Timeline of LGBT history


The following is a timeline of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) related history.

[edit] 12,000 BP

  • 12,000 years Before Present (BP) – Around the end of Paleolithic, mankind started to make artifacts which suggest an appreciation of homosexual eroticism. Some examples, like graffiti, can be seen in some cave and hundreds of buildings and phallic statues, including a carved double dildo found at Gorge d'Enfere, France.[1]

[edit] 5th millennium BCE

  • Possible examples of homosexual eroticism into the Mesolithic european art, including a rock incision found in Addaura, Sicily, in which men and women dance around two male persons, both depicted with an erection.[2]

[edit] 25th/24th century BCE

[edit] 7th century BCE

Marriage between men in Greece was not legally recognized, although life-long relationships between adult men were not uncommon. The partnerships between two men in Greece were similar to heterosexual marriages with the exception that generally there was about a generation difference in age and the older person served as the educator or mentor.[4]

  • 600 BCESappho of Lesbos writes her famous love poems to young women, providing the eventual inspiration for the word lesbian.[5] Later writings by Plato credit Sappho for inventing the Mixolydian mode (a type of musical scale).

[edit] 6th century BCE

  • 530 BCE – One of the early first examples of Etruscan art on homosexuality, found in 1892 in the Monterozzi necropolis, Tarquinia. The painting, situated in what has been called the Tomb of the Bulls (Tomba dei Tori), depicts on the right a bull that is goring two men having sexual intercourse. On the left, another bull indifferent turns in front of men and women having sexual intercourse. The women are always represented clear, while the men are brown. Under the frieze is represented Achilles (on the left) waylaying Troilus. This representation is the only in the whole archaic Tarquinian parietal painting representing a scene derived from Greek mythology; it used the legend about the bisexuality of Achilles to demonstrate that, among the Greeks, same-sex love was a common and ordinary fact. This is to demonstrate how, even then, homosexuality could be a useful argument for the clash of people. Below we can see the tree of life, full of leaves, linked by the life scarf with the tree of death, skeletal and with the black festoon of death hanging from a branch. The name-day inscription in the centre of the upper frieze names he who probably was the owner of the tomb: Aranth Suprianas.

[edit] 4th century BCE

  • 385 BCE – Plato's Symposium is published in which it is argued that love between males is the highest form and that sex with women is lustful and only for means of reproduction. Only with men can the Greek male reach his full intellectual potential.
  • 350 BCE – Plato publishes Laws in which he takes a drastically different approach than in Symposium. Here homosexuality is critiqued as being lustful and wrong for society because it does not further the species and may lead to irresponsible citizenry.[6]
  • 338 BCE – The Sacred Band of Thebes, an undefeated elite battalion made up of one hundred and fifty gay couples, is destroyed by the forces of Philip II of Macedon who bemoans their loss and praises their honour.[7]
  • 326 BCE – Military leader Alexander the Great, who may have been bisexual, completes conquest of most of the then known Western world, launching the Hellenistic Age in which millions of people are converted to a Hellenistic culture that views homosexual relationships positively.

[edit] 2nd century BCE

  • 149 BCE – The Lex scantinia, a Roman law, regulates homosexuality for the first time on record. According to the law, homosexuality should be denied between adult males and for male prostitution to protect the youth of noble families. It is probable that such a law was meant to prevent the possibility of an adult noble-born male becoming subject to sodomy by a slave.[8].

[edit] 1st century BCE

  • 100 BCE – 100 CE – Within the Terme suburbane of Pompei we can find a fresco of a triple intercourse between men, and also the only representation of a Sapphic scene surviving from the Roman era.
  • 80 BCEJulius Caesar allegedly has a love affair with king Nicomedes IV of Bithynia.[9]
  • 57 BCE – 54 BCECatullus writes the Carmina, including love poems to Giovenzio, boasting of sexual prowess with youth and violent invectives against passive sodomites.
  • 42 BCE – 39 BCEVirgil writes the Eclog Vel Bucolica, with many references to homosexual love and relationship.
  • 27 BCE – The Roman Empire begins with the reign of Augustus. The first recorded same-sex marriages occur during this period.[10]
  • 26, 25 and 18 BCETibullus writes the Carmina, with references to homosexuality.

Romans, like the Greeks, tolerated love and sex amongst men. Two Roman Emperors publicly married men, some had gay lovers themselves, and homosexual prostitution was taxed. However, like the Greeks, passivity and effeminacy were not tolerated, and an adult male freeborn Roman could lose his citizen status if caught performing fellatio or being penetrated.[6]

[edit] 1st century

  • 98Trajan, one of the most beloved of Roman emperors, begins his reign. Trajan was well known for his homosexuality and fondness for young males. This was used to advantage by the king of Edessa, Abgar VII, who, after incurring the anger of Trajan for some misdeed, sent his handsome young son to make his apologies, thereby obtaining pardon.[12]

[edit] 2nd century

  • 124Hadrian met Greek youth Antinous while traveling through Bithynia. After Antinous' mysterious drowning in Egypt in 130, a grieving Hadrian founded the Egyptian city of Antinopolis and had Antinous deified and statues erected to him in all parts of the empire.
  • 165 – Christian martyr Giustino writes: "We have learned that is an evil thing to show newborns, since we see that almost everyone, not only the girls but boys too, are forced into prostitution"[13].

[edit] 3rd century

  • 218 – The emperor Elagabalus begins his reign. He marries a man named Zoticus, an athlete from Smyrna, in a lavish public ceremony at Rome amid the rejoicings of the public.[14]
  • 244–249 – Emperor Philip the Arab tries and fails to outlaw homosexual prostitution.[6]

[edit] 4th century

  • 305- 306Council of Elvira (now Granada, Spain). This council was representative of the Western European Church and among other things, it barred pederasts the right to Communion.
  • 314Council of Ancyra (now Ankara, Turkey). This council was representative of the Eastern European Church and it excluded the Sacraments for 15 years to unmarried men under the age of 20 who were caught in homosexual acts, and excluded the man for life if he was married and over the age of 50.
  • 342 – The first law against same-sex marriage was promulgated by the Christian emperors Constantius II and Constans.[15]
  • 390 – In the year 390, the Christian emperors Valentinian II, Theodosius I and Arcadius declared homosexual sex to be illegal and those who were guilty of it were condemned to be burned alive in front of the public.[16]
  • 390- 405 – Nonnus' Dionysiaca is the last known piece of literature for nearly 1,000 years to celebrate homosexual passion.[6]

[edit] 5th century

  • 498 – In spite of the laws against gay sex, the Christian emperors continued to collect taxes on male prostitutes until the reign of Anastasius I, who finally abolishes the tax in favor of sampling of the best men.[17]

