List of events named massacres
This is a list of events for which one of the commonly accepted names includes the word "massacre". Massacre is defined in the Oxford English Dictionary as "the indiscriminate and brutal slaughter of people or (less commonly) animals; carnage, butchery, slaughter in numbers". It also states that the term is used "in the names of certain massacres of history".
The first recorded use in English of the word massacre in the name of an event is "Marlowe (c1600) (title) The massacre at Paris", (a reference to the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre). Massacre can also be used as a verb, as "To kill (people or, less commonly, animals) in numbers, esp. brutally and indiscriminately". The first usage of which was "1588 J. PENRY Viewe Publ. Wants Wales 65 Men which make no conscience for gaine sake, to breake the law of the ternall, and massaker soules..are dangerous subjects", and this usage is not recorded in this list.
Massacre is also used figuratively and idiomatically for events that do not involve any deaths, such as the Saturday Night Massacre, which refers to the firing and resignations of political appointees during the Watergate scandal. Such events are not listed in the table below.
 List of events
Note: the location column will sort by the following sub regions: Eastern Africa, Southern Africa, Central America, Northern America, South America, Eastern Asia, South-eastern Asia, Southern Asia, Western Asia, Eastern Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Western Europe, and Oceania
unknown||Gaius Suetonius Paulinus ordered the Roman army to destroy the Celtic Druid stronghold on Anglesey in Britain, sacking Druidic colleges and sacred groves. The massacre helped impose Roman religion on the world and sent Druidism into a decline from which it never recovered.
||Massacre of Thessaloniki
7,000||Emperor Theodosius I of Rome ordered the executions after the citizens of Thessaloniki murdered a top-level military commander during a violent protest against the arrest of a popular charioteer.
|November 13, 1002
||various cities, England
||St. Brice's Day massacre
unknown||King Ethelred II of England ordered all Danes living in England killed. The Danes were accused of aiding Viking raiders. The King of Denmark invaded England and deposed King Ethelred.
|December 30, 1066
4,000||A Muslim mob crucified Jewish vizier Joseph ibn Naghrela and killed most of the Jewish population of the city, apparently angered by the prominence and wealth attained by Naghrela and his people.
||Constantinople, Byzantine Empire
||Massacre of the Latins
60,000–80,000||Wholesale massacre of all Latin (Western European) inhabitants of Constantinople by a mob.
||Crow Creek Site, South Dakota)
||Crow Creek massacre
500||Native Americans indigenous to South Dakota killed Central Plains villagers.
|November 8, 1520
80–90||Days after his coronation in Stockholm, King Christian II of Denmark – trying to maintain the personal union between Sweden, Norway and Denmark, and thus keep up his claims to the Swedish throne – liquidated nobles and bishops who earlier had opposed him, or who might stir up fresh opposition.
30,000–50,000||Ottoman forces capturing Cyprus killed mostly Greek and Armenian Christian inhabitants.
|August 23, 1572
||St. Bartholomew's Day massacre
3,000||A wave of Catholic mob violence against the Huguenots.
31||Spanish whalers went on a whaling expedition to Iceland and were killed after conflict with the people of Iceland.
|March 22, 1622
347||The Powhatans killed 347 settlers, almost one-third of the English population of the Virginia colony.
|May 28, 1644
200–1,600||Royalist forces killed many of the town's defenders and citizens.
|February 13, 1692
||Massacre of Glencoe
38||Government soldiers, mainly from Clan Campbell, killed members of the Clan MacDonald of Glencoe.
|October 5, 1768
||Southwark in South London, England
||Massacre of St George's Fields
7||British garrison troops fired at a mob that was protesting the imprisonment of John Wilkes, whose crime was criticizing King George III.
|March 5, 1770
||Boston, Province of Massachusetts Bay
5||British troops fired at a mob of colonists. This helped spark the American Revolution even though an all-colonist jury found the soldiers innocent.
|July 17, 1771
||Bloody Falls Massacre
20||Chipewyan warriors attacked an Inuit camp, killing men, women and children.
|September 28, 1778
||River Vale, New Jersey
15||British infantry troops attacked sleeping Continental Light Dragoons using bayonets.
|May 29, 1780
||Lancaster, South Carolina
113||Loyalist troops under the command of British Colonel Banastre Tarleton slashed and bayoneted fallen American troops during the late stages of the Battle of Waxhaws. Conflicting contemporary accounts claim violation of an American white flag by one or the other of the sides involved.
|March 8, 1782
96||Pennsylvania militia men attacked a Moravian mission and killed 96 peaceful Christian American Indians there in retaliation for unrelated deaths of several white Pennsylvanians.
~1440||Popular courts in the French Revolution sentenced prisoners to death, including around 240 priests.
||Massacre of Praga
20,000||All inhabitants of the Warsaw district Praga were brutally tortured, raped and than violently murdered by the Russian troops.
||Whangaroa, New Zealand
66||Whangaroa Maori killed and ate 66 crew and passengers on ship The Boyd.
|August 16, 1819
11||Armed cavalry charged a peaceful pro-democracy meeting of 60,000 people.
35,000||Up to 30,000 Turks were killed in Tripolitsa and the whole Jewish population was wiped out.
||Waterloo Creek, Australia
||Waterloo Creek massacre
100–300||Aboriginal Australians killed by a force of colonial mounted police.
|June 10, 1838
||Myall Creek, Australia
||Myall Creek massacre
28||A white posse killed Aboriginal Australians. The perpetrators were convicted and sentenced to death.
|October 30, 1838
||Caldwell County, Missouri, USA
||Haun's Mill massacre
19||About 240 Livingston County Missouri Regulators militiamen and volunteers killed 18 Mormons and one non-Mormon friend.
~450||A series of massacres spanning several years: 1840 – Nuntin, 1840 – Boney Point, 1841 – Butchers Creek – 30–35, 1841 – Maffra, 1842 – Skull Creek, 1842 – Bruthen Creek – "hundreds killed", 1843 – Warrigal Creek – between 60 and 180 shot, 1844 – Maffra, 1846 – South Gippsland – 14 killed, 1846 – Snowy River – 8 killed, 1846–47 – Central Gippsland – 50 or more shot, 1850 – East Gippsland – 15–20 killed, 1850 – Murrindal – 16 poisoned, 1850 – Brodribb River – 15–20 killed.. See also Angus McMillan.
|January 6, 1842
||Massacre of Elphinstone's Army
16,000||Afghan tribes massacred Elphinstone's British army including some 12,000 civilians.
|August 20, 1854
||Oregon Territory, USA (near Caldwell, Idaho)
19||Shoshone tortured, killed and plundered Oregon emigrant wagon train members.
|September 11, 1857
||Mountain Meadows, Utah, USA
||Mountain Meadows massacre
120–140||Mormon militia, some dressed as Indians, and Paiute tribesmen killed and plundered unarmed members of the Fancher–Baker emigrant wagon train.
||Utah Territory, USA
6||Six well-to-do Californians travelling through the territory during the so-called Mormon War, were arrested by Mormons as spies, released, then killed and robbed.
|July 27, 1859
||Washington Territory, USA near Holbrook, Idaho
5||Bannock, Shoshone, and white men dressed as Indians killed and plundered California emigrant wagon train members.
|August 31, 1859
||Washington Territory, USA near Massacre Rocks, Idaho
8||Bannock, Shoshone, and whites dressed as Indians tortured, killed and plundered Oregon emigrant wagon train members.
|September 9, 1860
||Washington Territory, USA near Castle Butte, Idaho & Farewell Bend, Oregon
28||Bannock, Shoshone, tortured, killed and plundered Oregon emigrant wagon train members. Of four captured children, one was rescued in 1862 by California Volunteers.
|January 18, 1863
||Madison County, North Carolina, USA
||Shelton Laurel Massacre
13||Thirteen boys and men, accused of being Union sympathizers and spies, were summarily executed by members of the 64th North Carolina Regiment of the Confederate Army.
|January 29, 1863
||Franklin County, Idaho, USA
||Bear River massacre
~225||3rd Regiment California Volunteer Infantry destroyed a village of Shoshone in southeastern Idaho.
|August 21, 1863
||Lawrence, Kansas, USA
~150||Pro-Confederate bushwhackers attacked the town of Lawrence, Kansas during the American Civil War in retaliation for the Union attack on Osceola, Missouri.
|November 29, 1864
||Kiowa County, Colorado, USA
||Sand Creek massacre
~200||Colorado Territory 90-day militia destroyed a peaceful village of Cheyenne and Arapaho on the eastern plains.
|November 27, 1868
||Indian Territory, USA
(Battle of Washita River)
29–150||Lt. Col. G.A.Custer's 7th cavalry attacked a village of sleeping Cheyenne led by Black Kettle. Custer reported 103 – later revised to 140 – warriors, "some" women and "few" children killed, and 53 women and children taken hostage. Other casualty estimates by cavalry members, scouts and Indians vary widely, with the number of men killed ranging as low as 11 and the numbers of women and children ranging as high as 75. Before returning to their base, the cavalry killed several hundred Indian ponies and burned the village.
|April 30, 1876
||Batak Ottoman Empire
3,000–5,000||Ottoman army irregulars killed Bulgarian civilians barricaded in Batak's church.
|April 2, 1885
||Frog Lake, North-West Territories, Canada
||Frog Lake Massacre
9||Cree warriors, dissatisfied with the lack of support from the Canadian Government for Treaty Indians, and exacerbated by food shortages resulting from the near-extinction of bison, killed nine white settlers, including Indian agent Thomas Quinn.
|October 2, 1885
||Rock Springs, Wyoming, USA
||Rock Springs massacre
28||Rioting white immigrant miners killed 28 Chinese miners, wounded 15, and 75 Chinese homes burned.
|December 29, 1890
||Wounded Knee, South Dakota, USA
||Wounded Knee Massacre
200–300||The U.S. 7th Cavalry intercepted a band of Lakota Sioux people on their way to the Pine Ridge Reservation for shelter from the winter; as they were disarming them, a gun was fired, and the soldiers turned their artillery on the Lakota, killing men women and children.
1894–1896||Anatolia, Ottoman Empire
Sultan Abdul Hamid II ordered Ottoman forces to kill Armenians across the empire.
|January 31, 1902
||Leliefontein, Northern Cape, South Africa
35||During the Second Boer War, Boer forces under Manie Maritz massacred 35 Khoikhoi for being British sympathisers.
|March 10, 1906
||Bud Dajo, Jolo Island, Philippines
||Moro Crater massacre
800–1,000||A U.S. Army force of 540 soldiers under the command of Major General Leonard Wood, accompanied by a naval detachment and with a detachment of native constabulary, armed with artillery and small firearms, attacked a village hidden in the crater of a dormant volcano.
April–May 1909||Adana Province, Anatolia, Ottoman Empire
15,000–30,000||In April 1909, a religious-ethnic clash in the city of Adana, amidst governmental upheaval, resulted in a series of anti-Armenian pogroms throughout the district, resulting in an estimated 15,000 to 30,000 deaths.
|April 20, 1914
||Ludlow, Colorado, USA
20||Twenty people, 11 of them children, died during an attack by the Colorado National Guard on a tent colony of 1,200 striking coal miners and their families at Ludlow, Colorado. The event led to wider conflict quelled only by Federal troops sent in by U.S. President Woodrow Wilson.
|April 13, 1919
379||90 British Indian Army soldiers, led by Brigadier Reginald Dyer, opened fire on an unarmed gathering of men, women and children. The firing lasted for 10 to 15 minutes, till they ran out of ammunition.
|November 21, 1920
||Croke Park Massacre
23||British Auxiliary police and Black and Tans fired at Gaelic football spectators at Croke Park.
||Rosewood, Florida, USA
8||Several days of violence by white mobs, ranging in size up to 400 people, resulted in the deaths of six blacks and two whites and the destruction of the town of Rosewood, which was abandoned after the incident.
|February 14, 1929
||Chicago, Illinois, USA
||Saint Valentine's Day massacre
7||Al Capone's gang shot rival gang members and their associates.
||Hebron, British Mandate for Palestine
||1929 Hebron massacre
69||Arabs kill 69 Jews after being incited by religious leaders. Survivors were relocated to Jerusalem, "leaving Hebron barren of Jews for the first time in hundreds of years." 
||Safed, British Mandate for Palestine
||1929 Safed massacre
18||Arabs killed 18 Jews, wounded around 40, and some 200 houses were burned and looted.
|April 23, 1930
||Peshawar, British Raj
||Qissa Khwani bazaar massacre
200–250||Soldiers of the British Raj fired on unarmed non-violent protestors of the Khudai Khidmatgar with machine guns during the Indian independence movement
|March 21, 1937
||Ponce, Puerto Rico
19||The Insular Police fired on unarmed Nationalist demonstrators peacefully marching to commemorate the ending of slavery in Puerto Rico. It was the biggest massacre in Puerto Rican history.
