Abolition of slavery timeline

Abolition of slavery occurred as abolition in specific countries, abolition of the trade in slaves and abolition throughout empires. Each of these steps was usually the result of a separate law or action.


[edit] Ancient times

  • 3rd century BC Ashoka abolishes slave trade and encourages people to treat slaves well but does not abolish slavery itself in the Maurya Empire, covering the majority of India, which was under his rule.[2]
  • AD 9 In China, Emperor Wang Mang usurps the throne, abolishes slave trading (although not slavery), and institutes radical land reform[3]

[edit] Early timeline

It should be noted that many of these changes were reversed in practice over the succeeding centuries.

  • 1102 Trade in slaves and serfdom ruled illegal in London: Council of Westminster
  • 1117 Slavery abolished in Iceland
  • 1274 Landslova (Land's Law) in Norway mentions only former slaves, which indicates that slavery was abolished in Norway
  • 1315 Louis X, king of France, publishes a decree proclaiming that "France" signifies freedom and that any slave setting foot on the French ground should be freed[4]
  • 1335 Sweden (including Finland at the time) makes slavery illegal.
  • 1416 Republic of Ragusa (modern day Dubrovnik; Croatia) abolished slavery and slave trading

[edit] Modern timeline

[edit] 1500-1700

[edit] 1700-1800

  • 1723 Russia abolishes slavery.[6]
  • 1761, 12 February, Portugal abolishes slavery[7] in mainland Portugal and in Portuguese possessions in India through a decree by the Marquis of Pombal.
  • 1772 The Somersett's case held that no slave could be forcibly removed from Britain. This case was generally taken at the time to have decided that the condition of slavery did not exist under English law in England, and emancipated the ten to fourteen thousand slaves or possible slaves in England, who were mostly domestic servants.[8]
  • 1777 Slavery abolished in Madeira, Portugal[9]
  • 1777 Constitution of the Vermont Republic bans slavery.[9]
  • 1778 Slavery declared illegal in Scotland
  • 1780 Pennsylvania passes An Act for the Gradual Abolition of Slavery. The Act did not immediately free any slaves, those born before 1780 remained enslaved, and any children born to slaves after the passage of the act were freed when they reached 28 years of age. The Act became a model for other Northern states.[10]
  • 1783 Russia abolishes slavery in Crimean Khanate[11]
  • 1783 Massachusetts rules slavery illegal based on 1780 constitution[9]
  • 1783 Bukovina: Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor issued an order abolishing slavery on 19 June 1783 in Czernowitz[12]
  • 1783 New Hampshire begins a gradual abolition of slavery, freeing future children of slaves.
  • 1784 Connecticut begins a gradual abolititon of slavery, freeing future children of slaves.[13]
  • 1784 Rhode Island begins a gradual abolition of slavery, freeing future children of slaves.
  • 1787 Sierra Leone founded by Britain as colony for emancipated slaves
  • 1787 Society for the Abolition of the Slave Trade founded in Britain[9]
  • 1788 Sir William Dolben's Act regulating the conditions on British slave ships enacted
  • 1792 Denmark-Norway declares transatlantic slave trade illegal after 1803 (though slavery continues to 1848)[14]
  • 1793 Upper Canada, abolishes import of slaves by Act Against Slavery
  • 1794 French First Republic abolishes slavery[9][15]
  • 1799 New York State passes gradual emancipation act that will free future children of slaves in 1827.[16] Those born before 1799 remain enslaved.