[edit] 6th century

[edit] 7th Century

  • 693 – In Iberia, Visigothic ruler Egica of Hispania and Septimania, demanded that a Church council confront the problem of homosexuality in the Kingdom. The Sixteenth Council of Toledo issued a statement in response, which was adopted by Egica, stating that homosexual acts be punished by castration, exclusion from Communion, hair shearing, one hundred stripes of the lash, and banishment into exile.[6]

[edit] 9th century

[edit] 10th century

  • 966 – Foundation of Poland, which never criminalized homosexuality throughout its history (see 1835 and 1932).[21]

[edit] 11th Century

  • An eleventh Century legal Byzantine treaty clarifies that homosexual unions are known and legal within the Byzantine society.
  • In Scandinavia, the cult of transvestism persists for centuries. In the same way, only the sons who inherit their father's land can marry; the other ones must leave these lands and associate with military companies. Moreover, it is claimed women to remain chaste and they are strictly severely punished if they violate this rule. For these reasons, women aren't very available and, within military groups, pederasty is practiced as an institutionalized way of life.
  • 1007 – The Decretum of Burchard of Worms equates homosexual acts with other sexual transgressions such as adultery and argues, therefore, that it should have the same penance (generally fasting).[6]
  • 1051Peter Damian writes the treatise Liber gomorrhianus, in which he argues for stricter punishments for clerics failing their duty against "vices of nature."[22]
  • 1100Ivo of Chartres tries to convince Pope Urban II about homosexuality risks. Ivo accused Rodolfo, archbishop of Tours, of convincing the King of France to appoint a certain Giovanni as bishop of Orlans. Giovanni was well known as Rodolfo's lover and had relations with the king himself, a fact of which the king openly boasted. Pope Urban, however, didn't consider this as a decisive fact: Giovanni ruled as bishop for almost forty years, and Rodolfo continued to be well known and respected.[23][dead link]

[edit] 12th century

[edit] 13th century

  • 1232Pope Gregory IX starts the Inquisition in the Italian City-States. Some cities called for banishment and/or amputation as punishments for 1st- and 2nd-offending sodomites and burning for the 3rd or habitual offenders.[citation needed]
  • 1250–1300 – Homosexual activity radically passes from being completely legal in the most of Europe to incurring the death penalty in most european states.[24]
  • 1260 – In France, first-offending sodomites lost their testicles, second offenders lost their member, and third offenders were burned. Women caught in same-sex acts could be mutilated and executed as well.[6]
  • 1265Thomas Aquinas argues that sodomy is second only to murder in the ranking of sins.[6]
  • 1283 – The French Civil Code dictated that convicted sodomites not only were burned but that their property was forfeited.

[edit] 14th century

  • 1321Dante's Inferno places sodomites in the Seventh Circle.
  • 1327 – The deposed King Edward II of England is killed, allegedly by forcing a red-hot poker through his rectum. Edward II had a history of conflict with the nobility, who repeatedly banished his former lover Piers Gaveston, the Earl of Cornwall.[citation needed]
  • 1347Rolandino Roncaglia is trialed for sodomy, an event that caused a sensation in Italy. He confessed he "had not ever had sexual intercourses neither with his wife nor with any other woman because he didn't ever felt any carnal appetite, nor he couldn't ever have an erection of his virile member". After his wife died of plague, Rolandino started to prostitute himself, wearing female dresses because "since he has female look, voice and movements – although he hasn't the female orifice but has male member and testicles – many persons considered him to be a woman because of his appearance".[25]
  • 1370s – Jan van Aersdone and Willem Case were two men executed in Antwerp in the 1370s. The charge against them was gay sex, which was illegal and strenuously vilified in medieval Europe.[citation needed] Aersdone and Case stand out because records of their names have survived. One other couple still known by name from the 14th century were Giovanni Braganza and Nicoleto Marmagna of Venice.[26]
  • 1395John Rykener, known also as Johannes Richer and Eleanor, was a transvestite prostitute working mainly in London (near Cheapside), but also active in Oxford. He was arrested in 1395 for cross-dressing and interrogated.

[edit] 15th Century

  • 1476Leonardo Da Vinci is charged with sodomy but no verdict is rendered in his trial.[dubious ]
  • 1483 – The Spanish Inquisition begins. Sodomites were stoned, castrated, and burned. Between 1540 and 1700, more than 1,600 people were prosecuted for sodomy.[6]

[edit] 16th century

[edit] 17th century

[edit] 18th century

  • 1721Catherina Margaretha Linck is executed for female sodomy in Germany.
  • 1726Mother Clap's molly house in London is raided by police, resulting in the execution of three men.[31]
  • Between 1730 and 1811, a widespread panic in the Dutch Republic leads to a spectacular series of trials for sodomy, with persecutions at their most severe from 1730 to 1737, 1764, 1776, and from 1795 to 1798.[citation needed]
  • 1779USA- In 1779 Thomas Jefferson prepared a draft of Virginia–s criminal statute, envisaging that the punishment for sodomy should be castration.[32] The bill read:
–Whosoever shall be guilty of rape, polygamy, or sodomy with a man or woman, shall be punished; if a man, by castration, a woman, by boring through the cartilage of her nose a hole of one half inch in diameter at the least.– (Virginia Bill number 64; authored by Jefferson; June 18, 1779).
  • 1785Jeremy Bentham is one of the first people to argue for the decriminalization of sodomy in England.[6]
  • 1791Revolutionary France (and Andorra) adopts a new penal code which no longer criminalizes sodomy. France thus becomes the first West European country to decriminalize homosexual acts between consenting adults .[33] In so doing France joined the status quo in Poland, where homosexuality had never been made illegal.[34][dead link]

[edit] 19th century

Karl Heinrich Ulrichs (1825–1895), a pioneer of LGBT rights

[edit] 20th century

[edit] 1901–1909

  • 1903 – In New York on February 21, 1903, New York police conducted the first United States recorded raid on a gay bathhouse, the Ariston Hotel Baths. 26 men were arrested and 12 brought to trial on sodomy charges; 7 men received sentences ranging from 4 to 20 years in prison.[36]
  • 1906 – Potentially the first openly gay American novel, Imre, is published.[6]
  • 1907Adolf Brand, the activist leader of the Gemeinschaft der Eigenen, working to overturn Paragraph 175, publishes a piece "outing" the imperial chancellor of Germany, Prince Bernhard von Blow. The Prince sues Brand for libel and clears his name; Brand is sentenced to 18 months in prison.[37]
  • 1907–1909Harden-Eulenburg Affair in Germany[38]