(Rape of Nanking)
|The Imperial Japanese Army pillaged Nanking for six weeks
||Katyn, Soviet Union
21,857–25,700||Soviet NKVD executed Polish intelligentsia, POWs and reserve officers.
||Soviet Union, Baltic states
||NKVD prisoner massacres
100,000||The Soviet People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del, or NKVD) executed tens of thousands of political prisoners in the initial stages of Operation Barbarossa.
|September 29, 1941
||Babi Yar massacre
>30,000||Nazi Einsatzgruppen killed the Jewish population of Kiev.
|October 8, 1941
>2,796-5,000||Nazi soldiers massacred Serb and Roma hostages in retaliation for attacks on the occupying forces.
||Laha Airfield, Ambon Island
~300||The Japanese killed surrendered Australian soldiers.
|March 26, 1942
||Lari near Nairobi, Kenya
~150||About 150 Kikuyu were killed by fellow tribesmen.
|June 10, 1942
||Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia
340||Nazis killed 192 men, and sent the women and children to Nazi concentration camps where many died.
|September 21, 1943
||Massacre of the Acqui Division
5,000||Wehrmacht troops executed POWs from the Italian 33 Infantry Division Acqui
||Massacres of Poles in Volhynia
>50,000||The brutal murders of Polish citizens of the WoÅyÅ Voivodeship, orchestrated and conducted in most part by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA) in years 1943-1947. The peak of the massacres took place in July and August 1943 when a senior UPA commander, Dmytro Klyachkivsky, ordered the extermination of the entire Polish population between 16 and 60 years of age..
700–1,800||The SS killed Italian civilians in reprisal for support given to the resistance movement.
|June 10, 1944
642||The Waffen-SS killed 642 men, women and children without giving any specific reasons for their actions.
     
|August 8, 1944
40,000–100,000||Special groups of SS and German soldiers of the Wehrmacht went from house to house in Warsaw district Wola, rounding-up and shooting all inhabitants.
|August 12, 1944
||Sant'Anna di Stazzema, Italy
||Sant'Anna di Stazzema massacre
560||Retreating SS-men of the II Battallion of SS-Panzergrenadier-Regiment 35 of 16th SS Panzergrenadier Division Reichsfhrer-SS, rounded up 560 villagers and refugees – mostly women, children and older men – shot them and then burned their bodies.
10,000||Mass murders of citizens of Warsaw district Ochota in August 1944, committed by Waffen-SS.
88||Nazi Waffen SS soldiers shot American POWs (43 escaped).
60||German prisoners of war were shot by American soldiers in an unauthorized retaliation for the Malmedy Massacre.
6,000||Muslim villages were bombed by French aircraft and the cruiser Duguay-Trouin standing off the coast, in the Gulf of Bougie, shelled Kerrata. Pied noir vigilantes lynched prisoners taken from local gaols or randomly shot Muslims 
|February 28, 1947
|April 3, 1948
||Jeju island, South Korea
25,000||Communist sympathizer civilians were killed by South Korean troops. The victims were 25,000 to 60,000.
|April 9, 1948
||Deir Yassin, Palestine
||Deir Yassin Massacre
120||The Deir Yassin massacre took place when the Irgun and Lehi Zionist paramilitary groups attacked the Palestinian village of Deir Yassin near Jerusalem, population of 750. 25 Palestinian men were taken to Jerusalem and shot. Around 120 Palestinian civilians were killed.
|October 31, 1948October 31 – November 1, 1948
35||The Hula massacre took place October 31 – November 1, 1948. Hula is a Lebanese Shi'a Muslim village near the Lebanese Litani River. It was captured by the Carmeli Brigade without any resistance. 35–58 captured men were reportedly shot down in a house which was later blown up on top of them. Two officers were responsible for the massacre; one served a one year prison sentence and later received presidential amnesty. Shmuel Lahis was later to become Director General of the Jewish Agency.
|December 12, 1948
||Batang Kali, Burma
||Batang Kali massacre
24||Villagers were purportedly shot by British troops before the village was burnt.
|December 24, 1949
||Mungyeong, South Korea
86-88||Communist sympathizer civilians were killed by South Korean troops.
||Bodo League massacre
100,000||During the Korean War, communist sympathizer civilians or prisoners were killed by South Korean troops. The victims were 100,000 to 1,200,000.
|July 26, 1950July 26–29, 1950
||No Gun Ri, South Korea
||No Gun Ri Massacre
100-400||During the Korean War, groups of refugees fleeing a North Korean advance attempted to cross American lines. Between July 26 and July 29, 1950, U.S. soldiers, who suspected that such groups were infiltrated by North Korean soldiers, killed an undetermined number of South Korean refugees at No Gun Ri.
|August 14, 1950
||Waegwan, South Korea
||Hill 303 massacre
41||During the Korean War, American POW were massacred by North Korean Army on August 14, 1950.
|January 6, 1951January 06–09, 1951
||Ganghwa, South Korea
212||During the Korean War, Communist collabolator civilians were massacred by South Korean forces, South Korean Police forces and pro-South Korea forces Militia.
|February 7, 1951
||Sancheong and Hamyang, South Korea
||Sancheong and Hamyang massacre
705||During the Korean War, Communist sympathizer civilians were massacred by South Korean Army on February 7, 1951.
|February 9, 1951February 9–11, 1951
||Geochang, South Korea
719||During the Korean War, Communist sympathizer civilians were massacred by South Korean Army between February 9 and February 11, 1951.
|March 21, 1960
||Sharpeville, South Africa
72–90||South African police shot down black protesters.
||Novocherkassk, Soviet Union
23–70||The MVD open fire on a crowd of protesters demonstrating against inflation.
|January 18, 1964January 18–21, 1964
||Massacres during the Zanzibar Revolution
8,000–17,000||Following the overthrow of the Sultan, thousands of Arabs and Indians were massacred by John Okello's forces.
|August 1, 1966
||Austin, Texas, USA
||University of Texas massacre
16||University of Texas was the site of a massacre by Charles Whitman, who killed his mother and wife at their homes before killing 14 and wounding 32 others at the University atop the university tower before the police killed him.
|March 16, 1968
||My Lai Massacre
504||US soldiers killed 504 unarmed South Vietnamese villagers ranging in ages from 1 to 81 years, mostly women and children.
|October 2, 1968
||Mexico City, Mexico
25–350||Government troops massacred between 25 (officially) and 350 (according to human rights activists) students on the eve of the 1968 Summer Olympics taking place in Mexico City, and then tried to wash the blood away, along with evidence of the massacre.
|May 4, 1970
||Kent State University, Ohio, USA
||Kent State massacre
4||29 members of the Ohio National Guard opened fire on unarmed students protesting the expansion of the Vietnam War into Cambodia on the Kent State University college campus, killing 4 and wounding 9, one of whom was permanently paralyzed.
|January 30, 1972
||Derry, Northern Ireland
14||British paratroopers fired on unarmed civil rights protesters, killing 14.. The government sponsored Saville Report, released in June 2010, found all those killed were innocent civil rights demostrators, prompting an apology by UK Prime Minister David Cameron. As of that time, no one had been prosecuted for the killings.
|May 30, 1972
||Lod Airport massacre
26||Three members of the Japanese Red Army, on behalf of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, killed 26 people and injured 80 others at Tel Aviv's Lod airport (now Ben Gurion International Airport).
|September 5, 1972
12||Members of the Israeli Olympic team were taken hostage and killed by the Palestinian Black September group. Also killed was a West German police officer.
|May 15, 1974
29||Members of the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine infiltrate Israel from Lebanon, shoot and kill a Christian Arab woman and a Jewish couple and their 4 year old son, and then take hostage and kill 22 high school students and three of their adult escorts.
|July 31, 1975
||Miami Showband massacre
5||Members of the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) killed three members of pop group the Miami Showband in a gun and bomb attack. Two UVF members also died when the bomb exploded prematurely.
|January 5, 1976
10||Irish republicans shot ten Protestant workers dead outside the village of Kingsmill in County Armagh, Northern Ireland.
582||Palestinian militia aligned with the Lebanese National Movement kill 582 civilians in the village of Damour during the Lebanese Civil War.
|March 11, 1978
||Coastal Road massacre
35||Palestinian Fatah members based in Lebanon land on a beach north of Tel Aviv, kill an American photographer, and hijack an inter-city bus driving along Israel's Coastal Highway. 35 civilians are killed and 80 wounded.
13||13 tortured bodies were found at Tula, Hidalgo,Mexico at the time of Arturo Durazo Moreno Administration
|December 11, 1981
||El Mozote Massacre
>1,000||The El Mozote Massacre took place in the village of El Mozote, in Moraz¡n department, El Salvador, on December 11, 1981, when Salvadoran armed forces trained by the United States military killed at least 1000 civilians in an anti-guerrilla campaign.
|February 2, 1982
7,000–35,000||The Syrian Army killed an estimated 30,000 people in the city of Hama. Instances of mass execution and torture by the Syrian military were documented during the attacks.
||Sabra and Shatila massacre
700–3,500||Refugees are killed by the Christian Lebanese Forces militia in refugee camps surrounded by Israel Defense Forces. The United Nations General Assembly condemned the massacre and declared it to be an act of genocide.
69||Maoist Shining Path guerrillas massacre 69 men, women and children with axes, machetes and guns in and around the town of Lucanamarca, Peru.
|July 18, 1984
||San Diego, California, USA
||San Ysidro McDonald's Massacre
21||Gunman James Oliver Huberty killed 21 people in a McDonald's restaurant before being fatally shot by a SWAT team sniper.
|March 23, 1985
148||Dujail was the site of an unsuccessful assassination attempt against then Iraqi president, Saddam Hussein, on July 8, 1982. Saddam Hussein ordered his special security and military forces to carry out a reprisal attack against the town, imprisoning hundreds of men, women and children. In March 1985, 148 of the town's men were executed.
|August 14, 1985
47–74||An army massacre of campesinos (including six children) in Accomarca, Ayacucho.
|August 19, 1987
16||A gunman armed with semi-automatic rifles and a handgun killed 16 people before committing suicide.
|November 8, 1987
||Enniskillen, Northern Ireland
||Remembrance Day bombing
(Poppy Day Massacre)
12||Provisional IRA bombing at the town's cenotaph on Remembrance Sunday.
|March 16, 1988
||Belfast, Northern Ireland
3||Ulster Freedom Fighters member Michael Stone kills three people and injures 60 others in a gun and grenade attack at the funeral of three IRA members being held in Milltown Cemetery, Belfast.
||1988 executions of Iranian political prisoners
4482-30000||1988 executions of political prisoners in Iran (Persian: øøøøù øùøøùøù øøø øø øøøøøøù) refers to the systematic execution of "thousands" of political prisoners across Iran by the government of Iran, starting on 19 July 1988 and lasting about five months. The majority of the prisoners killed were supporters of the People's Mujahedin of Iran, although thousands of supporters of other groups, including the Fedaian and the Tudeh Party of Iran (Communist Party), were also executed.
