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Youth International Party

Flag of the Youth International Party

The Youth International Party, whose members were commonly called Yippies, was a more radically youth-oriented and countercultural offshoot of the free speech and anti-war movements of the 1960s. It was founded in 1968.[1] They employed theatrical gestures — such as advancing a pig ("Pigasus the Immortal") as a candidate for President in 1968 — to mock the social status quo.[2] They have been described as a highly theatrical, anti-authoritarian and anarchist[3] youth movement of "symbolic politics".[4]

Since they were better known for street theater and politically-themed pranks, many of the "old school" political left either ignored or denounced them. According to ABC News, "The group was known for street theater pranks and was once referred to as the 'Groucho Marxists'."[5]

Contents

[edit] Background

The Yippies had no formal membership or hierarchy. Abbie Hoffman, Anita Hoffman, Jerry Rubin, Nancy Kurshan, and Paul Krassner founded the Yippies (according to his own account, Krassner coined the name) at a meeting in Abbie and Anita's New York flat on Dec. 31, 1967.[6] "If the press had created 'hippie,' could not we five hatch the 'yippie'?" Abbie Hoffman wrote.[3] Other activists associated with the Yippies include Stew Albert, Ed Rosenthal, Allen Ginsberg, Ed Sanders, Robin Morgan, Sharon Krebs, Phil Ochs, William Kunstler, Jonah Raskin, Steve Conliff, John Sinclair, Aron Kay, Dana Beal, Kathie Streem, Coca Crystal, Ben Masel, Tom Forcade, Judy Gumbo, David Peel, Cindy Ornsteen, Jim Fouratt, Kate Coleman, Keith Lampe and Bob Fass. [7][citation needed]

A Yippie flag was frequently seen at anti-war demonstrations. The flag had a black background with a five pointed red star in the center, and a green cannabis leaf superimposed over it. This flag is also mentioned in Hoffman's Steal This Book.[8]

Abbie Hoffman and Jerry Rubin became the most famous Yippies — and best-selling authors — in part due to publicity surrounding the five-month Chicago Seven Conspiracy trial of 1969. Hoffman and Rubin were arguably the most colorful of the seven defendants accused of criminal conspiracy and inciting to riot at the August 1968 Democratic National Convention. Hoffman and Rubin used the trial as a platform for Yippie antics — at one point, they showed up in court attired in judicial robes.

[edit] Origins

YIP poster advertising the 1968 Festival of Life

The term Yippie was invented by Krassner and Hoffman on New Year's Eve 1967. Paul Krassner wrote in a January 2007 article in the Los Angeles Times:

We needed a name to signify the radicalization of hippies, and I came up with Yippie as a label for a phenomenon that already existed, an organic coalition of psychedelic hippies and political activists. In the process of cross-fertilization at antiwar demonstrations, we had come to share an awareness that there was a linear connection between putting kids in prison for smoking pot in this country and burning them to death with napalm on the other side of the planet.[9]

Anita Hoffman liked the word, but felt The New York Times and other "strait-laced types" needed a more formal name to take the movement seriously. That same night she came up with Youth International Party, because it symbolized the movement and made for a good play on words.[10]

Along with the name Youth International Party, the organization was also simply called Yippie!, as in a shout for joy (with an exclamation mark to express exhilaration).[11] "What does Yippie! mean?" Abbie Hoffman wrote. "Energy - fun - fierceness - exclamation point!"[12]

[edit] First press conference

The Yippies held their first press conference in New York at the Americana Hotel March 17, 1968, five months before the August 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago. Judy Collins sang at the press conference.[13][14][15] The Chicago Sun-Times reported it with an article titled: "Yipes! The Yippies Are Coming!"[9]

[edit] The New Nation concept

The Yippie "New Nation" concept called for the creation of alternative, counterculture institutions (food co-ops, underground newspapers, free clinics, etc.). Yippies believed these cooperative institutions and a radicalized hippie culture would spread until they supplanted the existing system.