[edit] 1910s

  • 1910Emma Goldman first begins speaking publicly in favor of homosexual rights. Magnus Hirschfeld later wrote "she was the first and only woman, indeed the first and only American, to take up the defense of homosexual love before the general public."[39]
    May 14, 1928 issue of German lesbian periodical Die Freundin (Friedrich Radszuweit)
  • 1913 – The word faggot is first used in print in reference to gays in a vocabulary of criminal slang published in Portland, Oregon: "All the fagots [sic] (sissies) will be dressed in drag at the ball tonight".
  • 1917 – The October Revolution in Russia repeals the previous criminal code in its entirety – including Article 995.[41][42]
  • 1919 – In Berlin, Germany, Doctor Magnus Hirschfeld co-founds the Institut fr Sexualwissenschaft (Institute for Sex Research), a pioneering private research institute and counseling office. Its library of thousands of books was destroyed by Nazis in May, 1933.[43][44][45]

[edit] 1920s

  • 1920 – The word Gay is used for the first time in reference to homosexuality.[citation needed]
  • 1921 – In England an attempt to make lesbianism illegal for the first time in Britain's history fails.
  • 1922 – A new criminal code comes into force in the USSR officially decriminalizing homosexual acts.
  • 1923 – The word fag is first used in print in reference to gays in Nels Anderson's The Hobo: "Fairies or Fags are men or boys who exploit sex for profit."
  • 1924 – The first homosexual rights organization in America is founded in ChicagoThe Society for Human Rights. The movement exists for a few months before being ended by the police. Panama, Paraguay and Peru legalize homosexuality.
  • 1926 – The New York Times is the first major publication to use the word "homosexuality".[6]
  • 1927 - Karol Szymanowski, Poland's openly gay composer, is appointed chief of Poland's state-owned national music school, the Fryderyk Chopin Music Academy.
  • 1928The Well of Loneliness by Radclyffe Hall is published in the UK and later in the United States. This sparks great legal controversy and brings the topic of homosexuality to public conversation.
  • 1929 – On May 22, Katharine Lee Bates, author of America the Beautiful dies. On October 16, a Reichstag Committee votes to repeal Paragraph 175; the Nazis' rise to power prevents the implementation of the vote.

[edit] 1930s

  • 1932Poland codifies the homosexual and heterosexual age of consent equally at 15. Polish law had never criminalized homosexuality, although occupying powers had outlawed it in 1835.[46]
  • 1933 – New Danish penalty law decriminalizes homosexuality.
  • 1933 – The National Socialist German Workers Party bans homosexual groups. Homosexuals are sent to concentration camps. Nazis burn the library of Magnus Hirschfeld's Institute for Sexual Research, and destroy the Institute; Denmark and Philippines decriminalizes homosexuality. Homosexual acts are recriminalized in the USSR.
  • 1934Uruguay decriminalizes homosexuality. The USSR once again criminalizes muzhelozhstvo (specific Russian definition of –male sexual intercourse with male–, literary –man lying with man–), punishable by up to 5 years – more for coercion or involvement of minors.[47]
  • 1936Federico Garca Lorca , Spanish poet, is shot at the beginning of the civil war.
  • 1937 – The first use of the pink triangle for gay men in Nazi concentration camps.

[edit] 1940s

  • 1940Iceland decriminalizes homosexuality.
  • 1941Transsexuality was first used in reference to homosexuality and bisexuality.
  • 1942Switzerland decriminalizes homosexuality, with the age of consent set at 20.
  • 1944Sweden decriminalizes homosexuality, with the age of consent set at 20 and Suriname legalizes homosexuality.
  • 1945 – Upon the liberation of Nazi concentration camps by Allied forces, those interned for homosexuality are not freed, but required to serve out the full term of their sentences under Paragraph 175; Portugal decriminalises homosexuality for the second time in its history.
  • Four honorably discharged gay veterans form the Veterans Benevolent Association, the first LGBT veterans' group.[48]
  • 1946 – "COC" (Dutch acronym for "Center for Culture and Recreation"), one of the earliest homophile organizations, is founded in the Netherlands. It is the oldest surviving LGBT organization.
  • 1947Vice Versa, the first North American LGBT publication, is written and self-published by Lisa Ben in Los Angeles.
  • 1948 – "Forbundet af 1948" ("League of 1948"), a homosexual group, is formed in Denmark.
  • 1948 – The communist authorities of Poland make age 15 the age of consent for all sexual acts, homosexual or heterosexual.

[edit] 1950s

Mattachine Review published by the Mattachine Society

[edit] 1960s

  • 1961Czechoslovakia and Hungary decriminalize sodomy; the Vatican declares that anyone who is "affected by the perverse inclination" towards homosexuality should not be allowed to take religious vows or be ordained within the Roman Catholic Church; The Rejected, the first documentary on homosexuality, is broadcast on KQED TV in San Francisco on 11 September 1961; Jos Sarria becomes the first openly gay candidate for public office in the United States when he runs for the San Francisco Board of Supervisors.[52]
  • 1961Illinois becomes first U.S. state to remove sodomy law from its criminal code (effective 1962).[53]
  • 1963Israel de-facto decriminalizes sodomy and sexual acts between men by judicial decision against the enforcement of the relevant section in the old British-mandate law from 1936 (which in fact was never enforced).[citation needed]
  • 1964Canada sees its first gay-positive organization, ASK, and first gay magazines: ASK Newsletter (in Vancouver), and Gay (by Gay Publishing Company of Toronto). Gay was the first periodical to use the term 'Gay' in the title and expanded quickly, including outstripping the distribution of American publications under the name Gay International. These were quickly followed by Two (by Gayboy (later Kamp) Publishing Company of Toronto).[54][55]
  • 1965Everett George Klippert is arrested for private, consensual sex with men. After being assessed "incurably homosexual", he is sentenced to an indefinite "preventive detention" as a dangerous sexual offender. This was considered by many Canadians to be extremely homophobic, and prompted sympathetic articles in Maclean's and The Toronto Star, eventually leading to increased calls for legal reform in Canada which passed in 1969[citation needed]. Conservatively dressed gays and lesbians demonstrate outside Independence Hall in Philadelphia on July 4, 1965. This was the first in a series of Annual Reminders that took place through 1969.
  • 1966 – The Mattachine Society stages a "Sip-In" at Julius Bar in New York City challenging a New York State Liquor Authority prohibiting serving alcohol to gays; the National Planning Conference of Homophile Organizations is established (to became NACHO – North American Conference of Homophile Organizations later that year); the Compton's Cafeteria Riot occurred in August 1966 in the Tenderloin district of San Francisco. This incident was the first recorded transgender riot in United States history, preceding the more famous 1969 Stonewall Riots in New York City by three years.
  • 1967Chad decriminalizes homosexuality; The Sexual Offences Act 1967 decriminalizes male homosexual behaviour in England and Wales; The book Homosexual Behavior Among Males by Wainwright Churchill breaks ground as a scientific study approaching homosexuality as a fact of life and introduces the term "homoerotophobia", a possible precursor to "homophobia"; The Oscar Wilde Bookshop, the world's first homosexual-oriented bookstore, opens in New York City; "Our World" ("Nuestro Mundo"), the first Latino-American homosexual group, is created in Argentina; A raid on the Black Cat Tavern in Los Angeles, California promotes homosexual rights activity. The Student Homophile League at Columbia University is the first institutionally recognized gay student group in the United States.[citation needed]
  • 1968 – Paragraph 175 is eased in East Germany decriminalizing homosexual acts over the age of 18; Bulgaria decriminalizes adult homosexual relations.
The purple handprint became a symbol of gay liberation in 1969, following a San Francisco newspaper dumping purple ink on members of the Gay Liberation Front protesting their offices.
  • 1969 – The Stonewall riots occur in New York; Paragraph 175 is eased in West Germany; Homosexual behavior legalized in Canada with an Age of Consent of 21 for sodomy, and 14 for non-sodomy; The Canadian Prime Minister is quoted as saying: "The state has no place in the bedrooms of the nation."; Poland decriminalizes homosexual prostitution; An Australian arm of the Daughters of Bilitis forms in Melbourne and is considered Australia's first homosexual rights organisation.[citation needed]
  • 1969 – On 31 December 1969, the Cockettes perform for the first time at the Palace Theatre on Union and Columbus in the North Beach neighborhood of San Francisco.