The killings have been called "an act of violence unprecedented in Iranian history – unprecedented in form, content, and intensity." The exact number of prisoners executed remains unclear. Amnesty International recorded the names of over 4,482 political prisoners reportedly killed during this time, but Iranian opposition groups suggest that the number of prisoners executed was far higher, and as many as 30,000 prisoners may have been executed.
|June 4, 1989
||Tiananmen Square, Beijing
||Tiananmen Square Massacre
400–3,000||Anti-corruption demonstrations escalated in a clash between the demonstrators and the authorities.
|December 6, 1989
||cole Polytechnique, Montral, Quebec, Canada
||cole Polytechnique massacre
14||Marc Lpine, claiming to fight feminism, shot and killed 14 female students of the cole Polytechnique de Montral and wounded 14 other people before turning his gun on himself. The event led to stricter gun control laws and changes in police tactical response to shootings in Canada.
|September 5, 1990
||Batticaloa District, Sri Lanka
||Eastern University massacre,
158||Eastern University massacre is the massacre of 158 minority Sri Lankan Tamil civilians by the Sri Lankan Army in the eastern Batticaloa District, Sri Lanka.
|September 9, 1990
||Batticaloa District, Sri Lanka
184||Sathurukondan massacre, also known as the 1990 Batticaloa massacre is the massacre of 184 minority Sri Lankan Tamil civilians by the Sri Lankan Army in the eastern Batticaloa District, Sri Lanka.
|November 13, 1990
||Aramoana, New Zealand
13||The Aramoana massacre occurred on 13 November 1990 in the small seaside township of Aramoana in New Zealand. Lone gunman David Malcolm Gray began shooting indiscriminately at people, killing 13 people before being killed by police himself, allegedly after a dispute with his next door neighbor. It remains New Zealands deadliest criminal shooting.
|October 16, 1991
||Killeen, Texas, USA
22||George Jo Hennard drove his pickup truck into a Luby's Cafeteria and shot and killed 22 people, wounded another 20 and then committed suicide by shooting himself.
November 18–21, 1991||Croatia
264||Members of the Serb militias, aided by the Yugoslav People's Army, killed Croat civilians and POWs.
|February 26, 1992
||Khojaly, Nagorno-Karabakh, Azerbaijan
613||Armenian armed forces, reportedly with help of the Russian 366th Motor Rifle Regiment, raided the town of Khojaly and massacred its Muslim civilian population. The death toll according to the Government of Azerbaijan was 613 civilians, of whom 106 were women and 83 were children.
|April 10, 1992
||Maraghar, Nagorno-Karabakh, Azerbaijan
45||Azerbaijani forces attacked the ethnic Armenian town of Maraghar. According to Caroline Cox, who observed the damage and interviewed eyewitnesses, the Azerbaijani forces decapitated about forty five villagers, burned and looted much of the town, and kidnapped about one hundred women and children. The inhabitants of Maraghar who were driven out after the attack were unable to return to their village after the ceasefire of 1994, as the area was still under Azeri control.
|June 17, 1992
||Boipatong, South Africa
45||45 African National Congress (ANC) supporters were killed by members of the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP).
|September 7, 1992
||Bisho, Ciskei/South Africa
29||28 African National Congress (ANC) supporters and one soldier were shot dead by the Ciskei Defence Force during a protest march.
|January 8, 1993
||Palatine, Illinois, USA
||Brown's Chicken massacre
7||Seven people were murdered at the Brown's Chicken and Pasta in Palatine
|July 2, 1993
33||33 Alevi intellectuals were killed when a mob of radical Islamists set fire to the hotel where the group had assembled.
|July 25, 1993
||Cape Town, South Africa
||St James Church massacre
11||11 People were killed during a church service by Azanian People's Liberation Army (APLA) armed with assault rifles and grenades.
|October 30, 1993
||Greysteel, Northern Ireland
8||Ulster Freedom Fighters (UFF) opened fire in a crowded bar using an AK-47 and automatic pistol. Eight civilians were killed and thirteen wounded.
16–73||Garimpeiros (illegal gold miners) killed Yanomami people.
||Cave of the Patriarchs massacre
(Ibrahimi Mosque massacre)
29||Baruch Goldstein opens fire with an assault rifle killing 29 Muslims and wounding 150 at prayer in the Ibrahimi Mosque before being subdued and beaten to death.
|1994 et seq.
||Algerian Village Massacres of the 1990s
>10,000||During the 1990s, many large-scale massacres of villagers in Algeria were perpetrated by groups attacking villages at night and cutting the throats of the inhabitants. The Armed Islamic Group (GIA) has avowed its responsibility for many of them. The massacres peaked in 1997 (with a smaller peak in 1994). There are allegations reported by the BBC that government infiltrators spurred the GIA to higher levels of violence in order to discredit them. According to a few reports former Algerian army officer, Habib Souaidia testified to his government's involvement of the massacres. The differing accounts are not yet reconciled.
|March 28, 1994
||Johannesburg, South Africa
||Shell House massacre
19||Security guards of the African National Congress (ANC) fired on 20,000 Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) marchers.
|June 18, 1994
||Loughinisland, Northern Ireland
6||Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) opened fire in a crowded bar using assault rifles, killing six civilians and wounding five.
|January 22, 1995
||Beit Lid massacre
22||First suicide attack by Palestinian Islamic Jihad, killing 22 and wounding 69. Carried out by two bombers; the second waited until emergency crews arrived to assist the wounded and dying before detonating his bomb.
||Bosnia and Herzegovina
8,000||Units of the Army of the Republika Srpska killed male Bosniaks
|March 13, 1996
17 ||A gunman opened fire in a primary school, killing sixteen children and one teacher before killing himself.
|April 29, 1996
||Port Arthur, Tasmania, Australia
||Port Arthur massacre
35||The Port Arthur massacre of 28 April 1996 was a killing spree which claimed the lives of 35 people and wounded 21 others mainly at the historic tourist site Port Arthur in south-eastern Tasmania, Australia. The massacre remains Australia's deadliest mass killing spree and remains one of the deadliest such incidents worldwide in recent times.
106||Israeli artillery struck the Unifil Headquarters in Qana which was providing shelter to approximately two hundred Lebanese civilians. The Israeli military said the strike was in error and that they were not targeting the U.N. shelter. 
|February 5, 1997
>9||After two days of protests during which the protesters had marched shouting "God is great" and "independence for Xinjiang" the demonstrations were crushed by the People's Liberation Army. Official reports put the death toll at 9 while dissident reports estimated the number killed at more than 100.
|December 22, 1997
45||Massacre carried out by paramilitary forces of 45 people attending a prayer meeting of indigenous townspeople, who were members of the pacifist group Las Abejas ("The Bees"), in the village of Acteal, municipality of Chenalh, in the Mexican state of Chiapas.
|April 20, 1999
||Littleton, Colorado, USA
||Columbine High School massacre
13||Two teenagers, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold open fire on their classmates on April 20, 1999 at Columbine High School, killing 12 students and one teacher before committing suicide.
|July 27, 2000
||West Bengal, India
11||Killing of 11 landless labourers allegedly by activists of Communist Party of India (Marxist), a political party in India, in Suchpur, near Nanoor and under Nanoor police station, in Birbhum district in the Indian state of West Bengal.
|March 27, 2002
30||Killing of 30 guests at the Park Hotel in Netanya, Israel, sitting down to the traditional Passover Seder meal. Another 143 were injured. Hamas claimed responsibility.
|February 28, 2002
||Gulbarg Society massacre
69||During the 2002 Gujarat riots, a mob attacked the Gulbarg Society, a lower middle-class Muslim neighbourhood in Chamanpura, Ahmedabad. Most of the houses were burnt, and at least 35 victims including a former Congress, Member of Parliament, Ehsan Jafri, were burnt alive, while 31 others went missing after the incident, later presumed dead, bringing the total of the dead to 69.
|September 1, 2004
||Beslan, Russian Federation
||Beslan School Massacre
334||Armed Chechen separatists took more than 1,200 people hostage at a school. 334 civilians were killed, including 186 school children, and hundreds wounded.
|May 13, 2005
300–500||Uzbek Interior Ministry and National Security Service troops fired into a crowd of protesters.
|March 25, 2006
||Seattle, Washington, USA
||Capitol Hill massacre
6||28-year-old Kyle Aaron Huff entered a rave afterparty in the southeast part of Seattle's Capitol Hill neighborhood and opened fire, killing six and wounding two, before committing suicide.
|April 16, 2007
||Blacksburg, Virginia, USA
||Virginia Tech Massacre
32||Gunman Seung-Hui Cho, killed 32 people and wounded many others before committing suicide. The massacre is the deadliest peacetime shooting incident by a single gunman in United States history, on or off a school campus.
|September 28, 2009
||28 September Massacre
157||Guinean uniformed security forces opened fire on a political rally trapped in the 28 September Stadium.
|November 5, 2009
||Ft. Hood, Texas, United States
||Fort Hood Massacre
(Fort Hood shooting)
13||Gunman Malik Nadal Hasan, a Major in the US Army, allegedly killed 12 soldiers and one civilian, and wounded at least 30 on the base at Ft. Hood. Initial reports indicate Hassan was upset at being deployed to Iraq.
|November 23, 2009
||Ampatuan, Maguindanao, Philippines
57||A group of 100 armed men, alleged to include police and private militia led by Andal Ampatuan, Jr., stopped a convoy of five cars transporting Genalyn Tiamzon-Mangudadatu, the wife of Esmael Mangudadatu, who is running for provincial governor in the 2010 Philippine elections. She was en-route to the town of Shariff Aguak to file a certificate of candidacy for her husband, accompanied by his sisters, other supporters, and members of the press. The attackers kidnapped and later killed all members of the Mangudadatu group; reports state that women in the group were raped before being killed. Five other people not part of the group, in a car behind the convoy, were also kidnapped and killed.
 See also
 Notes and references
- ^ a b Oxford English Dictionary Massacre, n.
- ^ a b Oxford English Dictionary Massacre, v.
- ^ Saint Paul in Britain Or, The Origin Of British As Opposed To Papal Christianity by Rev. R. W. Morgan
- ^ Pillar in the Wilderness by Benjamin John
- ^ John Julius Norwich (1989). Byzantium: The Early Centuries. New York: Knopf. pp. 112. ISBN [[Special:BookSources/0394537785, OCLC 18164817|0394537785, OCLC 18164817]]. , "–and 7,000 were dead by morning..." (Page 139)
- ^ Edward Gibbon, D. M. Low (1960). The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. New York: Harcourt Brace. pp. ch. 27 2:56. OCLC 402038.
- ^ Ann Williams (2003). thelred the Unready: The Ill-Counselled King. London: Hambledon and London. pp. 54. ISBN [[Special:BookSources/1-85258-382-4, OCLC 51780838|1-85258-382-4, OCLC 51780838]]. "It is usually assumed that this story relates to the St Brice's Day massacre –" (Page 55)
- ^ Simon Hall (1998). The Hutchinson Illustrated Encyclopedia of British History. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. pp. 297. ISBN 1-57958-107-2. "1002 St Brice's Day massacre; Danes in England were killed on order of King Ethelred." (Page 340)
- ^ Staff. Saint Brices Day massacre, Encyclopdia Britannica, Accessed 26 December 2007
- ^ Lucien Gubbay (1999). Sunlight and Shadow: The Jewish Experience of Islam. New York: Other Press. pp. 80. ISBN 1-892746-69-7. " It should be noted though that the Granada massacre of 1066 was the first instance of persecution of Jews in Muslim Spain, which had enjoyed an almost unblemished record of tolerance for the preceding 350 years." (Page 80)
- ^ Norman Roth (1994). Jews, Visigoths, and Muslims in Medieval Spain: Cooperation and Conflict. Netherlands: E. J. Brill. pp. 110. ISBN 90-04-09971-9. " Assuming that he was at least ten years old, however, it is again surprising that no more personal recollection of the Granada massacre is found in his writing–" (Page 110)
- ^ [[Richard Gottheil |Gottheil, Richard]]; [[Meyer Kayserling |Kayserling, Meyer]]. Granada. G (1906 ed.). Jewish Encyclopedia. http://jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=412&letter=G&search=Granada. "More than 1,500 Jewish families, numbering 4,000 persons, fell in one day, áebet 9 (= Dec. 30), 1066."