[edit] 1800-1900

  • 1802 The First Consul Napoleon re-introduces slavery on French colonies growing sugarcane.[7]
  • 1803 Denmark-Norway abolishes transatlantic slave trade on 1 January 1803
  • 1803 Lower Canada abolishes slavery
  • 1804 New Jersey begins a gradual abolition of slavery, freeing future children of slaves.[17]
  • 1804 Haiti declares independence and abolishes slavery[9]
  • 1805 Bill for Abolition passed in Commons, rejected in the House of Lords.
  • 1807 25 March Abolition of the Slave Trade Act: slave trading abolished in British Empire. Captains fined –120 per slave transported.
  • 1807 British begin patrols of African coast to arrest slaving vessels. West Africa Squadron (Royal Navy) established to suppress slave trading; by 1865, nearly 150,000 people freed by anti-slavery operations[18]
  • 1807 Abolition in Prussia, Germany The Stein-Hardenberg Reforms.
  • 1808 United States–import and export of slaves prohibited after 1 Jan..[19]
  • 1810 Mexico: Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla declared slavery abolished, but it wasn't official until Independence War finished
  • 1811 Slave trading made a felony in the British Empire punishable by transportation for British subjects and foreigners.
  • 1811 Spain abolishes slavery at home and in all colonies except Cuba,[7] Puerto Rico, and Santo Domingo
  • 1813 Argentina: the Asamblea del Ao XIII declares the Freedom of wombs, setting the sons of slaves free.[20]
  • 1814 Dutch outlaw slave trade
  • 1815 British pay Portugal –750,000 to cease their trade north of the Equator[21]
  • 1815 Congress of Vienna. 8 Victorious powers declared their opposition to slavery
  • 1816 Serfdom abolished in Estonia.
  • 1817 Serfdom abolished in Courland.
  • 1817 Spain paid –400,000 by British to cease trade to Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Santo Domingo[21]
  • 1817 New York State sets a date of July 4, 1827 to free all its slaves.[22]
  • 1818 Treaty between Britain and Spain to abolish slave trade [23]
  • 1818 Treaty between Britain and Portugal to abolish slave trade [23]
  • 1818 France and Netherlands abolish slave trading
  • 1819 Treaty between Britain and Netherlands to abolish slave trade [23]
  • 1819 Serfdom abolished in Livonia.
  • 1821 Gran Colombia (Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Panama) declares free the sons and daughters born to slave mothers, sets up program for compensated emancipation [24]
  • 1822 Liberia founded by American Colonization Society (USA) as a colony for emancipated slaves.
  • 1822 Greece abolishes slavery
  • 1823 Chile abolishes slavery[9]
  • 1824 The Federal Republic of Central America abolishes slavery.
  • 1827 Treaty between Britain and Sweden to abolish slave trade [23]
  • 1827 New York State abolishes slavery. Children born between 1799 and 1827 are indentured until age 25 (females) or age 28 (males).[25]
  • 1829 Mexico officially abolishes slavery[9]
  • 1830 The first Constitution of Uruguay declares the abolition of slavery.
  • 1831 Bolivia abolishes slavery[9]
  • 1834 The British Slavery Abolition Act 1833 comes into force, abolishing slavery throughout most of the British Empire. The exceptions being territories controlled by the Honourable East India Company and Ceylon. Legally frees 700,000 in West Indies, 20,000 in Mauritius, 40,000 in South Africa.[26]
  • 1835 Treaty between Britain and France to abolish slave trade [23]
  • 1835 Treaty between Britain and Denmark to abolish slave trade [23]
  • 1836 Portugal abolishes transatlantic slave trade
  • 1838 1 August - enslaved men, women and children in the British Empire finally became free after a period of forced apprenticeship following the passing of the Slavery Abolition Act in 1833