[edit] 1970s

  • 1972 – Sweden becomes first country in the world to allow transsexuals to legally change their sex, and provides free hormone therapy;[63] Hawaii legalizes homosexuality; In South Australia, a consenting adults in private-type legal defence was introduced; Norway decriminalizes homosexuality; East Lansing, Michigan and Ann Arbor, Michigan and San Francisco, California become the first cities in United States to pass a homosexual rights ordinance. Jim Foster, San Francisco and Madeline Davis, Buffalo, New York, first gay and lesbian delegates to the Democratic Convention, Miami, McGovern; give the first speeches advocating a gay rights plank in the Democratic Party Platform. "Stonewall Nation" first gay anthem is written and recorded by Madeline Davis and is produced on 45 rpm record by the Mattachine Society of the Niagara Frontier. Lesbianism 101, first lesbianism course in the U.S. taught at the University of Buffalo by Margaret Small and Madeline Davis.[citation needed]
  • 1973 – The American Psychiatric Association removes homosexuality from its Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-II), based largely on the research and advocacy of Evelyn Hooker; Malta legalizes homosexuality; In West Germany, the age of consent is reduced for homosexuals to 18 (though it is 14 for heterosexuals).[citation needed]
  • 1975 – Homosexuality is legalized in California due to bill authored by and successfully lobbied for in the state legislature by State Assemblyman from San Francisco Willie Brown; Elaine Noble becomes the second openly gay American elected to public office when she wins a seat in the Massachusetts State House; South Australia becomes the first state in Australia to make homosexuality legal between consenting adults in private. Panama is the second country in the world to allow transsexuals who have gone through gender reassignment surgery to get their personal documents reflecting their new sex;[citation needed] UK journal Gay Left begins publication.[65]
    Gay rights protesters in New York City, protesting at the United States' 1976 Democratic National Convention

[edit] 1980s

  • 1980 – The United States Democratic Party becomes the first major political party in the U.S. to endorse a homosexual rights platform plank; Scotland decriminalizes homosexuality; David McReynolds becomes the first openly LGBT individual to run for President of the United States, appearing on the Socialist Party U S A ticket; The Human Rights Campaign Fund is founded by Steve Endean; The Human Rights Campaign is America–s largest civil rights organization working to achieve lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender equality.[68]
  • 1981 – The European Court of Human Rights in Dudgeon v. United Kingdom strikes down Northern Ireland's criminalisation of homosexual acts between consenting adults, leading to Northern Ireland decriminalising homosexual sex the following year; Victoria (Australia) and Colombia decriminalize homosexuality with a uniform age of consent; The Moral Majority starts its anti-homosexual crusade; Norway becomes the first country in the world to enact a law to prevent discrimination against homosexuals; Hong Kong's first sex-change operation is performed. The first official documentation of the condition to be known as AIDS was published by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) on 5 June 1981.[69]
  • 1982 – Laguna Beach, CA elects the first openly gay mayor in United States history; France equalizes the age of consent; The first Gay Games is held in San Francisco, attracting 1,600 participants; Northern Ireland decriminalizes homosexuality; Wisconsin becomes the first US state to ban discrimination against homosexuals; New South Wales becomes the first Australian state to outlaw discrimination on the basis of actual or perceived homosexuality. The condition to be known as AIDS had acquired a number of names – GRID5 (gay-related immune deficiency), –gay cancer–, –community-acquired immune dysfunction– and –gay compromise syndrome–[70] The CDC used the term AIDS for the first time in September 1982, when it reported that an average of one to two cases of AIDS were being diagnosed in America every day.[71]
  • 1983Massachusetts Representative Gerry Studds reveals he is a homosexual on the floor of the House, becoming the first openly gay member of Congress; Guernsey (Including Alderney, Herm and Sark) decriminalizes homosexuality; Portugal decriminalizes homosexuality for the third time in its history; AIDS is described as a "gay plague" by Reverend Jerry Falwell.
  • 1984 – The lesbian and gay association "Ten Percent Club" is formed in Hong Kong; Massachusetts voters reelect representative Gerry Studds, despite his revealing himself as homosexual the year before; New South Wales and the Northern Territory in Australia make homosexual acts legal; Chris Smith, newly elected to the UK parliament declares: "My name is Chris Smith. I'm the Labour MP for Islington South and Finsbury, and I'm gay", making him the first openly out homosexual politician in the UK parliament. The Argentine Homosexual Community (Comunidad Homosexual Argentina, CHA) is formed uniting several different and preexisting groups. Berkeley, California becomes the first city in the U.S. to adopt a program of domestic partnership health benefits for city employees; West Hollywood, CA is founded and becomes the first known city to elect a city council where a majority of the members are openly gay or lesbian.
  • 1985 – France prohibits discrimination based on lifestyle (moeurs) in employment and services; the first memorial to gay Holocaust victims is dedicated; Belgium equalizes the age of consent; the Restoration Church of Jesus Christ (the Gay Mormon Church) is founded by Antonio A. Feliz.[72] Bisexual actor Rock Hudson died of AIDS. He was the first major public figure known to have died from an AIDS-related illness.[73]
  • 1986Homosexual Law Reform Act passed in New Zealand, legalizing sex between males over 16; June in Bowers v. Hardwick case, U.S. Supreme Court upholds Georgia law forbidding oral or anal sex, ruling that the constitutional right to privacy does not extend to homosexual relations, but it did not state whether the law could be enforced against heterosexuals.
  • 1987AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power(ACT-UP) founded in the US in response to the US government–s slow response in dealing with the AIDS crisis.[74] ACT UP stages its first major demonstration, seventeen protesters are arrested; U.S. Congressman Barney Frank comes out; In New York City a group of Bisexual LGBT rights activist including Brenda Howard found the New York Area Bisexual Network (NYABN); Homomonument, a memorial to persecuted homosexuals, opens in Amsterdam. David Norris is the first openly gay person to be elected to public office in the Republic of Ireland.
  • 1988 – Sweden is the first country to pass laws protecting homosexual regarding social services, taxes, and inheritances. Section 28 passes in England and Wales; Scotland enacts almost identical legislation; Canadian MP Svend Robinson comes out; Canada lowers the age of consent for sodomy to 18; Belize and Israel decriminalize (de jure) sodomy and sexual acts between men (the relevant section in the old British-mandate law from 1936 was never enforced in Israel). After losing an Irish High Court case (1980) and an Irish Supreme Court case (1983), David Norris takes his case (Norris v. Ireland) to the European Court of Human Rights. The European Court strikes down the Irish law criminalising male-to-male sex on the grounds of privacy.
  • 1989Western Australia decriminalizes male homosexuality (but the age of consent is set at 21); Liechtenstein legalizes homosexuality; Denmark is the first country in the world to enact registered partnership laws (like a civil union) for same-sex couples, with most of the same rights as marriage (excluding the right to adoption and the right to marriage in a church).