- ^ Daud, Abraham Ibd (2007). "On Samuel Ha-Nagid, Vizier of Granada, 993-d after 1056". Medieval Sourcebook. Paul Halsall. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/ha-nagid.html. Retrieved 2009-03-11. He was proud to his own hurt, and the Berber princes were jealous of him, with the result that on the Sabbath, on the 9th of Tebet in the year 4827 [Saturday, December 30, 1066], he and the Community of Granada were murdered.
- ^ The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Middle Ages: 950-1250. Cambridge University Press. 1986. pp. 507–508. ISBN 0521266451.
- ^ Lane A. Beck (1995). Regional Approaches to Mortuary Analysis. New York: Plenum Press. pp. 231. ISBN 0-306-44931-5.
- ^ Michal Strutin (1999). A Guide to Contemporary Plains Indians. Tucson, Arizona: Southwest Parks and Monuments Association. pp. 37. ISBN 1-877856-80-0.
- ^ a b Staff. The Crow Creek Massacre www.nebraskastudies.org
- ^ Staff, Crow Creek Massacre, University of South Dakota
- ^ Lauritz Weibull. "Nordisk historia. Forskningar och underskningar. Del III. Frn Erik den helige till Karl XII", Stockholm 1949, p. 160–163
- ^ Gonz¡lez, Justo K., The Story of Christianity: Volume Two – The Reformation to the Present Day, HarperCollins Publishers, 1984, p. 92, ISBN 0-06-063316-6
- ^ Gjerset, Knut, History of the Norwegian People, Volume 2 MacMillan Co., 1915, pp. 111–114, ISBN 978-0404028183
- ^ Riis, Jacob A., Hero Tales of the Far North, Project Gutenberg, 2004
- ^ Change and Development in the Middle East: essays in honour of W.B. Fisher, John Innes Clarke, Howard Bowen-Jones, 1981, p.290
- ^ The Heritage of Armenian Literature, A. J. (Agop Jack) Hacikyan, Nourhan Ouzounian, Gabriel Basmajian, Edward S. Franchuk, 2000, p.777
- ^ "Turkey" by Edward Shepherd Creasy, Page 195
- ^ Eric Solsten, ed. Cyprus: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1991.
- ^ Alastair Armstrong (2003). France, 1500–1715. London: Heinemann Education Publishers. pp. 65. ISBN 0435327518.
- ^ Reinhard Bendix (1978). Kings Or People: Power and the Mandate to Rule. Tucson, Arizona: University of California Press. pp. 324. ISBN 0-520-04090-2.
- ^ a b Staff. Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre, Columbia Encyclopedia, Questia Online Library
- ^ Staff, Massacre of Saint Bartholomews Day (French history), Encyclopdia Britannica, Accessed 23 December 2007
- ^ Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre, CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA
- ^ Janell Broyles, A Timeline of the Jamestown Colony, p. 22, The Rosen Publishing Group, 2004
- ^ Alfred Abioseh Jarrett, The Impact of Macro Social Systems on Ethnic Minorities in the United States, Page 29, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2000
- ^ Bolton history
- ^ Lonely Planet
- ^ John Tincey, Marston Moor 1644: The Beginning Of The End: Osprey Publishing (March 11, 2003) ISBN 1841763349 p 33 "the `massacre at Bolton' became a staple of Parliamentarian propaganda"
- ^ Oxford English Dictionary Cites "a1715 BP. G. BURNET Hist. Own Time (1734) II. 156 The Massacre in Glencoe, made still a great noise." and "1957 –H. MACDIARMID– Battle Continues 1 Franco has made no more horrible shambles Than this poem of Campbell's, The foulest outrage his breed has to show Since the massacre of Glencoe!"
- ^ a b Glencoe, engraved by W. Miller after J.M.W. Turner, Edinburgh University library
- ^ a b St. George's Field Riot
- ^ Zobel, The Boston Massacre, W.W.Norton and Co.(1970), 199–200.
- ^ Boston Massacre – Britannica Online Encyclopedia
- ^ Boston Massacre
- ^ Kenn Harper A Day in Arctic History: July 17, 1771 – Slaughter at Bloody Falls, Nunatsiaq News, 29 July 2005
- ^ Robin McGrath. Samuel Hearne And The Inuit Oral Tradition, University of New Brunswick, libraries Accessed 23 December 2007
- ^ Staff, Samuel Hearne and David Thompson, trekking in the footsteps, HighBeam Research, (From: Manitoba History Society| Date: 6/1/2005| Author: Binning, Alexander)
- ^ Bloody Falls, The Canadian Encyclopedia
- ^ a b Wright, Kevin W.. "OVERKILL: Revolutionary War Reminiscences of River Vale". Bergen County Historical Society. http://www.bergencountyhistory.org/Pages/baylormassacre.html. Retrieved 2008-10-31.
- ^ Buford's Massacre
- ^ http://www.rsar.org/military/sherm055.pdf
- ^ a b "Gnadenhutten Massacre". Ohio History Central. http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=499. Retrieved June 5, 2009.
- ^ Gnadenhutten Massacre (United States history) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia
- ^ Historywiz.com
- ^ David Andress, The Terror: The Merciless War for Freedom in Revolutionary France, Chapter 4, Macmillan, 2006
- ^ Dwyer, Phillip and McPhee, Peter (2002). The French Revolution and Napoleon: A Sourcebook. Routledge. pp. 66. ISBN 978-0415199070.
- ^ a b c d "New plaque for massacre memorial", BBC, 17 August 2007. Retrieved 19 February 2008.
- ^ McCarthy, Justin (1996). Death and Exile: The Ethnic Cleansing of Ottoman Muslims, 1821–1922. Darwin Press, Incorporated. ISBN 0878500944. http://books.google.com/books?id=MDoFR3UJOSgC
- ^ a b National Centre for History Education (Australia)
- ^ "Frontier Conflict: The Australian Experience", Bruce Elder, Sydney Morning Herald, March 29, 2003
- ^ "Myall Creek Massacre", Parliament of New South Wales Hansard, June 8, 2000
- ^ FAQ "What was the Haun's Mill Massacre?" – Brigham Young University website (abstracted from "Haun's Mill Massacre," in Encyclopedia of Mormonism, ed. Daniel H. Ludlow, New York: Macmillan, 1992)
- ^ Historical Record, Jenson, Vol. 7 & 8, p 671.
- ^ History of the Church, Vol. III, pp 182–186.
- ^ Gardner, P.D. (2001), Gippsland massacres: the destruction of the Kurnai tribes, 1800-1860, Ngarak Press, Essay, Victoria ISBN 1-875254-31-5
- ^ a b Gippsland Settlers and the Kurnai Dead - Patrick Morgan – Quadrant Magazine
- ^ Afghan and Northwest Border Wars 1834 to 1897
- ^ Summary: the First Anglo-Afghan War, 1838–42
- ^ Massacre of Elphinstone's army
- ^ a b Staff. Snake River Massacre Account by One of the Survivors, Oregon Historical Society, 2002.
- ^ Shannon, Donald H. (2004). The Boise Massacre. pp 73–102. Caldwell, ID: Snake Country Publishing. ISBN 0-9635828-1-X
- ^ Carleton, James Henry (1902). (Special Report on the Mountain Meadows Massacre. Washington: Government Printing Office. pp. 126. http://books.google.com/?id=MBYiwjNst6EC.
- ^ Thompson, Jacob (1860). Message of the President of the United States: communicating, in compliance with a resolution of the Senate, information in relation to the massacre at Mountain Meadows, and other massacres in Utah Territory, 36th Congress, 1st Session, Exec. Doc. No. 42. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of the Interior. http://www.archive.org/details/messageofpreside00unitrich. .
- ^ Bagley, Will (2002). Blood of the Prophets: Brigham Young and the Massacre at Mountain Meadows. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-3426-7. .
- ^ Roger A. Hall. Performing the American Frontier, 1870–1906, Published by Cambridge University Press, 2001, ISBN 0521793203. p 93
- ^ Bancroft, Hubert Howe; Bates, Alfred (1889). The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft: History of Utah, 1540–1886. San Francisco: History Company. pp. 868. LCC F826.B2 1889, LCCN 07018413. http://books.google.com/?id=2OwNAAAAIAAJ. (Chapter XX. pp 562–563) (Internet Archive versions).
- ^ a b Unruh, John D (1993). The Plains Across the Overland Emigrants and Trans-Mississippi West 1840–1860. University of Illinois Press. pp. 195. ISBN 978-0252063602.
- ^ Shannon, Donald H. (2004). The Boise Massacre. pp 177–196. Caldwell, ID: Snake Country Publishing. ISBN 0-9635828-1-X
- ^ Shannon, Donald H. (2004). The Boise Massacre. pp 197–222. Caldwell, ID: Snake Country Publishing. ISBN 0-9635828-1-X
- ^ Unruh, John D (1993). The Plains Across the Overland Emigrants and Trans-Mississippi West 1840–1860. University of Illinois Press. pp. 149–150. ISBN 978-0252063602.
- ^ Shannon, Donald H. (2004). The Utter Distaster. Caldwell, ID: Snake Country Publishing. ISBN 0-9635828-2-8
- ^ Paludan, Philip S. 1981. Victims: A True Story of the Civil War. Knoxville, TN: The University of Tennessee Press. 144 p.
- ^ Brigham D. Madsen (with forward by Charles S. Peterson), The Shoshoni Frontier and the Bear River Massacre, University of Utah Press (1985-hardcover 1995-paperback), trade paperback, 286 pages, pp. 190–192, ISBN 0-87480-494-9
- ^ Pages 183 to 194, The Shoshoni Frontier and the Bear River Massacre, by Brigham D. Madsen, forward by Charles S. Peterson, University of Utah Press (1985-hardcover 1995-paperback), trade paperback, 286 pages, ISBN 0-87480-494-9
- ^ William Quantrill and the Lawrence Massacre
- ^ Lawrence (Kansas, United States)
- ^ The Bloodiest Man In American History
- ^ Erastus D. Ladd's Description of the Lawrence Massacre, by Russell E. Bidlack, Summer 1963
- ^ Chapter 14: American Military History, Volume I
- ^ "Inquiry into the Sand Creek Massacre, November, 1864." The Wynkoop Family Research Library. Rootsweb.com: Freepages. Retrieved on 2008-02-19.
- ^ Hoig, Stan. (1977). The Sand Creek Massacre. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-1147-6
- ^ ABC-CLIO Schools | Washita Massacre
- ^ Andrist, Ralph K., The Long Death: The Last Days of the Plains Indians, University of Oklahoma Press, 2001, 371 pages, pp 157–162, ISBN 978-0806133089
- ^ Brown, Dee, Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee, Henry Holt and Co., 2007, 487 pages, pp 167–169, ISBN 978-0-8050-8684-3
- ^ Churchill, Ward, A Little Matter of Genocide: Holocaust and Denial in the Americas, 1492 to the Present, City Lights, 1997, 381 pages, p 236, ISBN 978-0-87286-323-1
- ^ Colorado Humanities | Sand Creek Memorial and Washita Sites
- ^ ExploreSouthernHistory.com - Washita Battlefield, Oklahoma
- ^ Giago, Tim - Honoring Those Who Died at Washita
- ^ Native American Netroots | The 140th Anniversary of the Washita Massacre of Nov. 27, 1868
- ^ PBS - THE WEST - Washita
- ^ The Saint Francis Herald, "Cherry Creek Massacre recognized in magazine", St. Francis, KS, November 17, 2005
- ^ Zeman, Scott C., Chronology of the American West from 23,000 B.C.E. through the Twentieth Century, ABC-CLIO, 2002, 381 pages, p 155, ISBN 978-1-57607-207-3
- ^ Greenway, Paul. (2002). Bulgaria: Centuries of History Ripe for Discovery. P141. Lonely Planet. ISBN 1864501480
- ^ Bousfield, Jonathan. (2002). The Rough Guide to Bulgaria. P352. Rough Guides. ISBN 1858288827
- ^ Crampton, R.J. (2007). Bulgaria. P92. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198205147
- ^ 1911 Encyclopdia Britannica: Bulgaria, History
- ^ John Chaput (2007). "Frog Lake Massacre". The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. University of Regina and Canadian Plains Research Center. http://esask.uregina.ca/entry/frog_lake_massacre.html. Retrieved 8 June 2010.