"We are a people. We are a new nation," YIP's New Nation Statement said of the burgeoning hippie movement. "We want everyone to control their own life and to care for one another... We cannot tolerate attitudes, institutions, and machines whose purpose is the destruction of life, the accumulation of profit."[16]

The goal was a decentralized, collective, anarchistic nation rooted in the borderless hippie counterculture and its communal ethos. Abbie Hoffman wrote:

We shall not defeat Amerika by organizing a political party. We shall do it by building a new nation — a nation as rugged as the marijuana leaf.[17][18]

The flag for the "new nation" consisted of a black background with a red five pointed star in the center and a green marijuana leaf superimposed over it (same as the YIP flag).[19]

[edit] Culture and activism

The Yippies often paid tribute to rock 'n' roll and irreverent pop-culture figures such as the Marx Brothers, James Dean and Lenny Bruce. Many Yippies used nicknames which contained Baby Boomer television or pop references, such as Pogo or Gumby. Pogo is famous for creating the chant "No More Mindless Chants" in the mid-'70s. At demonstrations and parades, Yippies often wore face paint or colorful bandannas to keep from being identified in photographs. Other Yippies reveled in the spotlight, allowing their stealthier comrades the anonymity they needed for their pranks.

One cultural intervention that misfired was at Woodstock, with Abbie Hoffman's attempt to use the stage as a soapbox immediately prior to a performance by The Who. Guitarist Pete Townshend used his guitar to bat Hoffman off the stage.[20]

The Yippies were the first on the New Left to make a point of exploiting mass media.[21] Colorful, theatrical Yippie actions were tailored to attract media coverage, and also to provide a stage where people could express the "repressed" Yippie inside them.[22] "We believe every nonyippie is a repressed yippie," Jerry Rubin wrote in Do it! "We try to bring out the yippie in everybody."[22]

[edit] Early Yippie actions

Yippies were famous for their sense of humor.[23] Many direct actions were often satirical and elaborate pranks or put-ons. An application to levitate The Pentagon[24] and a mass protest/mock levitation at the building — organized by Rubin, Hoffman and company in October 1967 — helped to set the tone for Yippie when it was established a couple of months later.[25] Another famous prank just before Yippie was coined was a guerrilla theater event in New York City in 1967. Abbie Hoffman and a group of future Yippies managed to get into a tour of the New York Stock Exchange. They threw hundreds of dollar bills from the balcony of the visitors' gallery to the floor below. The stock exchange shut down as wealthy men in suits trampled each other to get dollar bills. The visitors' gallery was closed until a glass barrier could be installed, to ensure that it never happened again.

There was a clash with police on March 22, 1968, where a large group of countercultural youths led by the Yippies descended into Grand Central Station for a "Yip-In." The night erupted into a violent clash with police that Don McNeill of The Village Voice christened a "pointless confrontation in a box canyon."[26] A month after the Grand Central Station Yip-In, Yippies organized a "Yip-Out," a be-in style event in Central Park that went off peacefully and drew 20,000 people.[27]

[edit] House Un-American Activities Committee

The House Un-American Activities Committee subpoenaed Jerry Rubin and Abbie Hoffman of the Yippies in 1967, and again in the aftermath of the 1968 Democratic National Convention. The Yippies used media attention to make a mockery of the proceedings: Rubin came to one session dressed as an American Revolutionary War soldier, and passed out copies of the United States Declaration of Independence to people in attendance. Then Rubin "blew giant gum bubbles while his co-witnesses taunted the committee with Nazi salutes."[28] Rubin also attended HUAC dressed as Santa Claus and a Viet Cong soldier. On another occasion, police stopped Hoffman at the building entrance and arrested him for wearing an American flag. Hoffman quipped for the press, "I regret that I have but one shirt to give for my country," paraphrasing the last words of revolutionary patriot Nathan Hale; meanwhile Rubin, who was wearing a matching Viet Cong flag, shouted that the police were Communists for not arresting him also.[29]

According to The Harvard Crimson:

In the fifties, the most effective sanction was terror. Almost any publicity from HUAC meant the 'blacklist.' Without a chance to clear his name, a witness would suddenly find himself without friends and without a job. But it is not easy to see how in 1969 a HUAC blacklist could terrorize an SDS activist. Witnesses like Jerry Rubin have openly boasted of their contempt for American institutions. A subpoena from HUAC would be unlikely to scandalize Abbie Hoffman or his friends.[30]