[edit] 1990s

  • 1990OutRage!, an LGBT rights direct action group, forms in the UK; Queer Nation is founded in March 1990 in New York City, USA by AIDS activists from AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power;[75] In the United States of America the United States national bisexual/pansexual Civil rights and advocacy organization BiNet USA is founded; Czechoslovakia equalizes the age of consent and Jersey legalizes homosexual acts. Justin Fashanu is the first professional footballer to come out in the press.
  • 1991Bahamas, Hong Kong, Ukraine and Queensland in Australia decriminalize sodomy; The red ribbon is first used as a symbol of the campaign against HIV/AIDS.
  • 1992 – The World Health Organization removes homosexuality from its ICD-10; Isle of Man, Ukraine, Estonia and Latvia legalize homosexuality; Iceland, Luxembourg and Switzerland all equalize the age of consent; Nicaragua recriminalizes homosexuality (then decriminalizes homosexuality again in March 2008).
  • 1993Brandon Teena is raped and murdered; The third homosexual rights march on Washington, DC is held; Sodomy laws are repealed in Norfolk Island and the Republic of Ireland; Belarus, Gibraltar and Russia decriminalizes consensual male sodomy (with the exception of the Chechen Republic); Lithuania legalizes homosexuality; Norway enacts registered partnership civil union laws that grant same-sex couples the same rights as married couples, except for the right to adopt or marry in a church; Minnesota passes the first statewide anti-discrimination law protecting transgender people; the Don't ask, don't tell policy is introduced into the US armed forces.
  • 1994Bermuda, Serbia and South Africa legalize homosexuality; The United Kingdom reduces the age of consent for homosexual men to 18; The AMA denounces supposed cures for homosexuality; Canada grants refugee status to homosexuals fearing for their well-being in their native country; Paragraph 175 is repealed in Germany; Israel–s supreme court defines homosexual couple–s rights as the same as any common-law-couple–s rights; Toonen v. Australia decided by UN Human Rights Committee.
  • 1995 – Sweden legalizes registered partnerships; The Supreme Court of Canada rules that sexual orientation is a prohibited reason for discrimination under the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms; Albania and Moldova decriminalize homosexuality; The Human Rights Campaign drops the word fund from their title and broadens their mission to promote "an America where gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender people are ensured equality and embraced as full members of the American family at home, at work and in every community;" transgender activists demonstrate at Brandon Teena murder trial in Nebraska. Triple combination therapy of drugs such as 3TC, AZT and ddC shown to be effective in treating HIV, the virus responsible for AIDS[76]
  • 1996 – The age of consent is equalised in Burkina Faso; Iceland legalizes registered partnerships; Hungary recognizes same-sex partners in unregistered domestic partnerships; Romania decriminalizes homosexuality that is not scandalous; Macedonia decriminalizes homosexuality; DOMA Defense of Marriage Act passed by United States Congress.
  • 1997 – South Africa becomes the first country to prohibit explicitly discrimination based on sexual orientation in its constitution and comes into force; The UK extends immigration rights to same-sex couples akin to marriage; Fiji becomes the second country to protect explicitly against discrimination based on sexual orientation in its constitution; Laws prohibiting private homosexual acts are finally repealed in Tasmania, the last Australian state to do so, as well as in Ecuador; Russia equalizes the age of consent.
  • 1998Matthew Shepard is murdered; The Employment Equality Act is introduced in Ireland, covering wrongful dismissal based on the grounds of sexual orientation; Sexual orientation is read into the IRPA, Alberta's human rights act, through Vriend v. Alberta; Ecuador is the third country in the world to explicitly prohibit discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation; Bosnia and Herzegovina, Chile, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan legalize homosexuality; Croatia and Latvia equalize the age of consent. Cyprus decriminalizes homosexuality; Rita Hester is murdered
  • 1999 – California adopts a domestic partnership law; France enacts civil union laws; The "Queer Youth Alliance" is founded in the UK; Israel–s supreme court recognizes a lesbian partner as another legal mother of her partner–s biological son; Finland equalizes the age of consent.

[edit] 2000

  • 2000
    • Civil Union/Registered Partnership laws:
      • Passes and Comes into effect: US State of Vermont
    • Revoking of discrimination legislation: UK subdivision of Scotland (Section 28)
    • End to ban on gay people in the military: United Kingdom
    • Equalization of age of consent: Belarus, Israel, United Kingdom (passed eff. 2001)
    • Decriminalisation of homosexuality: Azerbaijan, Gabon and Georgia
    • Other: In Germany the Bundestag officially apologizes to gays and lesbians persecuted under the Nazi regime, and for "harm done to homosexual citizens up to 1969"; Israel recognizes same-sex relations for immigration purposes for a foreign partner of an Israeli resident.