- ^ W. B. Cameron, "Massacre at Frog Lake", University of Alberta Libraries, response by W. B. Cameron to "Massacre at Frog Lake", Edmonton Journal, 4 Apr 1939, accessed 2 Aug 2009
- ^ Camp Pilot Butte, National Register of Historic Places.
- ^ Larson, History of Wyoming, pp. 141–44.
- ^ Daniels, Asian America, pp. 61–63.
- ^ Ostler, Jeffrey, Conquest and the State, 65 Pacific Hist. Rev. 217, 248 n.52 (1996)(collecting estimates)
- ^ National Historic Landmarks Program: Wounded Knee National Park Service. Retrieved on 19 February 2008.
- ^ The Wounded Knee Massacre
- ^ a b Charny, Israel W. (1999). Encyclopedia of genocide (illustrated ed.). ABC-CLIO. pp. 287. ISBN 0874369282, 9780874369281. "also known as the Hamidian Massacres, after the sultan", distinguishing the current name from what the events were previously known as: the Armenian Massacres.
- ^ Cohan, Sara (October 2005). "A Brief History of the Armenian Genocide". Social Education (National Science Teachers Association, 1840 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, VA 22201-3000) v69 (n6): 333. ISSN 0037-7724. "They are now known as the Hamidian Massacres"
- ^ Totten, Samuel; Paul Robert Bartrop, Steven L. Jacobs (2008). Dictionary of genocide. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 23. ISBN 0313346429, 9780313346422. "they are now often called the Hamidian massacres to distinguish them from the greater attrocities associated with the 1915 Armenian Genocide"
- ^ Western Cape Institute for Historical Research (1993-01-01). "Kronos". Kronos (University of the Western Cape) Issues 20–22: 57–60. http://books.google.com/?id=WR5zAAAAMAAJ.
- ^ Mark Twain, Weapons of Satire, pp. 168–178, Syracuse University Press, Syracuse, NY 1992
- ^ American Troops Killing Muslims: A Massacre to Remember, by Christine Gibson, AmericanHeritage.com, March 8, 2006
- ^ Byler, Charles A. Pacifying the Moros; Military Review, May–June, 2005
- ^ Creelman, James (August 22, 1909). "The Slaughter of Christians In Asia Minor". The New York Times. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F00812FF3F5A15738DDDAB0A94D0405B898CF1D3.
- ^ Akcam, Taner. A Shameful Act. 2006, page 69–70: "fifteen to twenty thousand Armenians were killed"
- ^ "30,000 Killed in Massacres". The New York Times. April 25, 1909. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F50C10F93C5A15738DDDAC0A94DC405B898CF1D3.
- ^ Century of Genocide: Eyewitness Accounts and Critical Views By Samuel. Totten, William S. Parsons, Israel W. Charny
- ^ Walker, 1980, pp.182–88
- ^ American Experience | The Rockefellers | Special Features | The Ludlow Massacre (PBS)
- ^ The Ludlow Massacre | United Mine Workers of America
- ^ Zinn, H. "The Ludlow Massacre", Excerpt from A People's History of the United States. pgs 346–349.
- ^ a b Staff. Radio 4: This Sceptred Isle: Empire: Amritsar, Episode 83 – 07/06/06, BBC,
- ^ a b Massacre-of-Amritsar, Encyclopdia Britannica, Accessed 15 February 2008
- ^ a b T. Ryle Dwyer, The Squad and the intelligence operations of Michael Collins, Dublin, 2005
- ^ David Leeson, "Death in the Afternoon: The Croke Park Massacre, 21 November 1920," Canadian Journal of History, vol. 38, no. 1 (April 2003)
- ^ Florida Department of State, State Library & Archives of Florida, Rosewood Bibliography http://dlis.dos.state.fl.us/fgils/rosewood_bib.html
- ^ Federal Bureau of Investigation – Freedom of Information Privacy Act
- ^ Al Capone: Chicago's Most Infamous Mob Boss – The Crime library
- ^ a b Schoenberg, Shira, "The Hebron Massacre of 1929", Jewish Virtual Library, Retrieved March 3, 2010
- ^ "Safed Victims Put at 70 Killed and Wounded", New York Times, September 1, 1929
- ^ Safed Massacre of 1929
- ^ a b Habib, Irfan (September – October 1997). "Civil Disobedience 1930–31". Social Scientist (Social Scientist) 25 (9–10): 43–66. doi:10.2307/3517680. http://jstor.org/stable/3517680. Retrieved 2007-12-03.
- ^ a b Johansen, Robert C. (1997). "Radical Islam and Nonviolence: A Case Study of Religious Empowerment and Constraint Among Pashtuns". Journal of Peace Research 34 (1): 53–71. doi:10.1177/0022343397034001005.
- ^ a b 19 Were killed including 2 policemen caught in the cross-fire The Washington Post. Tuesday, December 28, 1999; Page A03. Apology Isn't Enough for Puerto Rico Spy Victims Retrieved July 8, 2009.
- ^ Biggest Massacre in Puerto Rican History Retrieved July 14, 2009.
- ^ Honda Katsuichi, The Nanjing Massacre, M.E. Sharp 1998
- ^ Fordham University webpage: Modern History Sourcebook
- ^ Matthew White Nanking Massacre, Accessed December 17, 2007. Cites eight sources directly and another ten indirectly. Lowest estimate Spence, The Search for Modern China: 42,000. Highest estimate Iris Chang, The Rape of Nanking (1997), citing James Yin & Shi Young: 400,000
- ^ Justin Harmon Student-Run Conference to Examine Nanking Massacre, Princeton University, November 12, 1997
- ^ John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr. In Denial: Historians, Communism, and Espionage. Encounter Books, 2003. ISBN 1-893554-72-4 p. 22
- ^ Aleksandr Shelepin's March 3, 1959 note to Khrushchev, with information about the execution of 21,857 Poles and with the proposal to destroy their personal files. Online
- ^ Beria's March 1940 proposal to shoot 25,700 Poles from Kozelsk, Ostashkov, and Starobels camps, and from certain prisons of Western Ukraine and Belarus bearing Stalin's signature (among others). proposal online
- ^ Fischer, Benjamin B., "The Katyn Controversy: Stalin's Killing Field", Studies in Intelligence, Winter 1999–2000
- ^ Staff, Katyn Massacre, Encyclopdia Britannica, Accessed 23 December 2007
- ^ a b Robert Gellately. Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe. Knopf, 2007 ISBN 1400040051 p. 391
- ^ (English) Richard Rhodes (2002). Masters of Death: The SS-Einsatzgruppen and the Invention of the Holocaust. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-375-40900-9.
- ^ a b Staff. The Holocaust Chronicle: Massacre at Babi Yar, The Holocaust Chronicle web site, Access 17 December 2007
- ^ Victoria Khiterer (2004). "Babi Yar: The tragedy of Kiev's Jews" (PDF). Brandeis Graduate Journal 2: 1–16. http://www.brandeis.edu/gsa/gradjournal/2004/khiterer2004.pdf. Retrieved 2008-01-20.
- ^ "A survivor of the Babi Yar massacre". Heritage: Civilization and the Jews. Public Broadcasting System (PBS). http://www.pbs.org/wnet/heritage/episode8/documents/documents_13.html. Retrieved 2008-01-20.
- ^ Wolfram Wette (2006). The Wehrmacht: History, Myth, Reality. Harvard University Press. p. 112. "The massacre at Babi Yar, near Kiev, which claimed the lives of more than thirty thousand Jewish victims on September 29 and 30, 1941, was the largest single mass killing for which the German army was responsible during its campaign against the Soviet Union."
- ^ Jill Dougherty and Jim Bittermann (2001-06-25). "Pope visits Jewish massacre site". CNN. http://edition.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/europe/06/25/pope.babiyar/index.html. Retrieved 2008-01-20.
- ^ a b Saff Fall of Ambon: Massacred at Laha, Australia's War 1939-145 An Australian government website.
- ^ Peter Stanley The defence of the 'Malay barrier': Rabaul and Ambon, January 1942 principal historian to Australian War Memorial
- ^ Times dispatch (March 28, 1953). Mau Mau Massacres 150 Natives In Night Raid Near Kenya Capital. New York Times. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F30614F9345E177B93CAAB1788D85F478585F9.
- ^ Stephen Corradini (1999). Chief Luka and the Lari Massacre: Contrary Notions of Kikuyu Land Tenure and the Mau Mau War. University of Wisconsin-Madison. pp. 154. ISBN 0942615492. http://books.google.com/?id=7eIUAAAACAAJ.
- ^ a b Katerina Zachovalova. War Crime To War Game, Time, September 17
- ^ David Vaughan. The Lidice massacre – atrocity and courage website of Czech Radio, 11 June 2002
- ^ Lidice memorial
- ^ Matthew J. Gibney, Randall Hansen, Immigration and Asylum, page 204
- ^ Timothy Snyder. (2003)The Causes of Ukrainian-Polish Ethnic Cleansing 1943, The Past and Present Society: Oxford University Press. pg. 220
- ^ Tadeusz Piotrowski, Poland's holocaust. Published by McFarland. Page 247
- ^ a b Staff, Italy convicts Nazis of massacre BBC, 13 January 2007
- ^ Richard Owen. Ten convicted for 1944 massacre, The Times, 15 January 2007
- ^ a b Oradour Info – Oradour-sur-Glane 10th June 1944
- ^ The Oradour-sur-Glane Massacre
- ^ The Second World War – The massacre at Oradour-sur-Glane
- ^ – Robin Mackness's book, 'Oradour Massacre and Aftermath'
- ^ Amazon – Massacre at Oradour – by Robin Mackness – ISBN 978-0394570020
- ^ Oxford Journals – Massacre at Oradour, France, 1944 by Stephanie Hare-Cuming
- ^ Martyred Village: Commemorating the 1944 Massacre at Oradour-sur-Glane. Sarah Farmer, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999. xvii + 300 pp. ISBN 978-0-520-21186-5.
- ^ The Malmedy Massacre Revisited – Henri Rogister, Joseph Dejardin et Emile Jamar – Website du C.R.I.B.A. (Centre de Recherches et d'Informations sur la Bataille des Ardennes) 
- ^ Goldstein, Donald M.; J. Michael Wenger, Katherine V. Dillon (1997). Nuts! the Battle of the Bulge (illustrated ed.). Brassey's. pp. 91. ISBN 1574882791, 9781574882797.
- ^ *A 1961 Massacre of Algerians in Paris When the Media Failed the Test James J. Napoli
- ^ Yves Courrire, La guerre d'Algrie, tome 1 (Les fils de la Toussaint), Fayard, Paris 1969, ISBN 2213611181
- ^ * Jean Louis Planche, Stif 1945, histoire d'un massacre annonc, Perrin, Paris 2006
- ^ Ialanders still mourn April 3 massacre Jeju weekly
- ^ a b Ghosts Of Cheju Newsweek
- ^ http://www.deiryassin.org/mas.html#item2
- ^ # B. Morris, The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited, Cambridge University Press, 2004. pp481,487,501,502.
