. His two lieutenants Jean-Jacques Dessalines and Henri Christophe were extremely effective. Toussaint's success drove Andr Rigaud, a man of color leading forces in the southwest, to renew his attacks from where free people of color were concentrated in Port au Prince. Rigaud controlled a force of officers of color and black troops, who controlled the South.[8]

General Maitland meets Toussaint to discuss the secret treaty

By June 1795, the British had been driven back to the coast. In July the Spanish officially withdrew. Although the British continued to fight from coastal towns, Toussaint maintained his control over the North and West of Saint-Domingue. In May 1797 Sonthonax named Toussaint Louverture commander-in-chief of the French republican army in Saint-Domingue.

He was also successful in leading his relatively small band of troops (in lightning quick strikes) to gain strategic defeats and the withdrawal of an army of 10,000 British soldiers. In 1798, the British made a last-ditch attempt to oust Louverture by attacking from the South, sending General Thomas Maitland. Maitland failed and signed a secret treaty in which Toussaint Louverture agreed to leave the ports open to commercial shipping of all nations. The British withdrew from the colony.

The British left Saint-Domingue completely in October 1798, but General Hedouville worked at increasing competition between Rigaud and Toussaint for control. Rigaud did not want to give up portions of the Western Department which he had taken over.[8] Toussaint appointed Jean-Jacques Dessalines to govern the South after his defeat of Rigaud in July 1800. He took extremely severe reprisals against the mulatto population, crushing the resistance and killing 40,000 men, women and children. After years of warfare and outrages, Dessalines' brutality left bitterness among people of color.[8] By 1800, Toussaint had subordinated all remaining colored forces.[3]

In 1801 the Spanish capitulated to Toussaint Louverture, ceding the remainder of the island to his forces. He proclaimed the abolition of slavery in Santo Domingo. After this in July he proclaimed a new constitution which named him governor for life.

[edit] French Revolution and rebellion in Saint-Domingue

News of the French Revolution of 1789 and the message of Libert, galit, fraternit reached Saint-Domingue by 1790, and had a powerful impact on the island. French soldiers landing at Port-au-Prince joined blacks and people of color in brotherly union. They announced that the National Assembly in France had declared all men free and equal. It did not take long for the ideas of Enlightenment philosophy to spread through the island. When white planters failed to honor the promises made by the Declaration of the Rights of Man, widespread slave uprisings took place throughout the North.

Toussaint did not participate in the ill-fated campaign organized by Vincent Og, a wealthy free man of color. The revolt took place in October 1790 and tried to assert the voting rights of free people of color but it was brutally crushed by colonial forces. The following year in August a slave revolt broke out in the Northern Province. Toussaint found himself wavering. He worked as a servant and carriage driver on the plantation where he had grown up.

Initially, Toussaint was against the widespread destruction and bloodshed which was being unleashed by the rebels. Toussaint spent many months keeping his master–s slaves in order and preventing revolutionary laborers from setting fire to the plantation. It became clear that all white people were threatened. As the insurrection grew, Toussaint helped his master–s family to escape, sent his own family away to a safe spot in Spanish Santo Domingo, and made his way to the camp of rebel slaves. As a mature man near 50, he soon discerned the ineptitude of the rebel leaders and their willingness to compromise with white radicals.

Toussaint's important position as a free-black coachman allowed him to serve as a link between the white plantation masters and the rebelling slaves. He also managed to obtain a pass from the governor which allowed him to travel from plantation to plantation and spread revolutionary ideas (although he was careful to keep his participation hidden from the white authorities).[9] Toussaint's prominence grew among revolutionary leaders until he became the movement's undisputed leader. His famous Declaration of Camp Turel on 29 August 1793 serves as proof that his ideas would serve as a template for a future independent Saint-Domingue. Specifically, he called for a military state to preserve absolute freedom for all citizens.[10]

Scorning these and using his ample experience in administration and leadership, Toussaint quickly gathered a following and trained his followers in tactics of guerrilla warfare but also insisted on discipline and order. In 1793, he became an aide to Georges Biassou. He rose rapidly in rank. The army of blacks proved successful against the yellow fever-ravaged and poorly led European troops.