[edit] Chicago '68

Yippie theatrics culminated at the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago. YIP planned a six-day Festival of Life — a celebration of the counterculture and a protest against the state of the nation. This was supposed to counter the "Convention of Death." This promised to be "the blending of pot and politics into a political grass leaves movement — a cross-fertilization of the hippie and New Left philosophies." Yippies' sensational statements before the convention were part of the theatrics, including a tongue-in-cheek threat to put LSD in Chicago's water supply. "We will fuck on the beaches! ... We demand the Politics of Ecstasy! ... Abandon the Creeping Meatball! ... And all the time 'Yippie! Chicago — August 25-30.'" First on a list of Yippie demands: "An immediate end to the war in Vietnam."[31]

Yippie organizers hoped that well-known musicians would participate in the Festival of Life and draw a crowd of tens if not hundreds of thousands from across the country. The city of Chicago refused to issue any permits for the festival and most musicians withdrew from the project. Of the rock bands who had agreed to perform, only the MC5 came to Chicago to play and their set was cut short by a clash between the audience of a couple thousand and police. Phil Ochs and several other singer-songwriters also performed during the festival.[32]

In response to the Festival of Life and other anti-war demonstrations during the Democratic convention, Chicago police repeatedly clashed with protesters, as many millions of viewers watched the extensive TV coverage of the events. "The whole world is watching," protesters chanted.[33] "A police riot," concluded the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence.[34] "On the part of the police there was enough wild club swinging, enough cries of hatred, enough gratuitous beating to make the conclusion inescapable that individual policemen, and lots of them, committed violent acts far in excess of the requisite force for crowd dispersal or arrest."

[edit] The Conspiracy Trial

Following the convention, eight protesters were charged with conspiracy to incite the riots, and there was a heavily publicized, five-month trial. The Chicago Seven represented a cross-section of the New Left, including three Yippie defendants: Abbie Hoffman, Jerry Rubin, and Lee Weiner.[35] Several other Yippies — including Stew Albert, Wolfe Lowenthal, Brad Fox and Robin Palmer — were among another 18 activists named as "unindicted co-conspirators" in the case.[36] While five of the defendants were initially convicted of crossing state lines to incite a riot, all convictions were soon reversed in appeal court. Defendants Hoffman and Rubin became popular authors and public speakers, spreading Yippie militancy and comedy wherever they appeared. When Hoffman appeared on The Merv Griffin Show, for example, he wore a shirt with an American flag design, prompting CBS to black out his image when the show aired.[37]

[edit] The Yippie movement

The Youth International Party quickly spread beyond Rubin, Hoffman and the other founders. YIP had chapters all over the US and in other countries, with particularly active groups in New York, Vancouver, Milwaukee, Los Angeles, Columbus and Chicago. There were YIP conferences through the 1970s, beginning with a "New Nation Conference" in Madison, Wisconsin in 1971.[38]

[edit] Street protests

During an anti-war protest in Washington, D.C., on November 15, 1969, East Coast Yippies led thousands of youths in the storming of the Justice Department building.[39] On August 6, 1970, L.A. Yippies invaded Disneyland, hoisting the New Nation flag at City Hall.[40] Vancouver Yippies invaded the U.S. border town of Blaine, Washington, on May 9, 1970, to protest Richard Nixon's invasion of Cambodia and the shooting of students at Kent State.[41] Columbus Yippies were charged with inciting the rioting that occurred in the city on May 11, 1972, in response to Nixon's mining of North Vietnam's Haiphong harbor.[42] They were acquitted. Chicago organized local events and hosted national events well into the '80s. A frequent complaint was that New York acted as if other chapters did not exist and kept them out of the decision making process.