- ^ An article (no title given) by R. Barkan from the Mapam newspaper Al Hamishmar, quoting a letter from eyewitness Dov Yirmiya and the Jewish Agency's response, translated in the Journal of Palestine Studies, vol. VII, no. 4 (summer 1978), no. 28, pp. 143-145.
- ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/8023945.stm Malay massacre evidence to be reviewed by the UK government
- ^ BBC Malaysia Correspondent's account
- ^ Only one reference names this as "the Batang Massacre" rather than just a massacre at Batang
- ^ "ÊÌÍÌ ÌšÌ-Ê ÍÊ Ê". ÊÌ. 2009-02-16. http://www.idomin.com/news/articleView.html?idxno=279392. Retrieved 2010-07-08. (Korean)
- ^ " ÊÌ ÍÌ ÌÊ, Ì ÍÊ Ì Ì?'ÌšÌÌ' - 'ÊÍÌÌÊ' ÍÊ ÊÌÍ ...". OhmyNews. 2009-02-17. http://www.ohmynews.com/NWS_Web/view/at_pg.aspx?CNTN_CD=A0001070694. Retrieved 2010-07-08. (Korean)
- ^ a b South Korea owns up to brutal past Sydney Morning Herald
- ^ a b "More than 600,000, less than 1,200,000! ÌÌ 60, Ì 120!". The Hankyoreh Plus. http://h21.hani.co.kr/section-021003000/2001/06/021003000200106200364040.html. (Korean)
- ^ U.S. Policy Was to Shoot Korean Refugees Associated Press
- ^ a b Soldiers scale Hill 303 in honor of fallen comrades 8th United States Army
- ^ "ÊÍÊ ÍÌ–1 'ÌšÌÌÊ Ì 212 ÌÌ' ÊÌÍÌ ÌÌ¡ ÌÌž ÌÌ¡–". Kyeongin Ilbo. 2006-02-28. http://www.kyeongin.com/news/articleView.html?idxno=229411#. Retrieved 2010-07-12. (Korean)
- ^ "ÊÍÌÌ ÊÌ ÍÌ ÍÌÌž ÊÌÌ ÌÌ". Incheon Ilbo. 2009-10-20. http://incheon.kdlp.org/home2007/bbs/board.php?bo_table=c01_01&wr_id=2084&page=4. Retrieved 2010-07-12. (Korean)
- ^ a b "–ÌÌ–ÍÌ ÌÍÌ– Ì ÍŽ ÊÍÊ ÊÌ". Newstoday21. 2008-11-07. http://newstoday21.co.kr/bbs/board.php?board=sub0501&page=2&command=body&no=141&PHPSESSID=5270f35da0cb0753ab185bafe835f5da. Retrieved 2010-07-11. (Korean)
- ^ a b ""ÍŽÍž ÌÍÌÌ!'..ÊÌÌÊ ÍÌÌž ÌÌ". Chosun Ilbo. 2009-04-17. http://www.chosun.com/site/data/html_dir/2009/04/17/2009041701135.html. Retrieved 2010-07-11. (Korean)
- ^ "South Africa: The Sharpeville Massacre". Time. 1960-04-04. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,869441-2,00.html. Retrieved 2010-05-08.
- ^ The Sharpeville Massacre – A watershed in South Africa
- ^ Alessandra Stanley, Russian General Campaigns On Old-Time Soviet Values The New York Times, 13 October 1995
- ^ Alexander Nikolaevich Yakovlev. A Century of Violence in Soviet Russia. Yale University Press, 2002. ISBN 0300087608 p. 228
- ^ Alexander Nikolaevich Yakovlev. A Century of Violence in Soviet Russia. Yale University Press, 2002. ISBN 0300087608 p. 226
- ^ http://www.hawaii.edu/powerkills/SOD.TAB15.1F.GIF Line 3335
- ^ "Regions and territories: Zanzibar". BBC News. 2010-05-08. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/country_profiles/3850393.stm. Retrieved 2010-05-11.
- ^ http://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1301&dat=19640120&id=uwdFAAAAIBAJ&sjid=U-YDAAAAIBAJ&pg=6570,5229312
- ^ Race and class in the politics of Zanzibar, Abdul Sheriff (2001), Afrika Spectrum 36 (3): 301-318
- ^ "AIDS and Religious Practice in Africa", Felicitas Becker, Wenzel Geissler, p. 123, Volume 36 of Studies on religion in Africa
- ^ a b Staff. Murder in the name of war – My Lai, BBC, July 20, 1998
- ^ "The My Lai Massacre", PBS Online, March 29, 2005
- ^ Former Mexican president sheds light on 1968 massacre, CNN, 4 February 1998
- ^ a b Mexican Court Issues Warrant for Former President
- ^ Mexico Digs at Last for Truth About 1968 Massacre
- ^ a b John Lang (2000-05-04). "The day the Vietnam War came home". Scripps Howard News service. http://archive.southcoasttoday.com/daily/04-00/04-30-00/a09wn031.htm. Retrieved 2007-11-09.
- ^ "These would be the first of many probes into what soon became known as the Kent State Massacre. Like the Boston Massacre almost exactly two hundred years before (March 5, 1770), which it resembled, it was called a massacre not for the number of its victims but for the wanton manner in which they were shot down." Philip Caputo (2005-05-04). "The Kent State Shootings, 35 Years Later". NPR. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4630596. Retrieved 2007-11-09.
- ^ Rep. Tim Ryan (2007-05-04). "Congressman Tim Ryan Gives Speech at 37th Commemoration of Kent State Massacre". Congressional website of Rep. Tim Ryan (D-Ohio). http://timryan.house.gov/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=160&Itemid=48. Retrieved 2007-11-09.
- ^ McCann, Eamonn (2006). The Bloody Sunday Inquiry – The Families Speak Out. London: Pluto Press. pp. 4–6. ISBN 0-7453-2510-6.
- ^ Walker, Christopher; Barkham, Patrick (October 17, 2002). "Killing of 14 was not justified, says Bloody Sunday soldier". The Times (London). http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article1171893.ece. Retrieved July 22, 2009.
- ^ Feemster, Ron (March 7, 2002). "Fitting Bloody Sunday Into the Present". The New York Times: p. 1. http://www.nytimes.com/2002/03/07/technology/fitting-bloody-sunday-into-the-present.html?pagewanted=1. Retrieved July 22, 2009.
- ^ "Bloody Sunday killings 'unjustified and unjustifiable'", BBC News, June 15, 2010, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/northern_ireland/10320609.stm, retrieved June 15, 2010
- ^ a b "In what became known as the Lod Airport Massacre three members of the terrorist group, Japanese Red Army, arrived at the airport aboard an Air France flight from Paris. Once inside the airport they grabbed automatic firearms from their carry-on cases and fired at airport staff and visitors. In the end, 26 people died and 80 people were injured." CBC News, The Fifth Estate, "Fasten Your Seatbelts: Ben Gurion Airport in Israel", 2007. Accessed June 2, 2008.
- ^ "The short-term impact of the Lod Airport massacre as a precursor to Munich..." Stephen Sloan, John C. Bersia, J. B. Hill. Terrorism: The Present Threat in Context, Berg Publisher, 2006, p. 50. ISBN 1845203445
- ^ "Two years later, just before the Lod Airport massacre, authorities uncovered the bodies of 14 young men and women on remote Mount Haruna, 70 miles northwest of Tokyo." "Again the Red Army", TIME, August 18, 1975.
- ^ "Those named by Lebanese officials as having been arrested included at least three Red Army members who have been wanted for years by Japanese authorities, most notably Kozo Okamoto, 49, the only member of the attacking group who survived the Lod Airport massacre." "Lebanon Seizes Japanese Radicals Sought in Terror Attacks", The New York Times, February 19, 1997.
- ^ "They were responsible for the Lod Airport massacre in Israel in 1972, which was committed on behalf of the PFLP." Jeffrey D. Simon, The Terrorist Trap: America's Experience with Terrorism, Indiana University Press, p. 324. ISBN 0253214777
- ^ CBS News (2002-09-05). "Munich Massacre Remembered". http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2002/09/05/world/main520865.shtml. .
- ^ Wolff, Alexander (2002-02-09). "When The Terror Began". Time Magazine (Sep. 2, 2002). http://www.time.com/time/europe/magazine/2002/0902/munich/index.html. Retrieved 2010-05-08. .
- ^ Sources describing the event as a "massacre":
- "The day after the Ma'alot massacre, condemned by Pope Paul VI and most Western leaders as "an evil outrage," ..." Frank Gervasi. Thunder Over the Mediterranean, McKay, 1975, p. 443.
- "The previous day Israel had been traumatized by the Ma'alot massacre, which had resulted in the deaths of numerous schoolchildren." William B. Quandt. Peace Process: American Diplomacy and the Arab-Israeli Conflict Since 1967, Brookings Institution Press, 2001, p. 432.
- "Faced with a public outcry over the Ma'alot massacre, they demanded of Syria a pledge to forbid terrorist to cross the Golan into Israel." Milton Viorst. Sands of Sorrow: Israel's Journey from Independence, I.B.Tauris, 1987, p. 192.
- "...Organization (PLO) crimes, like the massacre of Israeli athletes at the Munich Olympic Games in 1972 and the Ma'alot massacre of children in 1974." Richard J. Chasdi. Tapestry of Terror: A Portrait of Middle East Terrorism, 1994–1999, Lexington Books, 2002, p. 6.
- "The PFLP was responsible for the Ma'alot massacre on May IS, 1974 during which 22 Israeli children were killed." Alex Peter Schmid, A. J. Jongman, Michael Stohl. Political Terrorism: A New Guide to Actors, Authors, Concepts, Data Bases, Theories, & Literature, Transaction Publishers, 2005, p. 639.
- "On 22 November 1974, six months after the Ma'alot massacre, the United Nations General Assembly voted to accept the Palestine Liberation Organisation as an..." Martin Gilbert. The Jews in the Twentieth Century: An Illustrated History, Schocken Books, 2001, p. 327.
- ^ a b c Khoury, Jack. "U.S. filmmakers plan documentary on Ma'alot massacre", Haaretz, March 07, 2007.
- ^ Donna Carton (11 December 2005). "Miami Showband massacre files to stay under wraps". Sunday Mirror. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4161/is_20051211/ai_n15919127. Retrieved 2008-02-05.
- ^ "Miami Showband massacre remembered". BreakingNews.ie. 30 July 2005. http://archives.tcm.ie/breakingnews/2005/07/30/story214127.asp. Retrieved 2008-02-05.
- ^ "Miami Showband Memorial Unveiled". 4NI.co.uk. 10 December 2007. http://www.4ni.co.uk/northern_ireland_news.asp?id=69567. Retrieved 2008-02-05.
- ^ "Ahern unveils Miami Showband memorial". The Irish Times. 10 December 2007. http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/breaking/2007/1210/breaking46.html. Retrieved 2008-02-05.
- ^ Dillon, Martin (1991). The Dirty War. Arrow Books. pp. 174. ISBN 978-0099845201.
- ^ a b Staff. 1976: Ten dead in Northern Ireland ambush, BBC, On this days series (5 January) (Accessed 23 December 2007)
- ^ Sam Knight and agencies, Ulster lukewarm about unsolved murders probe, The Times, 20 January 2006
- ^ a b Staff. (Accessed 17 May 2009)
- ^ Friedman, New York Times, Sep 20, 21, 26, 27, 1982
- ^ a b "Among the most notorious attacks was the coastal road massacre in Israel in March 1978. The attack left 35 civilians dead and 80 wounded." Ben Gad, Yitschak. Politics, Lies, and Videotape, Shapolsky Publishers, 1991, ISBN 1561710156, p. 94.