After the execution of Louis XVI and the outbreak of the French Revolutionary Wars, when France went to war against Great Britain and Spain, numerous black commanders of the North joined the Spanish-led army of Santo Domingo against the French. Knighted and recognized as a general, Toussaint demonstrated extraordinary military ability and attracted renowned warriors such as his nephew Mose and two future monarchs of Haiti, Jean-Jacques Dessalines and Henry Christophe. It was then that he gained the nickname L'Ouverture ("opening"), which he adopted but always spelled Louverture[11]. He exploited openings in the defenses of the opposition. Later that year, the British gained control of most of the coastal settlements of Saint-Domingue, including Port-au-Prince.

Toussaint Louverture's victories in the North of Saint-Domingue, together with independent successes by people of color in the South and British occupation of the coasts, brought the French close to disaster. In 1793, Lger-Flicit Sonthonax and tienne Polverel, representatives of the French revolutionary government in Paris, offered freedom to slaves who would join them as they struggled to defeat counter-revolutionaries and fight the foreign invaders. On 4 February 1794, the largely Jacobin National Convention in Paris confirmed the orders of emancipation, which abolished slavery in all territories of the French Republic.

In May of 1794, Toussaint Louverture decided to ally with the French, justifying his decision by the failures of Spain and Britain to free slaves. He declared that he had become a republican (after being a royalist). Toussaint Louverture has been criticized for such treatment of his former allies, as well as for mass slaughter of Spanish troops. Toussaint Louverture–s switch was decisive in France's regaining control over Saint-Domingue.

tienne Laveaux, the governor of Saint-Domingue, made Toussaint Louverture Gnral de Brigade. He succeeded in causing the British to suffer severe reverses; and expelled the Spaniards. Under Toussaint Louverture's increasingly influential leadership, the French army of black, mixed-race, and white soldiers defeated the British and Spanish forces. Toussaint Louverture's army won seven battles in one week against the Spanish forces in May of 1794 and recovered the forts of the Cordon de L'Ouest. He also fought against the uprising of Pinchinat, a leader who was a gen de couleur or mulatto.

Toussaint's views toward the French mother country can be regarded as somewhat ambivalent. He was very much alarmed by Napoleon–s plans for the colonies of France. Napoleon had made it clear to the inhabitants of Saint-Domingue that France would draw up a new constitution for its colonies, in which they would be subjected to special laws [12]. Toussaint faced a dilemma. He recognized Napoleon's superior military strength coupled with his ambitions to restore slavery, yet he had sworn to protect the freedom of the inhabitants of Saint-Domingue. Thus he pursued a strategy of appeasement in which he sought to retain connections with France. In Toussaint's Constitution of 1801, Article 3 states: –There cannot exist slaves [in Saint-Domingue], servitude is therein forever abolished. All men are born, live and die free and French." [13]. Toussaint was also willing to compromise the dominant Vaudou faith for Catholicism. Article 6 clearly states that –the Catholic, Apostolic, Roman faith shall be the only publicly professed faith.– [14].

[edit] Campaign in support of the French Revolution

Engraving of Toussaint Louverture.

By 1795, Toussaint Louverture was widely renowned. He was revered by the blacks and appreciated by most whites and people of color for helping restore the economy of Saint-Domingue. He invited many migr planters to return, as he knew their management and technical expertise was needed to restore the economy and generate revenues. He used military discipline to force former slaves to work as laborers to get the plantations running again. He believed that people were naturally flawed and that discipline was needed to prevent idleness. He no longer permitted the laborers to be whipped. They were legally free and equal, and they shared the profits of the restored plantations. Racial tensions eased because Toussaint preached reconciliation and believed that for the blacks, a majority of whom were native Africans, there were lessons to be learned from whites and people of color, among whom many men had been educated in France and often trained in the military.

The French governor Laveaux left Saint-Domingue in 1796. He was succeeded by Lger-Flicit Sonthonax, an extremist French commissioner who had served on the island before. He allowed Toussaint Louverture to effectively rule and promoted him to Gnral de Division. Toussaint was repelled by this radical's proposals to exterminate all Europeans. He found Sonthonax's atheism, coarseness, and immorality offensive. After some maneuvering, Toussaint Louverture forced Sonthonax out in 1797.