[edit] 21st century

[edit] 2001–2009

Same-sex sexual activity legal      Same-sex marriage      Other type of partnership (or unregistered cohabitation)      Foreign same-sex marriages recognized      No recognition of same-sex couples
Same-sex sexual activity illegal      Minimal penalty      Large penalty      Life in prison      Death penalty

 v  d  e 

(See individual year page for more info)

  • 2001
    • Same sex marriages laws:
    • Civil Union/Registered Partnership laws:
      • Comes into effect: Germany (without joint adoption until Oct 2004, then with step-adoption)
      • Passed: Finland (without joint adoption until May 2009, then with step-adoption)
    • Limited Partnership laws:
      • Passed and Comes into effect: Portugal (without joint adoption)(replaced with marriage 2009)
      • Comes into effect: Swiss canton of Geneva (without joint adoption)
    • Anti-discrimination legislation: US states of Rhode Island (private sector, gender identity) and Maryland (private sector, sexual orientation)
    • Equalization of age of consent: Albania Estonia and Liechtenstein
    • Repeal of Sodomy laws: US state of Arizona
    • Decriminalisation of homosexuality: the rest of the United Kingdom's territories[citation needed]
    • Homosexuality no longer an illness: China
    • Marches and Prides: Protesters disrupt the first Pride march in the Serbian ciy of Belgrade
  • 2005
    • Same sex marriage laws:
      • Passed and Comes into effect: Canada, Spain (with joint adoption)
    • Civil Union/Registered Partnership laws:
    • Same-sex couple adoption legalisation: UK Subdivisions of England and Wales
    • Banning of Same-sex marriage: Latvia and Uganda
    • Banning of Same-sex marriage and civil unions: US states of Kansas and Texas
  • 2007
    • Civil Union/Registered Partnership laws:
    • Limited Partnership laws:
    • Anti-discrimination legislation: United Kingdom[83] (sexual orientation) and US states of Colorado (private sector, sexual orientation and gender identity), Iowa (private sector, sexual orientation and gender identity), Kansas (public sector, sexual orientation and gender identity), Michigan (public sector, gender identity), Ohio (public sector, sexual orientation and gender identity), Oregon (private sector, sexual orientation and gender identity) and Vermont (private sector, gender identity)
    • Equalization of age of consent: Portugal, UK territory of Jersey[84][85], Vanuatu
    • Decriminalisation of homosexuality: Nepal and New Zealand territories of Niue and Tokelau
    • Marches and Prides: the first ever gay pride parade in a Muslim country is held in Istanbul, Turkey;[86]
    • Other: on August 9, 2007, the Logo cable channel hosts the first presidential forum in the United States focusing specifically on LGBT issues. Six Democratic Party candidates participate in the event. GOP candidates were asked to attend but turned it down. On November 29, the first foreign gay wedding was held in Hanoi, Vietnam between a Japanese and an Irish national. The wedding raised much attention in the gay and lesbian community in Vietnam.[87]
  • 2008
    • Same sex marriages laws:
    • Civil Union/Registered Partnership laws:
    • Limited Partnership laws:
    • Banning of Same-sex marriage: US states of Arizona and California
    • Banning of Same-sex marriage and civil unions: US state of Florida
    • Same-sex couple adoption legalisation: Uruguay
    • Banning of Same-sex adoption: Arkansas
    • Anti-discrimination legislation: California[citation needed]
    • Equalization of age of consent: Nicaragua, Panama, South Africa
    • Decriminalisation of homosexuality: Nicaragua and Panama
    • Other: Kosovo declares itself to be an independent country with a new constitution that includes mention of "sexual orientation", the first of its kind in Eastern Europe,[citation needed], Portland voters elect Sam Adams (Oregon politician) mayor, making it the largest city in the US with an openly-gay mayor (the next largest is Providence, Rhode Island), June 3 the first two same sex civil marriages (two men and two women)take place in Greece on the island of Tilos, the supreme court prosecutor and the minister of Justice claim the marriages are null and void
  • 2009
    • Same sex marriages laws:
    • Civil Union/Registered Partnership laws:
      • Passed and comes into effect: Hungary (without joint adoption), US states of Nevada and Washington[93] (expansion of previous rights)
      • Passed: Austria (without joint adoption)
    • Limited Partnership laws:
    • Abroad Union recognition: Japan[94], US district of Washington, D.C.
    • Same-sex couple adoption legalisation: Finland[95] (step adoption), UK Subdivision of Scotland
    • Banning of Same-sex marriage: Maine[96][dead link]
    • Anti-discrimination legislation: Serbia, US state of Delaware (private sector, sexual orientation), USA Matthew Shepard Act[97].
    • End to ban on gay people in the military: Argentina, Philippines, Uruguay
    • Decriminalisation of homosexuality: India[98]
    • Other: Iceland elects the first openly gay head of government in the world, Jhanna Sigurardttir;[99]; On March 10, 2009, in Tel Aviv, Uzi Even and his life partner was the first same-sex male couple in Israel whose right of adoption has been legally acknowledged.[100]; (26 May), the California Supreme Court upholds Proposition 8, the ballot initiative that banned same-sex marriage in November 2008, with a 6–1 vote;[101]; the Canadian province of Alberta becomes the last province to include the words "sexual orientation" in the Human Rights Act;[102]; Washington state voters approve keeping same-sex relationship rights as Domestic Partnerships by 51 percent; (12 Dec), Annise Parker is elected mayor of Houston, Texas, which becomes the largest city in the United States with an openly-gay mayor[103]

[edit] 2010s

(See individual year page for more info)

  • 2010
    • Same sex marriages laws:
    • Civil Union/Registered Partnership laws:
      • Comes into effect: Austria (without adoption and IVF access rights)
      • Passed: Ireland (without adoption rights)
    • Trans Rights: Australia becomes the first country in the world to recognise a 'non-specified' gender[105], when the New South Wales Government recognises Norrie May-Welby as being neither male or female. Norrie has since been forced to choose a gender.[106]