  • 1839 British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society founded, now called Anti-Slavery International
  • 1839 Indian indenture system made illegal (reversed in 1842)
  • 1840 Treaty between Britain and Venezuela to abolish slave trade [23]
  • 1841 Quintuple Treaty is signed; Britain, France, Russia, Prussia, and Austria agree to suppress slave trade[9]
  • 1842 Treaty between Britain and Portugal to extend the enforcement of the ban on slave trade to Portuguese ships sailing south of the Equator.
  • 1843 Honourable East India Company becomes increasingly controlled by Britain and abolishes slavery in India by the Indian Slavery Act V. of 1843.
  • 1843 Treaty between Britain and Uruguay to suppress slave trade [23]
  • 1843 Treaty between Britain and Mexico to suppress slave trade [23]
  • 1843 Treaty between Britain and Chile to suppress slave trade [23]
  • 1843 Treaty between Britain and Bolivia to abolish slave trade [23]
  • 1845 36 British Royal Navy ships are assigned to the Anti-Slavery Squadron, making it one of the largest fleets in the world.
  • 1846 Tunisia abolishes slavery
  • 1847 Ottoman Empire abolishes slave trade from Africa. [27]
  • 1847 Sweden abolishes slavery [28]
  • 1847 Slavery ends in Pennsylvania. Those born before 1780 (fewer than 100 in 1840 Census) are freed.[29]
  • 1848 Denmark abolishes slavery [28]
  • 1848 Slavery abolished in all French and Danish colonies [9]
  • 1848 France founds Gabon for settlement of emancipated slaves.
  • 1848 Treaty between Britain and Muscat to suppress slave trade [23]
  • 1849 Treaty between Britain and Persian Gulf states to suppress slave trade [23]
  • 1850 United States: Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 requires return of escaped slaves
  • 1851 New Granada (Colombia) abolishes slavery[24]
  • 1852 The Hawaiian Kingdom abolishes kauwa system of serfdom. [30]
  • 1853 Argentina abolishes slavery when promulgating the 1853 Constitution
  • 1854 Peru abolishes slavery[9]
  • 1854 Venezuela abolishes slavery[9][24]
  • 1855 Moldavia abolishes slavery.[31]
  • 1856 Wallachia abolishes slavery.[31]
  • 1860 Indenture system abolished within British occupied India.
  • 1861 Russia frees its serfs in the Emancipation reform of 1861.[32]
  • 1862 Treaty between United States and Britain for the suppression of the slave trade (African Slave Trade Treaty Act)[23].
  • 1862 Cuba abolishes slave trade[9]
  • 1863 Slavery abolished in Dutch colonies.[33]
  • 1863 United States: Emancipation Proclamation declares those slaves in Confederate-controlled areas to be freed. Most slaves in "border states" are freed by state action; separate law frees the slaves in Washington, D.C.
  • 1865 United States abolishes slavery with the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution; about 40,000 remaining slaves are affected.[9]
  • 1869 Portugal abolishes slavery in the African colonies
  • 1870 U.S. abolishes slavery in Alaska
  • 1871 Brazil declares free the sons and daughters born to slave mothers after 28 September 1871.
  • 1873 Slavery abolished in Puerto Rico
  • 1873 Treaty between Britain and Zanzibar and Madagascar to suppress slave trade [23]
  • 1874 Britain abolishes slavery in the Gold Coast (now Ghana) following its annexation in 1874 (after Third Anglo-Asante War).
  • 1879 Bulgaria abolishes slavery (note: the slavery was abolished with the first constitution of the renewed Bulgarian state)
  • 1882 Ottoman firman abolishes all forms of slavery, white or black. [34]
  • 1886 Slavery abolished in Cuba[9]
  • 1888 Brazil abolishes slavery.[35]
  • 1890 Brussels Act - Treaty granting anti-slavery powers the right to stop and search ships for slaves
  • 1894 Korea abolishes slavery[36]
  • 1896 France abolishes slavery in Madagascar
  • 1897 Zanzibar abolishes slavery[37] following its becoming a British protectorate.