YIP was a member of the coalition of anti-Vietnam War activists who, over several days in early May 1971, tried to shut down the U.S. government by occupying intersections and bridges in Washington, D.C. The May Day protests resulted in the largest mass arrest in American history.[43]

In 1972, Yippies and Zippies (a younger YIP offshoot whose "guiding spirit" was Tom Forcade) staged protests at the Republican convention in Miami.[44] Some of the Miami protests were larger and more militant than the ones in Chicago in 1968. After Miami, the Zippies evolved back into Yippies.[45]

Yippies organized marijuana "smoke-ins" across North America through the 1970s and into the '80s. The first YIP smoke-in was attended by 25,000 in Washington, D.C. on July 4, 1970.[46] There was a culture clash when many of the hippie protesters strolled en masse into the nearby "Honor America Day" festivities with Billy Graham and Bob Hope. On Aug. 7, 1971, a Yippie smoke-in in Vancouver was attacked by police, resulting in the Gastown Riot, one of the most famous protests in Canadian history.[47] The annual July 4 Yippie smoke-in in Washington, D.C., became a counterculture tradition.[48]

[edit] Alternative culture

Yippies organized alternative institutions in their counterculture communities. In Tucson, Yippies operated a free store; in Vancouver, Yippies established the People's Defense Fund to provide legal help for the often-harassed hippie community; in Milwaukee, Yippies helped launch the city's first food co-op.[49] Many Yippies were involved in the underground press. Some were the editors of major underground newspapers or alternative magazines, including Yippies Abe Peck (Chicago Seed), [50] Jeff Shero Nightbyrd (New York's Rat),[51] Paul Krassner (The Realist),[52] Robin Morgan (Ms. Magazine),[53] Mayer Vishner (L.A. Weekly),[54] and Gabrielle Schang (Alternative Media).[55] New York Yippie Coca Crystal hosted the popular cable TV program If I Can't Dance You Can Keep Your Revolution.[56]

Yippies were active in alternative music and movies. Singer-songwriters Phil Ochs and David Peel were Yippies. "I helped design the party, formulate the idea of what Yippie was going to be, in the early part of 1968," Ochs testified at the Chicago Eight trial.[57] The Youth International Party founded the U.S. branch of the Rock Against Racism movement in 1979. YIP-affiliated John Sinclair managed Detroit's proto-punk band the MC5.[58]. Vancouver Yippies Ken Lester and David Spaner were the managers of Canada's two most notorious political punk bands, D.O.A. (Lester) and The Subhumans (Spaner).[59] New York Yippie Tom Forcade was the producer of the first documentary about punk rock, D.O.A., featuring footage of the Sex Pistols' 1978 tour of America.[60] Baltimore Yippie John Waters became a renowned independent filmmaker.[61]

[edit] Pranking the system

Yippies mocked the system and its authority. The Youth International Party, having nominated a pig for U.S. president in 1968, ran "Nobody" as its presidential candidate in 1976. The Yippie campaign slogan: "Nobody's perfect."[62] When Vancouver Yippie Betty "Zaria" Andrew ran as the Youth International Party's candidate for mayor in 1970, one of her campaign promises was to repeal every law, including the law of gravity so everyone can get high.[63] That year, Berkeley Yippie Stew Albert ran for sheriff of Alameda County, challenging the incumbent sheriff to a high-noon duel and receiving 65,000 votes.[64] Detroit Yippies went to city hall and applied for a permit to blow up the General Motors building in 1970. After the permit was denied, the Yippies said that it just goes to show you can't work within the system to change the system. "This destroys my last hope for legal channels," said Detroit Yippie Jumpin' Jack Flash.[65]

Some Yippies, including Robin Morgan, Nancy Kurshan, Sharon Krebs and Judy Gumbo, were active in the guerrilla-theater feminist group W.I.T.C.H. (Women's International Terrorist Conspiracy from Hell), which combined "theatricality, humor, and activism."[66]

Pie-throwing as a political act was invented by Yippies.[67] The first political pieing was carried out by Tom Forcade, when he pied a member of the President's Commission on Obscenity and Pornography in 1970. Columbus Yippie Steve Conliff pied Ohio Governor James Rhodes in 1977 to protest the Kent State shootings.[68] Aron "The Pieman" Kay became the best-known Yippie pie-thrower, with his targets including Sen. Daniel Moynihan, conservative activist Phyllis Schlafly, ex-CIA head William Colby and conservative columnist William F. Buckley.[69]

[edit] Writings

In June 1971 Abbie Hoffman and Al Bell started the pioneer phreak magazine The Youth International Party Line (YIPL). Later, the name was changed to TAP for Technological American Party or Technological Assistance Program.