Next to go were the British, whose losses caused them to negotiate secretly with Toussaint Louverture. They agreement between them was that the Toussaint would leave the military installations intact and spare the emigres. Treaties in 1798 and 1799 secured their complete withdrawal. Toussaint Louverture promoted lucrative trade with Great Britain and the United States. In return for arms and goods, Toussaint Louverture sold sugar and promised not to invade Jamaica and the American South. The British offered to recognize him as king of an independent Saint-Domingue. Distrusting the British because they maintained slavery, he refused. The British withdrew from Saint-Domingue in 1798.

Toussaint Louverture soon rid himself of another nominal French superior, Gabriel Hdouville, who arrived in 1798 as representative of the Directoire government of France. Aware that France had no chance of restoring colonialism as long as the war with Great Britain continued, Hdouville tried to pit Toussaint Louverture against Andr Rigaud, the leader of color who ruled a semi-independent state in the South. Toussaint Louverture, however, figured out his purpose and forced Hdouville to flee.

Hdouville was succeeded by Philippe Roume, who deferred to the black governor. Toussaint Louverture eliminated Rigaud by a bloody campaign in October 1799 that forced him to flee to France. His state led by people of color was conquered. Jean-Jacques Dessalines carried out a purge in the South so brutal that reconciliation with people of color was impossible. Many refugees fled the country, including thousands who went to New Orleans, Louisiana and added to both the free people of color and African populations there.

On 22 May 1799, Toussaint Louverture signed a trading treaty with the British and the Americans. In the United States, Alexander Hamilton was a strong supporter. However, after Thomas Jefferson became President in 1801, he reversed the friendly American policy.

Once he had control over all of Saint-Domingue, Toussaint Louverture turned to Spanish Santo Domingo, where slavery persisted. The colony never had the scale of slavery as in St. Domingue, however, and plantation agriculture was not widespread. Ignoring the commands of Napoleon Bonaparte, who had become first consul of France, Toussaint Louverture overran the Spanish settlement in January 1801, officially took control on the 24th, and freed the slaves.

Toussaint Louverture drafted a committee to write a constitution for the united island. This took effect on 7 July 1801 and established his own authority across the whole island of Hispaniola.

[edit] Leclerc's campaign and Louverture's captivity

In command of the entire island, Toussaint Louverture dictated a constitution that made him governor-general for life with near absolute powers. Catholicism was made the state religion, and many revolutionary principles received ostensible sanction. There was no provision for officials from France; however, Toussaint Louverture professed himself a Frenchman and strove to convince Bonaparte of his loyalty. He wrote to Napoleon, "From the First of the Blacks to the First of the Whites."[15] Bonaparte confirmed Toussaint Louverture–s position but considered him an obstacle to the restoration of Saint-Domingue as a profitable colony, which refugee planters had convinced him needed enslaved labor.

Denying that he was trying to reinstate slavery, Napoleon sent his brother-in-law General Charles Leclerc with thousands of troops and numerous warships to regain French control of the island in 1802. Leclerc landed on the island on 20 January and moved against Toussaint Louverture. Over the following months, Toussaint Louverture's troops fought against the French, but some of his officers defected to join Leclerc. Others joined chief black leaders like Dessalines and Christophe. On 7 May 1802, Toussaint Louverture signed a treaty with the French in Cap-Hatien, with the condition that there would be no return to slavery.

He retired to his farm in Ennery. After three weeks, Leclerc sent troops to seize Toussaint Louverture and his family. He deported them as captives to France on a warship, claiming that he suspected the former leader of plotting an uprising. They reached France on 2 July. On 25 August 1802, Toussaint Louverture was sent to the jail Fort-de-Joux in Doubs. He was confined there and interrogated repeatedly.

[edit] Death, burial and disappearance of remains

While in prison, he died of pneumonia in April 1803 and, under the orders of the commander of the fort, was buried without a casket in a cave under the prison chapel that was used for burial of the garrison's soldiers. In the 1870s, when renovation of the fort was under way, the remains contained within the cave were tossed out by construction workers; the remains have not since been recovered.