- ^ "1978, March 11. The Coastal Road Massacre" Richard Ernest Dupuy, Trevor Nevitt Dupuy. The Encyclopedia of Military History from 3500 B.C. to the Present, Harper & Row, 1986, ISBN 0061812358, p. 1362.
- ^ "Operation Litani is launched in retaliation for that month's Coastal Road massacre." Gregory S. Mahler. Politics and Government in Israel: The Maturation of a Modern State, Rowman & Littlefield, 2004, ISBN 0742516113, p. 259.
- ^ "So did the Coastal Road massacre of 1978, in which a POLO hijacking of an intercity bus ended with the deaths of thirty-five Israeli hostages." Binyamin Netanyahu. A Durable Peace: Israel and Its Place Among the Nations, Warner Books, 2000, ISBN 0446523062, p. 218.
- ^ El Salvador death squads
- ^ The New York Times > International > Americas > O.A.S. to Reopen Inquiry Into Massacre in El Salvador in 1981
- ^ Yemeni father's school slaughter, The Independent (March 31, 1997)
- ^ Friedman, Thomas L., From Beirut to Jerusalem, (Macmillan, 1991), 76–105.
- ^ Robert Fisk Another war on terror. Another proxy army. Another mysterious massacre. And now, after 19 years, perhaps the truth at last..., The Independent 28 November 2001
- ^ Cilina Nasser. Sharon role in massacre remembered, Al Jazeera, 5 March 2006
- ^ Amal Hamdan Remembering Sabra and Shatila, Al Jazeera, 16 September 2003
- ^ Peru: The killings of Lucanamarca BBC, 09-14-06
- ^ Kavanagh, Jim (July 24, 2009). "Slaughter at McDonald's changed how police operate". CNN. http://edition.cnn.com/2009/CRIME/07/23/california.mcdonalds.massacre/index.html. Retrieved June 3, 2010
- ^ Gresko, Jessica (July 18, 2004). "20 Years later, San Ysidro McDonald's massacre remembered". North County Times. Escondido, California. http://www.nctimes.com/news/local/article_2ba4343e-7009-54ce-98df-79a23ff8d0d7.html. Retrieved June 3, 2010
- ^ Ben-Ali, Russell (December 14, 1990). "After a Long Wait, Monument Is Dedicated at Massacre Site". Los Angeles Times. http://articles.latimes.com/1990-12-14/local/me-6356_1. Retrieved June 3, 2010
- ^ a b Rory Carroll. Saddam trial to open with village massacre, the Guardian, June 7, 2005
- ^ Staff. Documents Link Saddam To Massacre, Al Jazeera, March 3, 2006 cites source as Reuters
- ^ "Judging Dujail (section 3)". Human Rights Watch. November 19, 2006. http://www.hrw.org/en/node/11112/section/3. Retrieved August 18, 2009.
- ^ "Judging Dujail (section 7)". Human Rights Watch. November 19, 2006. http://www.hrw.org/en/node/11112/section/7. Retrieved August 23, 2009.
- ^ Unofficial biography of Alan Garcia. Alan Garcia life and work. Alan Garcia contributions
- ^ a b Notorious Peruvian School of the Americas Graduates
- ^ RIGHTS-PERU: Time Is of the Essence in Extradition of War Criminal
- ^ Staff. On this day August 19: 1987: Gunman kills 14 in Hungerford rampage, BBC,
- ^ "'Ryan shot at me, then at my mother'". London: The Daily Telegraph. 7 December 2004. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/arts/main.jhtml?xml=/arts/2004/12/07/fthung07.xml. Retrieved 2008-02-19.
- ^ J Bowyer Bell (1997). The Secret Army: The IRA. Piscataway: Transaction Publishers. pp. 702. ISBN 1560009012. , "The most dreadful of all the IRA errors came first with the Remembrance Day bombing in Enniskillen in November 1987: the Poppy Day Massacre" (Page 591)
- ^ "Michael Stone: Loyalist icon". CNN. 24 November 2006. http://edition.cnn.com/2006/WORLD/europe/11/24/michael.stone/. Retrieved 2008-03-06.
- ^ "Stone Murdered At Funeral". Sky News. 24 November 2006. http://news.sky.com/skynews/article/0,,30000-1241896,00.html. Retrieved 2008-03-06.
- ^ Iranian party demands end to repression
- ^ Abrahamian, Ervand, Tortured Confessions, University of California Press, 1999, 209-228
- ^ Abrahamian, Tortured Confessions, (1999), 210
- ^ http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/MDE13/021/1990/en/5c32759d-ee5e-11dd-9381-bdd29f83d3a8/mde130211990en.html
- ^ Memories of a slaughter in Iran
- ^ Khomeini fatwa 'led to killing of 30,000 in Iran'
- ^ CSN warns Americans about the AP's "climb down" on Tiananmen numbers, CSN, 18 May 2004
- ^ Kelly Barth (2003). The Tiananmen Square Massacre. Greenhaven Press. pp. 124. ISBN 0737711760. http://books.google.com/?id=So8CAAAACAAJ.
- ^ Chu-Yuan Cheng (1990). Behind the Tiananmen Massacre: Social, Political, and Economic Ferment in China. Westview Press. pp. 292. ISBN 0813310474. http://books.google.com/?id=-agVAgAACAAJ.
- ^ Buchignani, Walter (1989-12-08). "Amid the tragedy, miracles of survival". The Gazette, Montreal. pp. A3.
- ^ Rathjen, Heidi; Charles Montpetit (1999). December 6th: From the Montreal Massacre to Gun Control. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart. ISBN 0-771061-25-0.
- ^ Rakobowchuk, Peter (September 14, 2006). "Lessons learned from 1989 Montreal massacre help save lives at Dawson college". Canadian Press. http://cnews.canoe.ca/CNEWS/Canada/2006/09/14/1839448-ap.html. Retrieved 2006-12-28.
- ^ a b "UTHR(J) report on the Eastern University Massacre". http://www.uthr.org/Reports/Report7/chapter4.htm#h.
- ^ "HRW report – Sri Lanka". Human Rights Watch. http://www.hrw.org/wr2k2/asia10.html. Retrieved 2007-02-02.
- ^ "Graveyard for Disappeared Persons – Statistic for Batticaloa district". http://www.disappearances.org/mainfile.php/frep_sl_ne/78/Cyberspace.
- ^ a b Hoole, Ranjan (2001). Sri Lanka: The Arrogance of Power : Myths, Decadence & Murder. University Teachers for Human Rights. ISBN 9-5594-4704-1. p.378–397
- ^ a b Lawrence, Patricia (2001). The Ocean of Stories; Children's Imagination, Creativity, and Reconciliation in Eastern Sri Lanka. International Centre for Ethnic Studies. ISBN 9-5558-0076-6. p.40
- ^ McDermott (edit), Rachel Fell (2008). Encountering Kali: In the Margins, at the Center, in the West. University of California Press. ISBN 0-5202-3240-2. p.121
- ^ Hoole, Ranjan. "The massacre at Sathurukondan: 9th September 1990". University Teachers for Human Rights. http://www.uthr.org/Reports/Report8/chapter2.htm#c. Retrieved 2009-01-26.
- ^ Caron, Cynthia (March 15–21, 2003). "Floundering Peace Process: Need to Widen Participation". Economic and Political Weekly (Economic and Political weekly) 38 (11): 1029–1031. http://www.jstor.org/pss/4413336. Retrieved 2009-01-26.
- ^ Staff Reporters (15 November 1990). "Hours Of Terror End". Otago Daily Times. pp. 1.
- ^ Aramoana Massacre – nzterritory.com
- ^ Aramoana movie will bring back the tears - Local News – Wairarapa Times-Age
- ^ Return to Aramoana – page 1 – National – NZ Herald News
- ^ Hayes, Thomas C (1991-10-17). "Gunman Kills 22 and Himself in Texas Cafeteria". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?sec=travel&res=9C04E3D8113BF934A25753C1A967958260. Retrieved 2007-08-15.
- ^ A Texas Massacre People.com
- ^ Memories of Luby's massacre in wake of Fort Hood shooting
- ^ Killeen's Other Massacre – The Daily Dish | By Andrew Sullivan
- ^ Luby–s Massacre Remains Among Nation–s Worst Mass Shootings
- ^ Croatia massacre trial under way", BBC News, 11 October 2005
- ^ Vukovar massacre: What happened", BBC News, 13 June 2003
- ^ ICTY Indictment
- ^ New York Times: Serbian Court Finds 14 Guilty in '91 Massacre of Croatians
- ^ Letter from the Charge d'affaires a.i. of the Permanent Mission of Azerbaijan to the United Nations Office
- ^ Human Rights Watch / Helsinki. Azerbaijan: Seven Years of Conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh. New York. 1994.
- ^ Thomas De Waal, Black Garden: Armenia and Azerbaijan through Peace and War, NYU Press, 2004, ISBN 0-8147-1945-7. Chapter 11. August 1991 – May 1992: War Breaks Out.
- ^ TIME Magazine – Tragedy Massacre in Khojaly
- ^ Ethnic Cleansing in Progress, War in Nagorno Karabakh, by Caroline Cox and John Eibner, Institute for Religious Minorities in the Islamic World, Zurich, London, Washington, 1993
- ^ Christianity Today Article
- ^ http://www.sairr.org.za/press-office/institute-opinion/the-truth-commission2019s-chickens-come-home-to-roost.html/?searchterm=Boipatong
- ^ http://www.google.com/search?q=%22brown%27s+chicken+massacre%22
- ^ Victims of Sivas Massacre Commemorated – Bianet
- ^ Turkey commemorates 15th anniversary of Sivas massacre
- ^ Article page – Centre for Islamic Pluralism
- ^ Ian Starrett (2003-10-30). "Greysteel massacre turned trick or treat into a night of horror". The News Letter (Belfast, Northern Ireland). http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-109427409.html. Retrieved 2008-01-28.
- ^ "'I feared my brother had been killed' – horror of Greysteel massacre recalled". Derry Journal. 2007-02-27. http://www.derryjournal.com/journal/39I-feared-my-brother-had.2081275.jp. Retrieved 2008-01-28.
- ^ "Victims– relatives criticise MLA". The Irish News. 2007-10-22. http://www.irishnews.com/searchlog.asp?reason=denied_empty&script_name=/pageacc.asp&path_info=/pageacc.asp&tser1=ser&sid=570517. Retrieved 2008-01-28.
- ^ "The leaders of one tribe now represent the hopes of another". Irish Examiner. 2007-03-13. http://archives.tcm.ie/irishexaminer/2007/03/13/story27578.asp. Retrieved 2008-01-28.
- ^ Sales, Rosemary (1997). Women Divided: Gender, Religion and Politics in Northern Ireland. Routledge. pp. 192. ISBN 978-0415137652.
- ^ Lister, David and Jordan, Hugh (2004). Mad Dog: The Rise And Fall of Johnny Adair and 'C Company'. Mainstream Publishing. pp. 173. ISBN 978-1-84018-890-5.
- ^ McDonand, Henry and Cusack, Jim (2004). UDA: Inside The Heart of Loyalist Terror. Penguin Books. pp. 251. ISBN 978-1844880201.
- ^ The Tablet – Inside the mind of terrorists
- ^ Tom Hennigan, Tribe flees to escape contact with world, The Times, May 18, 2005
- ^ James Brooke, Brazil's Outrage Intensifies As Toll in Massacre Hits 73, The New York Times, August 23, 1993
- ^ Worldpress.org May 14, 2002
- ^ United Nations Report of the Special Committee to Investigate Israeli Practices Affecting the Human Rights of the Palestinian People and Other Arabs of the Occupied Territories, 23 September 2002
- ^ Aljazeera.net February 15, 2005
- ^ Piven, Jeremy S. (2002). Terror and Apocalypse Psychological Undercurrents of History, Volume II. Writer's Showcase Press. pp. 179. ISBN 978-0595218745.