A YIP-related newspaper, The Yipster Times, was founded by Dana Beal in 1972 and published in New York City. It changed its name to Overthrow in 1979. The Open Road, an internationally-known journal of the anti-authoritarian left, was founded by a core of Vancouver Yippies. Milwaukee Yippies published Street Sheet, the first of the anarchist zines later to become so popular in many cities. Tom Forcade founded High Times magazine. The New Yippie Press Collective published Blacklisted News: Secret Histories from Chicago to 1984 in 1983. It is still in print.

The most famous writing to come out of the Yippie movement is Abbie Hoffman’s Steal This Book, which is considered to be a guidebook in causing general mischief and capturing the spirit of the Yippie movement. Hoffman is also the author of Revolution for the Hell of It which has been called the original Yippie book. This book claims that there were no actual yippies, and that the name was just a term used to create a myth.[70]

Jerry Rubin published his account of the Yippie movement in his book Do IT!: Scenarios of Revolution.

Other significant Yippie books: Woodstock Nation and Soon to Be a Major Motion Picture (Abbie Hoffman), We Are Everywhere (Jerry Rubin), Trashing (Anita Hoffman), Who the Hell is Stew Albert? (Stew Albert), Confessions of a Raving, Unconfined Nut (Paul Krassner) and Shards of God (Ed Sanders).

[edit] In the 2000s

The Yippies have continued as a small movement into the early 2000s. The New York chapter no longer publishes a newspaper, but is known for their annual marches for decades in New York City to legalize marijuana. Dana Beal, of New York City, started the Global Marijuana March in 1999. Beal also crusades for the use of Ibogaine[71] to treat heroin addicts. Another Yippie, A.J. Weberman, deconstructs the poetry of Bob Dylan and speculates about the tramps on the Grassy Knoll through his various websites. Weberman is also active in the Jewish Defense Organization.

Two of the best-known original Yippies met untimely ends. Abbie Hoffman committed suicide in 1989 with alcohol and about 150 phenobarbital pills[72], while Jerry Rubin became a stockbroker, and in 1994 was fatally injured by a car while jaywalking.[73] By the age of 50, Rubin had broken with many of his previous countercultural views; he was interviewed by the New York Times, which described him as a "yippie-turned-conspicuous-yuppie." In the interview, he stated that "Until me, nobody had really taken off their clothes and screamed out loud, 'It's O.K. to make money!'"[74]

[edit] Yippie Museum/Café

In 2004, the Yippies, along with the National AIDS Brigade, purchased their 9 Bleecker Street headquarters for $1.2 million.[75] It has since been converted into the "Yippie Museum/Café and Gift Shop".[76][77] It houses an independently-operated café that features live music on scheduled nights (no alcohol served or permitted on premises).[78] Performers at the café have included both nationally-known figures and local bands, including Roseanne Barr, Ed Rosenthal, The Fiction Circus, and Joel Landy. The museum is chartered by the Board of Regents of the University of the State of New York.[79] According to the curator's message at the official website the museum "exists to preserve the history of the Youth International Party and all of its offshoots."[77] The Board of Directors consists of Dana Beal, Aron Kay, David Peel, William Propp, Paul DeRienzo, and A. J. Weberman.[80]