On August 29, 1954, the Haitian ambassador to France, Lon Thbaud, inaugurated a stone cross memorial for Toussaint Louverture at the foot of the fort. Years afterward, the French government ceremoniously presented a shovelful of soil from the grounds of Fort-de-Jeux to the Haitian government as a symbolic transfer of Toussaint Louverture's remains. A plaque in his memory can be found in the Panthon in Paris, inscribed with the following description:

Combattant de la libert, artisan de l'abolition de l'esclavage, hros hatien mort dport au Fort-de-Joux en 1803.
(Combatant for liberty, artisan of the abolition of slavery, Haitian hero died in deportation at Fort-de-Joux in 1803.)

[edit] Historical significance

Monument of Toussaint Louverture in Santiago de Cuba

Toussaint Louverture played a key role in what was the first successful attempt by a slave population in the Americas and the world to throw off the yoke of European colonialism. He defeated armies of three imperial powers: Spain, France, and Great Britain. The success of the Haitian Revolution had enduring effects on shaking the institution of slavery throughout the New World. Haiti became the second independent republic in the Americas.

After being captured by the French general Leclerc, on the ship to France, Toussaint Louverture warned his captors that the rebels would not make his mistake in the following words: "In overthrowing me you have cut down in Saint Domingue only the trunk of the tree of liberty, it will spring up again from the roots, for they are many and they are deep."[16]

[edit] Marriages and children

Toussaint Louverture had 3 children. From his marriage to Suzanne Simone Baptiste Louverture, he had two sons Isaac and Saint-Jean. Toussaint also adopted Seraphin (later known as Placide Louverture), who was the son of Suzanne Louverture.

Seraphin, or Placide Louverture, was Suzanne Louverture's first child, whom she had with the mulatto Seraphim Le Clerc (some sources give the name of Placide's father as Sraphin Clre). Placide was adopted by Toussaint, who always treated him as his own child. Other sources state that Placide was Toussaint's son with Suzanne before their marriage.

Placide and Isaac Louverture were sent to France in 1797 where they studied. In a sense they had been demanded as hostages by French officials during the long years of battles. They came back to Saint-Domingue in February 1802, with the troops of the French General Charles Leclerc. Napoleon Bonaparte had given orders to expel the Louverture brothers from France and bring them back to Saint-Domingue.

In 1803 Le Clerc deported Toussaint Louverture, his wife and three sons to France, where they were held in separate areas. Toussaint Louverture was held in prison at Fort de Joux.