[edit] See also

[edit] Footnotes

  1. ^ Explaining the early human mind
  2. ^ Timeline of more History
  3. ^ Reeder, Greg (October 2000). "Same-sex desire, conjugal constructs, and the tomb of Niankhkhnum and Khnumhotep". World Archaeology 32 (2): 193–208. doi:10.1080/00438240050131180. 
  4. ^ Boswell, John (1994). Same-Sex Unions in Pre-Modern Europe. New York: Vintage Books
  5. ^ OED etymology for Lesbian: After the alleged practice of Sappho, the poetess of Lesbos.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r (Fone, 2000)
  7. ^ Haggerty, George E. (2000). Gay histories and cultures: an encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. p. 418. ISBN 9780815318804. http://books.google.com/?id=L9Mj7oHEwVoC 
  8. ^ Sergio Musitelli, Maurizio Bossi, Remigio Allegri, Storia dei costumi sessuali in occidente dalla preistoria ai giorni nostri, Rusconi, Milano 1999, pp. 126–127.
  9. ^ Suetonius, Julius 2–3; Plutarch, Caesar 2–3; Cassius Dio, Roman History 43.20
  10. ^ Martial attests to same-sex marriages between men during the early Roman Empire, q.v. Martial Epigrams 1.24, 12.42
  11. ^ Ancient History Sourcebook: Suetonius: De Vita Caesarum-Nero, c. 110 C.E Although this action was criticized by contemporary historians, these same historians do not criticize emperors such as Hadrian and Trajan who also had male lovers. The real reason behind the criticism of Nero and Elagabalus is that both of these emperors ignored the Senators (who wrote the surviving historical accounts) and appointed low class men (such as freedmen) to important positions of power, thereby incurring the hatred of the Senatorial class.
  12. ^ Dio Cassius, Epitome of Book 68.6.4; 68.21.2–6.21.3
  13. ^ Apologia I, 27, UTA, RANKE-HEINEMANN, Eunuchi per il regno dei cieli, Rizzoli 1990, p. 66.
  14. ^ Augustan History, Life of Elagabalus 10
  15. ^ Theodosian Code 9.8.3: "When a man marries and is about to offer himself to men in womanly fashion (quum vir nubit in feminam viris porrecturam), what does he wish, when sex has lost all its significance; when the crime is one which it is not profitable to know; when Venus is changed to another form; when love is sought and not found? We order the statutes to arise, the laws to be armed with an avenging sword, that those infamous persons who are now, or who hereafter may be, guilty may be subjected to exquisite punishment.
  16. ^ (Theodosian Code 9.7.6): All persons who have the shameful custom of condemning a man's body, acting the part of a woman's to the sufferance of alien sex (for they appear not to be different from women), shall expiate a crime of this kind in avenging flames in the sight of the people.
  17. ^ Evagrius Ecclesiastical History 3.39
  18. ^ Justinian Novels 77, 144
  19. ^ Visigothic Code 3.5.5, 3.5.6; Online at: http://libro.uca.edu/vcode/vg3-5.htm; "The doctrine of the orthodox faith requires us to place our censure upon vicious practices, and to restrain those who are addicted to carnal offences. For we counsel well for the benefit of our people and our country, when we take measures to utterly extirpate the crimes of wicked men, and put an end to the evil deeds of vice. For this reason we shall attempt to abolish the horrible crime of sodomy, which is as contrary to Divine precept as it is to chastity. And although the authority of the Holy Scriptures, and the censure of earthly laws, alike, prohibit offences of this kind, it is nevertheless necessary to condemn them by a new decree; lest if timely correction be deferred, still greater vices may arise. Therefore, we establish by this law, that if any man whosoever, of any age, or race, whether he belongs to the clergy, or to the laity, should be convicted, by competent evidence, of the commission of the crime of sodomy, he shall, by order of the king, or of any judge, not only suffer emasculation, but also the penalty prescribed by ecclesiastical decree for such offences, and promulgated in the third year of our reign."
  20. ^ David Bromell. Who's Who in Gay and Lesbian History, London, 2000 (Ed. Wotherspoon and Aldrich)
  21. ^ http://www2.hu-berlin.de/sexology/IES/poland.html#6
  22. ^ PETRI DAMIANI Liber gomorrhianus , ad Leonem IX Rom. Pon. in Patrologiae Cursus completus...accurante J.P., MIGNE, series secunda, tomus CXLV, col. 161; CANOSA, Romano, Storia di una grande paura La sodomia a Firenze e a Venezia nel quattrocento, Feltrinelli, Milano 1991, pp.13–14
  23. ^ Opera Omnia.
  24. ^ John Boswell, Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality (1980) p. 293.
  25. ^ storia completa qui
  26. ^ Crompton, Louis. Homosexuality and Civilization. Cambridge & London: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2003
  27. ^ R v Jacobs (1817) Russ & Ry 331 confirmed that buggery related only to intercourse per anum by a man with a man or woman or intercourse per anum or per vaginum by either a man or a woman with an animal. Other forms of "unnatural intercourse" may amount to indecent assault or gross indecency, but do not constitute buggery. See generally, Smith & Hogan, Criminal Law (10th ed), ISBN 0 406 94801 1
  28. ^ Godbeer, Richard (2002). Sexual revolution in early America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0801868009.  p.123
  29. ^ Borris, Kenneth (2004). Same-sex desire in the English Renaissance: a sourcebook of texts, 1470–1650. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0815336268.  p.113
  30. ^ Foster, Thomas (2007). Long Before Stonewall: Histories of Same-Sex Sexuality in Early America. New York University Press.
  31. ^ Norton, Rictor (February 5, 2005). "The Raid of Mother Clap's Molly House". http://rictornorton.co.uk/eighteen/mother.htm. Retrieved Feb. 12, 2010. 
  32. ^ Thomas Jefferson, The Writings of Thomas Jefferson, Andrew A. Lipscomb, ed. (Washington, Thomas Jefferson Memorial Association, 1904) Vol. I, pp. 226–27, from Jefferson–s –For Proportioning Crimes and Punishments.–
  33. ^ Gunther, Scott (2009). "The Elastic Closet: A History of Homosexuality in France, 1942–present" Book about the history of homosexual movements in France (sample chapter available online). Palgrave-Macmillan, 2009. ISBN 023022105X.
  34. ^ http://www2.hu-berlin.de/sexology/IES/poland.html%20%20 http://www2.hu-berlin.de/sexology/IES/poland.html
  35. ^ Galloway, Bruce (1984). Prejudice and Pride: Discrimination Against Gay People in Modern Britain. Routledge. ISBN 9780710099167. http://books.google.com/?id=Xu89AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA79&lpg=PA79&dq=The+last+known+execution+for+buggery. 