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ "Officially founded by Abbie Hoffman and Jerry Rubin in January 1968, the Youth International Party, or Yippies, were a countercultural group that briefly gained fame as a part of American activism. The group’s trademark was their theatrical style; the Yippies parlayed anti-authoritative dissent and subversion into surrealism, spontaneity, mischief, and performance." -- Independent Lens [1]
  2. ^ Holloway, David (2002). "Yippies". St. James Encyclopedia of Pop Culture. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g1epc/is_tov/ai_2419101355/pg_2. 
  3. ^ a b Abbie Hoffman, Soon to be a Major Motion Picture, page 128. Perigee Books, 1980.
  4. ^ Gitlin, Todd (1993). The Sixties: Years of Hope, Days of Rage. New York. pp. 286. 
  5. ^ ABC News
  6. ^ Jerry Rubin, DO IT! Scenarios of the Revolution, page 81, Simon and Schuster, 1970.
  7. ^ David Lewis Stein, LIving the Revolution: The Yippies in Chicago, Page 11, The Bobbs-merrill Company, 1969.
  8. ^ Abbie Hoffman, Steal This Book, page 73. Grove Press, 1971.
  9. ^ a b "'60s live again, minus the LSD". By Paul Krassner. January 28, 2007. Los Angeles Times.
  10. ^ David T. Dellinger, Judy Clavir and John Spitzer, The Conspiracy Trial, page 349. Bobbs-Merrill, 1970.
  11. ^ Jonah Raskin, For the Hell of It, page 129. University of California Press, 1996.
  12. ^ Abbie Hoffman, Revolution For the Hell of It, page 81. Dial Press, 1968.
  13. ^ Testimony of Judy Collins in the Chicago Seven Trial. Trial transcript.
  14. ^ Paul Krassner, Confessions of a Raving Unconfined Nut, p. 158.
  15. ^ NOW with Bill Moyers. November 2004 transcript [2]. PBS.
  16. ^ The New Yippie Book Collective (eds.), Blacklisted News: Secret Histories from Chicago to 1984, page 514. Bleecker Publishing, 1983.
  17. ^ Abbie Hoffman, Woodstock Nation, back cover. Vintage Books, 1969.
  18. ^ Today in Political History. Newsweek.com
  19. ^ Flags of the World - Youth International Party listing
  20. ^ lib.virginia.edu
  21. ^ Abbie Hoffman, Soon to be a Major Motion Picture, page 86. Perigee Books, 1980.
  22. ^ a b Jerry Rubin, Do It!, page 86. Simon and Schuster, 1970.
  23. ^ Joseph Boskin, Rebellious Laughter: People's humor in America, page 98. Syracuse University Press, 1997.
  24. ^ "Protest: The Banners of Dissent". TIME. Oct. 27, 1967. p. 9. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,841090-9,00.html. Retrieved 26 December 2009. 
  25. ^ Jonah Raskin, For the hell of it: The life and times of Abbie Hoffman, Page 117, University of California Press, 1996
  26. ^ Gitlin, Todd (1993). The Sixties: Years of Hope, Days of Rage. New York. pp. 238. 
  27. ^ Neil Hamilton, The ABC-CLIO companion to the 1960s counterculture in America, Page 340, ABC-CLIO, 1997.
  28. ^ Youth International Party, 1992.
  29. ^ Jerry Rubin, A Yippie Manifesto.
  30. ^ Thomas Geogheghan, "By Any Other Name. Brass Tacks", 24 February 1969, The Harvard Crimson.
  31. ^ Norman Mailer, Miami and the Siege of Chicago, page 137. Signet Books, 1968.
  32. ^ David Farber, Chicago '68, page 177-8, University of Chicago Press, 1988.
  33. ^ Miller, James (1987). Democracy is in the Streets: From Port Huron to the Siege of Chicago. New York: Simon & Schuster. pp. 304. 
  34. ^ The Walker Report, Rights in Conflict, page 5. Bantam Books, 1968.
  35. ^ The Mess We Made: An Oral History of the '68 Convention, GQ magazine, page 191, August 2008.
  36. ^ David T. Dellinger, Judy Clavir and John Spitzer, The Conspiracy Trial, page 601. Bobbs-Merrill, 1970.
  37. ^ Abbie Hoffman, Soon to be a Major Motion Picture, page 170. Perigee Books, 1980.
  38. ^ The New Yippie Book Collective, Blacklisted News: Secret Histories from Chicago to 1984, Page 16. Bleecker Publishing, 1983.
  39. ^ "TEAR GAS REPELS RADICALS' ATTACK," By John Kifner. New York Times, November 16, 1969.
  40. ^ The New Yippie Book Collective, ed (1983). Blacklisted News: Secret Histories from Chicago to 1984. Bleecker Publishing. pp. 459. 