[edit] Cultural references

  • English poet William Wordsworth published his sonnet "To Toussaint L'Ouverture" in January 1803.
  • Alphonse de Lamartine, a preeminent French poet and statesman of the early 19th century, wrote a verse play about Toussaint entitled Toussaint Louverture: un poeme dramatique en cinq actes (1850).[citation needed] Now and 2008 he still live in the Haiti.
  • In 1936, Trinidadian historian C. L. R. James wrote a play entitled Toussaint Louverture (later revised and retitled The Black Jacobins), which was performed at the Westminster Theatre in London and starred actors including Paul Robeson (in the title role), Robert Adams and Orlando Martins.[17]
  • In 1938 CLR James also wrote: The Black Jacobins: Toussaint L'Ouverture and the San Domingo Revolution. This book is considered a seminal work on Louverture and the revolution.
  • In 1938, American artist Jacob Lawrence created a series of paintings about the life of Toussaint Louverture, which he later adapted into a series of prints. His painting, titled Toussaint L–Ouverture, hangs in the Butler Institute of American Art in Youngstown, Ohio, USA.
  • In 1944, the African American writer, Ralph Ellison, wrote the story, Mr. Toussan, in which two African American youths exaggerate the story of Toussaint L'Ouverture. In this story, Toussaint is seen as a symbol of Blacks asserting their identities and liberty over white dominance.
  • Kenneth Roberts' best-selling novel Lydia Bailey (1947) is set during the Haitian Revolution and features L'Ouverture, Dessalines, and Cristophe as the principal historical characters. The 1952 American film based on the novel was directed by Jean Negulesco; Toussaint is portrayed by the actor Ken Renard.[18]
  • In Frank Webb's novel, The Garies and their Friends, Toussaint's portrait is a source of inspiration for the real estate tycoon Mr. Walters.
  • 1971 album 'Santana (III)' features a song (almost an instrumental; lyrics are minimal) titled "Toussaint L'Ouverture". It has remained a staple of the band's concert repertoire since that time. Officially released live instrumental versions are included on the 1974 album ' 'Lotus' ' as well as the 1998 CD re-issue of Abraxas.
  • The 1979 song 'Tribute to the Martyrs' by British reggae group Steel Pulse, from the album of the same name, mentions Toussaint Louverture as one of the martyred Black heroes of modern culture, along with Steve Biko, Paul Bogle, George Jackson, Marcus Garvey, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Malcolm X.
  • 1983, Jean-Michel Basquiat, the Brooklyn-born New York painter of the 1980s, whose father was from Haiti, painted the monumental work Toussaint L'Ouverture vs Savonarolla, with a portrait of L'Ouverture.
  • 1995-2004, Madison Smartt Bell published a trilogy of novels inspired by the slave uprising and Haitian Revolution, with Toussaint Louverture a key figure. All Souls' Rising (1995) was shortlisted for both the PEN/Faulkner and National Book awards. Master of the Crossroads (2000) and The Stone That the Builder Refused (2004) completed the trilogy.
  • In 2004, John Agard had published 'Half-Caste and Other Poems' (Hodder Children's, 2004) which features the poem 'Checking Out Me History; a poem that references Toussaint and 'Nanny de Maroon'. This poem is now being studied [2010] for GCSE English. The poem is copyrighted 1996, implying writing around that time.
  • Bell also published Freedom's Gate: A Brief Life of Toussaint L'Ouverture (2007)
  • Wyclef Jean created an album in 2009 referencing Toussaint L'Ouverture's life and influence on Haiti. The album is called From the Hut, To the Projects, To the Mansion

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ Toussaint Louverture, Haitian Constitution of 1801, translated by Charmant Theodore (June 2000).
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ a b Knight, Franklin W. (1990). The Caribbean: The Genesis of a Fragmented Nationalism (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 206–209. ISBN 0-19-505441-5. 
  4. ^ Beard (1863), p. 35
  5. ^ "Toussaint L–Ouverture", HyperHistory, accessed 27 Apr 2008
  6. ^ David Brion Davis, "He changed the New World", Review of Madison Smartt Bell's Toussaint Louverture: A Biography, The New York Review of Books, 31 May 2007, p. 55
  7. ^ "Toussaint Louverture: A Biography and Autobiography: Electronic Edition.". University of North Carolina. Retrieved 22 August 2007. 
  8. ^ a b c Rogozinski, Jan (2001). A Brief History of the Caribbean (Revised ed.). New York: Facts on File, Inc.. pp. 170–173. ISBN 0-8160-3811-2. 
  9. ^ Fick, Carolyn, The Making of Haiti. Knoxville: The University of Tennessee Press, 1990. p. 92.
  10. ^ Trouillot, Michel-Rolph. Haiti: State Against Nation. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1990. p.43.
  11. ^ Harry Hamilton Johnston, The Negro in the New World, 1910 p.157
  12. ^ Alexis, Stephen. Black Liberator. London: Ernest Benn Limited, 1949, p.165
  13. ^ Og, Jean-Louis. Toussaint Louverture et l–Indpendence d–Hati. Brossard: L–diteur de Vos Rves, 2002, p.140
  14. ^ Og, Jean-Louis. Toussaint Louverture et l–Indpendence d–Hati. Brossard: L–diteur de Vos Rves, 2002, p.141
  15. ^ R. Po-chia Hsia, Lynn Hunt, Thomas R. Martin, Barbara H. Rosenwein, and Bonnie G. Smith, The Making of the West, Peoples and Culture, A Concise History, Volume II: Since 1340, Second Edition (New York: Bedford/St. Martin–s, 2007), 669.
  16. ^ Abbott, Elizabeth (1988). Haiti: An insider's history of the rise and fall of the Duvaliers. Simon & Schuster. p. viii ISBN 0-671-68620-8
  17. ^ McLemee, Scott. "C.L.R. James: A Biographical Introduction." American Visions, April/May 1996.
  18. ^ Lydia Bailey (1952)