[edit] 1900-today

While now illegal everywhere, slavery or practices akin to it continue today in many countries throughout the world.

[edit] See also

[edit] Further reading

  • Finkelman, Paul and Joseph Miller. Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery (1999)
  • Gordon, M. Slavery in the Arab World (1989)
  • Hinks, Peter P. ed. Encyclopedia of Antislavery and Abolition (2006)
  • Morgan, Kenneth. Slavery and the British Empire: From Africa to America (2008)
  • Rodriguez, Junius P., ed. The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery (1997)
  • Rodriguez, Junius P., ed. Encyclopedia of Emancipation and Abolition in the Transatlantic World (2007)
  • Anti slavery society
  • Slavery and Abolition

[edit] References

  1. ^ page 6 of Women Prisoners and Health Justice by Diane C. Hatton, Anastasia A. Fisher, Andrew Coyle
  2. ^ Religions and the abolition of slavery - a comparative approach by William G. Clarence-Smith
  3. ^ http://books.google.co.il/books?id=g_kuS42BxIYC&pg=PA420&lpg=PA420&dq=wang+mang+slavery&source=bl&ots=ZVLP0h32P9&sig=bf89w4fTVdCeQn5q4pdbgHdfKv8&hl=iw&ei=UjRSSpjOGYfgnAPapqymCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2
  4. ^ Christopher L. Miller, The French Atlantic triangle: literature and culture of the slave trade, p.20.
  5. ^ [ttp://books.google.co.uk/books?id=a3cbgWGe9P4C&pg=PA22&dq=abolish+slavery+japan+Toyotomi+Hideyoshi&hl=en&ei=O9pSTKDSBYaCOL-hmZ4O&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=9&ved=0CFIQ6AEwCA#v=onepage&q&f=false page 22 of Dictatorship By Ron Fridell]
  6. ^ Historical survey > Ways of ending slavery
  7. ^ a b c Hobhouse, Henry. Seeds of Change: Six Plants That Transformed Mankind, 2005. Page 111.
  8. ^ Heward, Edmund (1979). Lord Mansfield: A Biography of William Murray 1st Earl of Mansfield 1705–1793 Lord Chief Justice for 32 years. p.141. Chichester: Barry Rose (publishers) Ltd. ISBN 0859921638
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Robert William Fogel and Stanley L. Engerman. Time on the Cross: The Economics of American Negro Slavery, 1995. Pages 33-34.
  10. ^ A Leon Higginbotham, Jr., In the Matter of Color: Race & the American Legal Process, Oxford University Press, 1978. p.310.
  11. ^ Historical survey > Slave societies
  12. ^ Viorel Achim, The Roma in Romanian History, Central European University Press, Budapest, 2004. ISBN 963-9241-84-9, p.128
  13. ^ Higginbotham, p.310.
  14. ^ The Historical encyclopedia of world slavery, Volume 1 By Junius P. Rodriguez
  15. ^ In 1804 France re-legalizes slavery in the Caribbean colonies.
  16. ^ Higginbotham, p.147.
  17. ^ Higginbotham, p.310.
  18. ^ Sailing against slavery. By Jo Loosemore BBC
  19. ^ Foner, Eric. "Forgotten step towards freedom," New York Times. 30 December 2007.
  20. ^ "Od el ruido de rotas cadenas": –¡Al fin libres!(Spanish)
  21. ^ a b "Blacks in Latin America," Microsoft Encarta 98 Encyclopedia. Microsoft Corporation.
  22. ^ Higginbotham, pp.146-47.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Chronological Table of the Statutes" (1959 edition)
  24. ^ a b c Aguilera, Miguel (1965). La Legislacion y el derecho en Colombia. Historia extensa de Colombia. 14. Bogota: Lemer. pp. 428–442. 
  25. ^ Higginbotham, p.146-47.
  26. ^ Finkelman and Miller, Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery 1:293
  27. ^ Erler, Yavuz. How effective was the Ottoman legislation on the slavery of women in the Ottoman Balkans?, 2006.
  28. ^ a b Cobb, Thomas Read Rootes. An Inquiry Into the Law of Negro Slavery in the United States of America: To which is Prefixed An Historical Sketch of Slavery, 1858. Page cxcii.
  29. ^ 1840 U.S. Census, Pennsylvania
  30. ^ Finkelman and Miller, Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery 1:377
  31. ^ a b Mihail Kogälniceanu, Dezrobirea Åiganilor, Återgerea privilegiilor boiereÅti, emanciparea Åäranilor, 1891
  32. ^ Peter Kolchin, Unfree Labor (1987)
  33. ^ Finkelman and Miller, Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery 2:637
  34. ^ Fleet, Kate. "Slavery in the Ottoman Empire and Its Demise, 1800-1909." Middle Eastern Studies. 1998.
  35. ^ Finkelman and Miller, Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery 1:124
  36. ^ Welcome to Encyclopdia Britannica's Guide to History
  37. ^ Swahili Coast
  38. ^ Historical survey > Ways of ending slavery
  39. ^ Baker, Chris and Pasuk Phongpaichit. A History of Thailand, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006, p. 61.
  40. ^ Whelpton, John. A History of Nepal, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2005, p. 53.
  41. ^ Garti-Khamendeu
  42. ^ Afghan Constitution: 1923
  43. ^ The slave trade: myths and preconceptions
  44. ^ House of Commons - International Development - Memoranda
  45. ^ Barker, A. J., The Rape of Ethiopia 1936, p. 36
  46. ^ The End of Slavery
  47. ^ "Universal Declaration of Human Rights". United Nations. 10 December 1948. http://www.un.org/Overview/rights.html. Retrieved 13 December 2007. "Adopted and proclaimed by General Assembly resolution 217 A (III) of 10 December 1948 ... Article 4. No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms." 
  48. ^ Slavery in Mauritania
  49. ^ Disposable People

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