  41. ^ The New Yippie Book Collective, ed (1983). Blacklisted News: Secret Histories from Chicago to 1984. Bleecker Publishing. pp. 457. 
  42. ^ The New Yippie Book Collective, ed (1983). Blacklisted News: Secret Histories from Chicago to 1984. Bleecker Publishing. pp. 403. 
  43. ^ Lester Friedman, American cinema of the 1970s: themes and variations, Page 49, NJ Rutgers University Press, 2007
  44. ^ The New Yippie Book Collective (eds.), Blacklisted News: Secret Histories from Chicago to 1984, page 354. Bleecker Publishing, 1983.
  45. ^ Abbie Hoffman, Soon to be a Major Motion Picture, page 278. Perigee Books, 1980.
  46. ^ The New Yippie Book Collective, ed (1983). Blacklisted News: Secret Histories from Chicago to 1984. Bleecker Publishing. pp. 4. 
  47. ^ "Police charge yippie plot," by Jes Odam, Vancouver Sun, Oct. 1, 1971.
  48. ^ The New Yippie Book Collective (eds.), Blacklisted News: Secret Histories from Chicago to 1984, page 487. Bleecker Publishing, 1983.
  49. ^ The New Yippie Book Collective, ed (1983). Blacklisted News: Secret Histories from Chicago to 1984. Bleecker Publishing. pp. 656. 
  50. ^ Jonah Raskin, For the Hell of It, page 132. University of California Press, 1996.
  51. ^ http://theragblog.blogspot.com/2007/12/back-in-business-of-stirring-up-trouble.html
  52. ^ Jeff Kisseloff, Generation on fire: voices of protest format he 1960s: an oral history, Page 64 University Press of Kentucky, 2006
  53. ^ Lorraine Code, Encyclopedia of Feminist Theories, Page 350, Routledge Press, 2000
  54. ^ John Powers, "A Letter at 3 PM," L.A. Weekly, Dec. 4, 2008
  55. ^ Jonah Raskin, For the Hell of It, University of Califormia Press, Page 228, 1996.
  56. ^ www.brinkdvd.com/shop/product/80/
  57. ^ www.flamesofdiscontent.org/news.html
  58. ^ www.counterpunch.org/albert08282008.html
  59. ^ www.rickmcgrath.com/georgia_straight/staffers.html
  60. ^ Adrian Boot, Chris Salewizc, Punk: the illustrated history of a music revolution, Page 104, Penguin Studio, 1996.
  61. ^ nymag.com/fashion/lookbook/24358/
  62. ^ The New Yippie Book Collective, Blacklisted News: Secret Histories from Chicago to 1984, Page 321. Bleecker Publishing, 1983.
  63. ^ vcmtalk.com/vancouver_yippie
  64. ^ Stew Albert, Who the Hell is Stew Albert?, Page 131. Red Hen Press, 2003.
  65. ^ The New Yippie Book Collective, Blacklisted News: Secret Histories from Chicago to 1984, Page 414. Bleecker Publishing, 1983.
  66. ^ Robin Morgan, Sisterhood is Powerful, page 538. Vintage Books, 1970.
  67. ^ Laurence Leamer, The Paper Revolutionaries, page 72. Simon and Schuster, 1972.
  68. ^ James A Schnell, Case Studies in Culture and Communication: a group perspective, Page 17, Lexington Books, 2003.
  69. ^ The New Yippie Book Collective (eds.), Blacklisted News: Secret Histories from Chicago to 1984, page 288. Bleecker Publishing, 1983.
  70. ^ Judith Clavir Albert & Stewart Edward Albert, ed (1984). The Sixties Papers: Documents of a Rebellious Decade. Connecticut. pp. 402. 
  71. ^ K.R. Alper, H.S. Lotsof, C.D. Kaplan (2008). "The Ibogaine Medical Subculture". J. Ethnopharmacology 115 (1): 9–24. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2007.08.034. PMID 18029124. 
  72. ^ New York Times article Abbie Hoffman Committed Suicide Using Barbiturates, Autopsy Shows published April 19, 1989
  73. ^ telegraph.co.uk
  74. ^ nytimes.com
  75. ^ "Yippies Apply for a Piece of Establishment". By Deborah Kolben. 16 March 2006. New York Sun.
  76. ^ "Museum will have Abbie’s trash, Rubin’s road kill". By Lincoln Anderson. The Villager. February 1-7, 2006.
  77. ^ a b The Yippie Museum/Café and Gift Shop. Official website.
  78. ^ "At the Yippie Museum, It’s Parrots and Flannel". By Jennifer Bleyer. January 20, 2008. New York Times.
  79. ^ NY Board of Regents - Charter Applications for March 2006
  80. ^ YippieCafe.com.

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