[edit] Bibliography

  • Madison Smartt Bell. "Toussaint Louverture: A Biography", New York: Pantheon, 2007 (Vintage Books, 2008). ISBN 1400079357
  • David Brion Davis. "He changed the New World." Review of M.S. Bell's "Toussaint Louverture: A Biography", The New York Review of Books, 31 May 2007, pp. 54–58.
  • C.L.R. James. The Black Jacobins: Toussaint L'Ouverture and the San Domingo Revolution, Vintage Books, 1963. (Penguin Books, 2001) ISBN 0140299815
  • Laurent Dubois and John D. Garrigus. Slave Revolution in the Caribbean, 1789-1804: A Brief History with Documents (St. Martin's Press,2006). ISBN 031241501X
  • Junius P. Rodriguez, ed. Encyclopedia of Slave Resistance and Rebellion. (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2006). ISBN 0313332711
  • Graham Gendall Norton - Toussaint Louverture, in History Today, April 2003.
  • Arthur L. Stinchcombe. Sugar Island Slavery in the Age of Enlightenment: The Political Economy of the Caribbean World (Princeton University Press, 1995). ISBN 1400807778
  • Ian Thomson. 'Bonjour Blanc: A Journey Through Haiti' (London, 1992). A colourful, picaresque, historically- and politically-engaged travelogue; regular asides on Louverture's career (New edition, Vintage, 2004). ISBN 0099452154
  • Martin Ros - The Night of Fire: The Black Napoleon and the Battle for Haiti (in Dutch, 1991). 1994, Published by Sarpedon, New York, ISBN 0962761370
  • DuPuy, Alex. Haiti in the World Economy: Class, Race, and Underdevelopment since 1700 (West View Press, 1989). ISBN 0813373484
  • Alfred N. Hunt. Haiti's Influence on Antebellum America: Slumbering Volcano in the Caribbean (Louisiana State University Press, 1988). ISBN 0807131970
  • Aim Cesaire - Toussaint Louverture (Prsence africaine, Paris, 1981). Written by a prominent French thinker, this book is well written, well argued, and well researched. ISBN 2708703978
  • Robert Heinl and Nancy Heinl - Written in Blood: The story of the Haitian people, 1492-1971 (Houghton Mifflin, 1978). A bit awkward, but studded with quotations from original sources. ISBN 0395263050
  • Thomas Ott - The Haitian Revolution: 1789-1804 (University of Tennessee Press, 1973). Brief, but well-researched. ISBN 0870495453
  • George F. Tyson, ed. - Great Lives Considered: Toussaint L'Ouverture (Prentice Hall, 1973). A compilation, includes some of Toussaint's writings. ISBN 013925529X
  • Ralph Korngold - Citizen Toussaint (1944, Greenwood Press, reissued 1979). ISBN 0313207941
  • J. R. Beard - The Life of Toussaint L'Ouverture: The Negro Patriot of Hayti (1853). Still in print. A pro-Toussaint history written by an Englishman. ISBN 1587420104
  • J. R. Beard - Toussaint L'Ouverture: A Biography and Autobiography (1863). Out of print, but published online. Consists of the earlier "Life", supplemented by an autobiography of Toussaint written by himself.
  • Victor Schoelcher - Vie de Toussaint-Louverture (1889). A sympathetic biography by a French abolitionist, with good scholarship (for the time), and generous quotation from original sources, but entertaining and readable nonetheless. Important as a source for many other biographers (e.g. C.L.R. James).
  • F. J. Pamphile de Lacroix - La rvolution d'Hati (1819, reprinted 1995). Memoirs of one of the French generals involved in fighting Toussaint. Surprisingly, he esteemed his rival and wrote a long, well-documented, and generally highly regarded history of the conflict.
  • Toussaint L'Ouverture - The Haitian Revolution (New York: Verso, 2008). A collection of L'Ouverture's writings and speeches, with an introduction by Jean-Bertrand Aristide. ISBN 1844672611

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