  36. ^ (Chauncey, 1995)
  37. ^ Marc Vargo. Scandal: infamous gay controversies of the twentieth century Routledge, 2003. pp 165–7.
  38. ^ Steakley, James D. (revised 1989). "Iconography of a Scandal: Political Cartoons and the Eulenburg Affair in Wilhelmin Germany", Hidden from History: Reclaiming the Gay & Lesbian Past (1990), Duberman, et al., eds. New York: Meridian, New American Library, Penguin Books. ISBN 0-452-01067-5.
  39. ^ Goldman, Emma (1923). "Offener Brief an den Herausgeber der Jahrbcher ber Louise Michel" with a preface by Magnus Hirschfeld. Jahrbuch fr sexuelle Zwischenstufen 23: 70.–Š Translated from German by James Steakley. Goldman's original letter in English is not known to be extant.
  40. ^ wpunj.edu[dead link] Jeffrey Escoffier, Left-wing Homosexuality Emancipation, Sexual Liberation, and Identity Politics.
    "During the first decade of the twentieth-century, the great anarchist and feminist leader Emma Goldman argued for the acceptance of homosexuals in her speeches and writings."]
  41. ^ middlebury.edu Russian Gay History
    "It was not until 1832 that the criminal code included Article 995, which made muzhelozhstvo (men lying with men, which the courts interpreted as anal intercourse) a criminal act punishable by exile to Siberia.... The October Revolution of 1917 did away with the entire Criminal Code .... The new Russian Criminal Codes of 1922 and 1926 eliminated the offence of muzhelozhstvo from the law."
  42. ^ Wayne R. Dynes, Stephen Donaldson. History of homosexuality in Europe and America. Taylor & Francis, 1992, pp. 174+
  43. ^ hirschfeld.in-berlin.de, The first Institute for Sexual Science
  44. ^ stonewallsociety.com
  45. ^ Atina Grossmann. Reforming Sex. Oxford University Press, 1995.
  46. ^ http://www2.hu-berlin.de/sexology/IES/poland.html#6
  47. ^ West, Donald James; Richard Green (1997). Sociolegal control of homosexuality: a multi-nation comparison. Springer. p. 224. ISBN 0306455323. 
  48. ^ Archer, p. 110
  49. ^ Vern L. Bullough, RN, PhD, ed (2002) [2002]. Before Stonewall, Activists for Gay and Lesbian Rights in Historical Context. New York: Harrington Park Press. p. 424. ISBN 1560231920. 
  50. ^ Hodges, Andrew (1995 ...). "A short on-line biography in eight parts: Part 8 – Alan Turing's Crisis". ALAN TURING founder of computer science. Andrew Hodges. http://www.turing.org.uk/bio/part8.html. Retrieved 24 June 2010. 
  51. ^ Daily Mail: "Lord Montagu on the court case which ended the legal persecution of homosexuals," 17 July 2007
  52. ^ Miller, p. 347
  53. ^ 1961 Ill. Laws 2044.
  54. ^ McLeod, Donald W.. A Brief History of Gay: Canada's First Gay Tabloid, 1964–1966. 
  55. ^ "Our Silver Anniversary: Canadians have been organizing for twenty five years!". Newsletter of the Canadian Gay Archives (National Archives for Lesbians and Gay Men) 7. June 1989. 
  56. ^ Wittman, Carl (1970). "A Gay Manifesto (1970)". Gay Homeland Foundation. http://library.gayhomeland.org/0006/EN/A_Gay_Manifesto.htm. Retrieved 28 June 2010. 
  57. ^ Blasius, Mark; Shane Phelan (1997). We are everywhere: a historical sourcebook in gay and lesbian politics. Routledge. pp. 380-––90. ISBN 0415908590. 
  58. ^ Jennings, Rebecca (2008-10-21). "Lesbians". Dictionary of Sydney. http://heuristscholar.org/cocoon/dos/browser/item/422/. Retrieved 28 June 2010. 
  59. ^ Willett, Graham (2000). Living out loud: a history of gay and lesbian activism in Australia. Allen & Unwin. p. 33. 
  60. ^ Getting Rid of Sodomy Laws: History and Strategy that Led to the Lawrence Decision
  61. ^ Sodomy Laws, Idaho
  62. ^ Victora Brittain (28 August 1971). "An Alternative to Sexual Shame: Impact of the new militancy among homosexual groups". The Times. p. 12. 
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  64. ^ Warner, Tom. ––Never Going Back: A History of Queer Activism in Canada––, 2002 University of Toronto Press, ISBN 0802084605 p41
  65. ^ The Knitting CircleGay Left Collective
  66. ^ Coming Out: Homosexual Politics in Britain from the Nineteenth Century to the Present, Quartet Books 1977; 2nd revised edition, with new chapter and bibliography, 1990
  67. ^ ILGA
  68. ^ "HRC – About Us". Human Rights Campaign. 2009. http://www.hrc.org/about_us/. Retrieved 9 April 2009. 
  69. ^ CDC (1981, 5th June) –Pheumocystis Pneumonia – Los Angeles–, MMWR, Vol. 30 No. 21.
  70. ^ Oswald, G.A, et al (1982) –Attempted immune stimulation in the –gay compromise syndrome––. BMJ, 1982 October 16; 285(6348): 1082.
  71. ^ MMWR Weekly (1982) –Current trends update on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) – United States–. September 24, 31(37); 507–508, 513–514.
  72. ^ Sunstone Magazine March 1986 Interview with Antonio A. Feliz Pages 43–44
  73. ^ Berger, J (1985) –Rock Hudson, screen idol, dies at 59–. The New York Times, October 3rd.
  74. ^ ACT UP. Flyer of the demonstration on 24th March, 1987.
  75. ^ Seidman, Steven (1997). Queer Theory/sociology. Blackwell Publishing. p. 414. ISBN 1557867402 
  76. ^ The New York Times (1995, 21st November) –New drug to fight AIDS is approved by FDA–.
  77. ^ http://www.ukgaynews.org.uk/Archive/2005dec/3001.htm
  78. ^ South Australia gays get new rights
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  82. ^ Timeline of lesbian and gay history
  83. ^ "Equality Act 2006". Archived from the original on 2007-12-20. http://web.archive.org/web/20071220164755/http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts2006/20060003.htm. 
  84. ^ BBC: State votes for consent age drop
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  86. ^ See video
  87. ^ (Vietnamese) "Lá» ká¿t hn äá»ng giá»i tá¡i H Ná»i". Vietbao.vn. http://vietbao.vn/The-gioi-giai-tri/Le-ket-hon-dong-gioi-tai-Ha-Noi/50795684/407/. Retrieved 4 August 2009. 
  88. ^ http://www.365gay.com/news/sweden-oks-gay-marriage Sweden oks gay marriage
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  92. ^ a b Hopkins, Christopher Dean (October 4, 2009). "Catania: Gay Marriage Bill Will Debut Tuesday". The Washington Post. http://voices.washingtonpost.com/dc/2009/10/catania_gay_marriage_bill_will.html. 
  93. ^ "SB 5688 – 2009–10 – Expanding the rights and responsibilities of state registered domestic partners.". Washington State Legislature. http://apps.leg.wa.gov/billinfo/summary.aspx?bill=5688&year=2009. Retrieved 4 August 2009. 
  94. ^ Japan allows its citizens same-sex marriage abroad
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