- ^ Hoffman, Bruce (1999). Insider Terrorism. Columbia University Press. pp. 103. ISBN 978-0231114691.
- ^ a b "An Anatomy of the Massacres", Ait-Larbi, Ait-Belkacem, Belaid, Nait-Redjam, and Soltani, in An Inquiry into the Algerian Massacres, ed. Bedjaoui, Aroua, and Ait-Larbi, Hoggar: Geneva 1999.
- ^ "Wanton and Senseless? The Logic of Massacres in Algeria", Stathis N. Kalyvas, Rationality and Society, Vol. 11, No. 3, 243–285 (1999)
- ^ "Violent past haunts Algeria's fresh start". BBC News. 2005-10-01. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/from_our_own_correspondent/4297888.stm. Retrieved 2010-05-08.
- ^ http://www.algeria-watch.org/farticle/sale_guerre/guardian.htm
- ^ http://www.africa.upenn.edu/Urgent_Action/apic51698.html
- ^ http://www.equalitynow.org/english/campaigns/un/unhrc_reports/unhrc_algeria_en.pdf
- ^ http://www.dispatch.co.za/1997/10/16/page%2013.htm
- ^ http://www.africafiles.org/article.asp?ID=3938
- ^ http://184.108.40.206/~etools/newsbrief/1994/news0402
- ^ O'Brien, Brendan. The Long War: The IRA and Sinn Fin. Syracuse University Press, 1999. Page 314.
- ^ Elliott, Sydney. Conflict in Northern Ireland: an encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO, 1999. Page 350.
- ^ Sluka, Jeffry. Death Squad: The Anthropology of State Terror. University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000. Page 141.
- ^ Cusack, Jim. UVF. Poolbeg, 1997. Page 317.
- ^ BBC News | The UVF's catalogue of atrocities
- ^ The Economist newspaper, 25 June 1994, Pages 25-26
- ^ "Sutton Index of Deaths, 1994". Conflict Archive on the Internet (CAIN). http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/sutton/chron/1994.html. Retrieved 19 February 2010.
- ^ "Members of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad Arrested, Charged with Racketeering and Conspiracy to Provide Support to Terrorists", United States Department of Justice, February 20, 2003. "...1995 murder of 22 people in a double suicide bombing at Beit Lid, Israel...".\
- ^ "But after the Beit Lid massacre, the government approved the construction and sale of 4000 units in occupied land around Jerusalem." Beyer, Lisa. "Can Peace Survive", Time, February 06, 1995.
- ^ "When Arafat called Rabin to express his condolences on the Beit Lid massacre, the prime minister was understandably furious." Karsh, Efraim, Arafat's War: The Man and His Battle for Israeli Conquest, Grove Press, 2003, p. 116. ISBN 0802117589
- ^ "The reaction of peace processors in Jerusalem and Washington to the Beit Lid massacre, in which Islamic suicide bombers wiped out a score of Israelis, has been shock, anger, sorrow – but a determination that terrorist attacks not be allowed to stop the peace process." Safire, William. "Essay; Responding to Terror", The New York Times, January 26, 1995.
- ^ "President Ezer Weizman, a super-dove who initially supported the agreement wholeheartedly, called for a temporary suspension of talks following the Beit Lid massacre on January 22 and again after the February 6 killing in Gaza." Bar-Ilan, David. "Rain of terror – Israeli politics", National Review, March 6, 1995, p. 2.
- ^ a b Udo Ludwig and Ansgar Mertin, Srebrenica Massacre Survivors Sue Netherlands, United Nations Der Spiegel, June 5, 2007.
- ^ Marlise Simons, Court Declares Bosnia Killings Were Genocide The New York Times, February 26, 2007. A copy of the ICJ judgement can be found here
- ^ "BBC news article, on this day (13th March)". BBC News. 1996-03-13. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/march/13/newsid_2543000/2543277.stm. Retrieved 2010-01-06.
- ^ Sarah Lyall (17 October 1996). "Britain May Forbid Private Ownership Of Most Handguns". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D04E3DB1231F934A25753C1A960958260&. Retrieved 2008-02-06.
- ^ "British Push For Stricter Gun Control Laws". TIME. 18 March 1996. http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,6055,00.html. Retrieved 2008-02-06.
- ^ "Scottish town mourns loss of little ones". CNN. 14 March 1996. http://www.cnn.com/WORLD/9603/britain_deaths/14/index.html. Retrieved 2008-02-06.
- ^ "Australian gunman laughs as he admits killing 35". CNN News. 1996-11-07. http://www.cnn.com/WORLD/9611/07/australia/.
- ^ Aftermath of horror death toll climbs to 35, New York Daily News (April 30, 1996)
- ^ BBC News 31 July 2006
- ^ The Massacre at Qana, report by Omar Barghouti, Counterpunch, 1 August 2006
- ^ The growing political ties with Israel Lebanon Daily Mirror
- ^ Dignitaries, officials mark 12th anniversary of Qana massacre Sri Lanka Daily Star
- ^ Gaza media: It's Palestine's Qana massacre YNetnews.com
- ^ "Middle East History of Israel's role in Lebanon" BBC, April 1, 1998
- ^ Human Rights Watch "Operation Grapes of Wrath" The Civilian Victims
- ^ "China's 'war on terror'". BBC News. 2002-09-10. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/not_in_website/syndication/monitoring/media_reports/2241025.stm.
- ^ "China Uighurs executed". BBC News. 1998-01-27. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/50936.stm.
- ^ "youtube video". Channel 4 (UK). http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4RUCOrg2Pb0.
- ^ Rebiya Kadeer – Not the Torch of Liberty – washingtonpost.com
- ^ Remembering the Ghulja Massacre
- ^ World Uyghur Congress | The Ghulja Massacre –We refuse to forget– (2006.02.05)
- ^ The Acteal Massacre – Chiapas Mexico – December 22, 1997
- ^ Mexico Court Frees Nine Accused in Massacre – Christian World News – CBN News – Christian News 24-7 – CBN.com
- ^ Document – Mexico: The Acteal massacre–one year on and still no justice | Amnesty International
- ^ 10 years later, the real story behind Columbine, 2009.
- ^ "CPM brings terror charge against Trinamul". The Statesman, 23 April 2003. http://www.thestatesman.net/page.arcview.php?clid=23&id=35824&usrsess=1. Retrieved 2007-09-14.
- ^ "Editorial: Attack in Nanoor". Editorial. The Statesman, 20 May 2005. http://www.thestatesman.net/page.arcview.php?clid=3&id=105625&usrsess=1. Retrieved 2007-09-14.
- ^ "CPM ticket for Nanoor massacre accused". The Statesman, 18 April 2003. http://www.thestatesman.net/page.arcview.php?clid=1&id=34635&usrsess=1. Retrieved 2007-09-14.
- ^ a b "Alleged Passover massacre plotter arrested", CNN, March 26, 2008.
- ^ Ohad Gozani, "Hotel blast survivors relive the Passover massacre", The Daily Telegraph, 29/03/2002.
- ^ "This reached a peak following the Passover massacre in the seaside resort of Netanya..." David Newman, "The consequence or the cause? Impact on the Israel-Palestine Peace Process", in Mary E. A. Buckley, Mary Buckley, Rick Fawn. Global Responses to Terrorism: 9/11, the War in Afghanistan, and Beyond, Routledge, 2003, ISBN 0415314291, p. 158.
- ^ "They faced stiff resistance from Palestinian gunmen who began preparing the camp's defenses as early as the Passover massacre in Netanya..." Todd C. Helmus, Russell W. Glenn. Steeling the Mind: Combat Stress Reactions and Their Implications for Urban Warfare Rand Corporation, 2005, ISBN 0833037021, p. 58.
- ^ "It can therefore be asked whether the 'human bomb' offensive starting with the Passover massacre on 27 March 2002..." Brigitte L. Nacos, "The Terrorist Calculus Behind 9-11: A Model for Future Terrorism?" in Gus Martin. The New Era of Terrorism: Selected Readings, Sage Publications Inc, 2004, ISBN0761988734, p. 176.
- ^ "The Gulbarg Society massacre: What happened". New Delhi: NDTV. March 11, 2010. http://www.ndtv.com/news/india/the-gulbarg-society-massacre-what-happened-17556.php. Retrieved May 15, 2010.
- ^ "Safehouse Of Horrors". Tehelka (New Delhi). November 3, 2007. http://www.tehelka.com/story_main35.asp?filename=Ne031107safehouseofhorrors.asp. Retrieved May 15, 2010.
- ^ "Apex court SIT submits report on Gulbarg Society massacre". The Hindustan Times. May 14, 2010. http://www.hindustantimes.com/Apex-court-SIT-submits-report-on-Gulbarg-Society-massacre/Article1-543728.aspx. Retrieved May 15, 2010.
- ^ A Desperate Beslan mum pleaded in the name of Islam for her children's lives – SAM Magazine
- ^ "Woman injured in 2004 Russian siege dies". The Boston Globe. December 8, 2006. http://www.boston.com/news/world/europe/articles/2006/12/08/woman_injured_in_2004_russian_siege_dies/. Retrieved 2007-01-09.
- ^ "Putin meets angry Beslan mothers". BBC News. September 2, 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/4207112.stm. Retrieved 2006-07-28.
- ^ "Beslan mothers' futile quest for relief". BBC News. 2005-06-04. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/4608785.stm. Retrieved 2010-05-08.
- ^ Preliminary findings on the events in Andijan Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe, June 2005
- ^ "Documenting Andijan", Council for Foreign Relations, June 26, 2006.
- ^ http://www.seattlepi.com/local/264412_shoottimeline26ww.html
- ^ "Report of the Virginia Tech Review Panel". Commonwealth of Virginia. http://www.governor.virginia.gov/TempContent/techPanelReport.cfm. Retrieved 2008-09-16. Cho shot and wounded a further 17 people and caused injury to 6 others as they tried to flee.
- ^ "Fact File: Deadliest shootings in the U.S.". MSNBC. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/18140540/. Retrieved 2008-09-16. Note: there have been several deadlier shootings in U.S. history, but not by a single gunman, and not on a school campus.
- ^ "Guinea: September 28 Massacre Was Premeditated". Human Rights Watch. http://www.hrw.org/en/node/86269. Retrieved 2009-10-27.
- ^ After the Fort Hood Massacre – WSJ.com
- ^ Was Fort Hood Massacre a Terrorist Act or a Man Who Snapped? – Bill O'Reilly | The O'Reilly Factor – FOXNews.com
- ^ Fort Hood Shooter Tried to Contact al Qaeda Terrorists, Officials Say – ABC News
- ^ Sen. Joe Lieberman calls Fort Hood massacre a 'terrorist' act
- ^ Fort Hood massacre: Barack Obama would have to sign death warrant – Telegraph
- ^ Massacre shocks those who knew the shooter
- ^ Maguindanao massacre, The Philippine Star, November 24, 2009
- ^ Death toll in Maguindanao massacre now 57, GMANews.TV, November 25, 2009
- ^ Toll Rising in Philippines Massacre, NYTimes.com, November 25, 2009
- ^ Clan allied to Philippine president suspected of being behind massacre, guardian.co.uk, November 25, 2009
- ^ Innocent motorists among Ampatuan massacre victims, GMANews.TV, November 25, 2009
Related topics in the Connexions Subject Index
Left History –
Libraries & Archives –
Social Change –
This article is based on one or more articles in Wikipedia, with modifications and additional content contributed by
Connexions editors. This article, and any information from Wikipedia, is covered by a
Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA) and the
GNU Free Documentation
We welcome your help in improving and expanding the content of Connexipedia articles, and in correcting errors. Connexipedia is not a wiki: please contact Connexions by email if you wish to contribute. We are also looking for contributors interested in writing articles on topics, persons, events and organizations related to social justice and the history of social change movements.
For more information contact Connexions
Connect with Connexions
Newsletter Facebook Twitter