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Malcolm X


Malcolm X

Malcolm X, March 1964
Alternate name(s): Malcolm Little,
El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz
Date of birth: May 19, 1925(1925-05-19)
Place of birth: Omaha, Nebraska, U.S.
Date of death: February 21, 1965 (aged 39)
Place of death: New York City, New York, U.S.
Movement: Black nationalism, Pan-Africanism
Major organizations: Nation of Islam,
Muslim Mosque, Inc.,
Organization of Afro-American Unity
Religion: Sunni Islam
Influences Elijah Muhammad,
Marcus Garvey

Malcolm X (pronounced /ˈmΓ¦lkəm ΛˆÉ›ks/; May 19, 1925 â€“ February 21, 1965), born Malcolm Little and also known as El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz[1] (Arabic: ø§ù„ø­ø§ø¬ù‘ ù…ø§ù„ùƒ ø§ù„ø΄ø¨ø§ø²â€Ž), was an African-American Muslim minister, public speaker, and human rights activist.[2][3][4][5] To his admirers, he was a courageous advocate for the rights of African Americans, a man who indicted white America in the harshest terms for its crimes against black Americans.[6] His detractors accused him of preaching racism, black supremacy, antisemitism, and violence.[7][8][9][10][11] He has been described as one of the greatest, and most influential, African Americans in history.[12][13][14]

Malcolm X was born in Omaha, Nebraska. The events of his childhood, including his father's lessons concerning black pride and self-reliance, and his own experiences concerning race, played a significant role in Malcolm X's adult life. By the time he was thirteen, his father had died and his mother had been committed to a mental hospital. After living in a series of foster homes, Malcolm X became involved in hustling and other criminal activities in Boston and New York. In 1946, Malcolm X was sentenced to eight to ten years in prison.

While in prison, Malcolm X became a member of the Nation of Islam. After his parole in 1952, he became one of the Nation's leaders and chief spokesmen. For nearly a dozen years, he was the public face of the Nation of Islam. Tension between Malcolm X and Elijah Muhammad, head of the Nation of Islam, led to Malcolm X's departure from the organization in March 1964.

After leaving the Nation of Islam, Malcolm X became a Sunni Muslim and made a pilgrimage to Mecca, after which he disavowed racism. He traveled extensively throughout Africa and the Middle East. He founded Muslim Mosque, Inc., a religious organization, and the secular, Pan-Africanist, Organization of Afro-American Unity. Less than a year after he left the Nation of Islam, Malcolm X was assassinated by three members of the group while giving a speech in New York.

Contents

[edit] Early years

A ledger with names, ages, and other personal information
The Little family in the 1930 U.S. Census

Malcolm Little was born on May 19, 1925, in Omaha, Nebraska, to Earl and Louise Little (nΓ©e Louisa Norton).[15] His father was an outspoken Baptist lay speaker. He supported Pan-African activist Marcus Garvey and was a local leader of the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA).[16] Malcolm never forgot the values of black pride and self-reliance that his father and other UNIA leaders preached.[17] Malcolm X later said that three of Earl Little's brothers, one of whom was lynched, died violently at the hands of white men.[18] Because of Ku Klux Klan threats, the family relocated in 1926 to Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and shortly thereafter to Lansing, Michigan.

Earl Little was dark-skinned and born in Georgia.[19] He had three children from his first marriage—Ella, Mary, and Earl Jr.—and seven with his second wife, Louise, Malcolm coming fourth—Wilfred, Hilda, Philbert, Malcolm, Reginald, Yvonne, and Wesley.[20]

Louise Little had been born in Grenada. Because her father was Scottish, she was so light-skinned that she could have passed for white. Malcolm inherited his light complexion from his mother and maternal grandfather.[21] Initially he felt his light skin was a status symbol, but he later said he "hated every drop of that white rapist's blood that is in me."[22] Malcolm X later remembered feeling that his father favored him because he was the lightest-skinned child in the family; however, he thought his mother treated him harshly for the same reason.[23] One of Malcolm's nicknames, "Red", derived from the tinge of his hair. According to one biographer, at birth he had "ash-blonde hair ... tinged with cinnamon", and at age four, "reddish-blonde hair".[24] His hair darkened as he aged, yet he also resembled his paternal grandmother, whose hair "turned reddish in the summer sun."[15] The issue of skin color and skin tone took on very significant implications later in Malcolm's life.[19]

In December 1924, Louise Little was threatened by Klansmen while she was pregnant with Malcolm. She recalled that the Klansmen warned the family to leave Omaha, because Earl Little's activities with UNIA were "spreading trouble".[25]

After they moved to Lansing, their house was burned in 1929, however the family escaped without physical injury. On September 28, 1931, Earl Little was fatally struck by a streetcar in Lansing. Authorities ruled his death an accident. The police reported that Earl Little was conscious when they arrived on the scene, and he told them he had slipped and fallen under the streetcar's wheels.[26] Malcolm X later remembered that the black community disputed the cause of death, believing there was circumstantial evidence of assault. His family had frequently been harassed by the Black Legion, a white supremacist group that his father accused of burning down their home in 1929. Some blacks believed the Black Legion was responsible for Earl Little's death. As Malcolm later wrote, "How could my father bash himself in the head, then get down across the streetcar tracks to be run over?"[27]

Though Earl Little had two life insurance policies, his family received death benefits solely from the smaller policy. The insurance company of the larger policy claimed that his father had committed suicide and refused to issue the benefit.[28] Several years after her husband's death, Louise had her youngest son, Robert Little, by an unnamed partner.[29] In December 1938, Louise Little had a nervous breakdown and was declared legally insane. The Little siblings were split up and sent to different foster homes. The state formally committed Louise Little to the state mental hospital at Kalamazoo, Michigan, where she remained until Malcolm and his siblings secured her release 26 years later.[30]

Malcolm Little was one of the best students in his junior high school, but he dropped out after a white eighth-grade teacher told him that his aspirations of being a lawyer were "no realistic goal for a nigger."[31] Years later, Malcolm X would laugh about the incident, but at the time it was humiliating. It made him feel that there was no place in the white world for a career-oriented black man, no matter how smart he was.[31] After living with a series of white foster parents, Malcolm moved to Boston in February 1941 to live with his older half-sister, Ella Little Collins.[32][33]

[edit] Young adult years

Collins lived in Roxbury, a predominantly African-American middle-class neighborhood of Boston. It was the first time Little had seen so many black people. He was drawn to the cultural and social life of the neighborhood.[34]

In Boston, Little held a variety of jobs and found intermittent employment with the New Haven Railroad. Between 1943 and 1946, he drifted from city to city and job to job. He left Boston to live for a short time in Flint, Michigan. He moved to New York City in 1943. Living in Harlem, he became involved in drug dealing, gambling, racketeering, robbery, and steering prostitutes.[35] According to biographer Bruce Perry, Little occasionally engaged in sex with other men, usually, though not always for money. In a Michigan boarding house, he raised rent money by sleeping with a gay transvestite.[36] Later, in New York, Little and some friends raised funds by being fellated by men at the YMCA where he lived.[36] In Boston a man paid Little to undress him, sprinkle him with talcum powder, and bring him to orgasm.[37] No other biographers have written about these sexual encounters.[38][39][40]

In 1943, the U.S. draft board ordered Little to register for military service.[41] He later recalled that he put on a display to avoid the draft by telling the examining officer that he could not wait to "steal us some guns, and kill us [some] crackers."[42] Military physicians classified him as "mentally disqualified for military service". He was issued a 4-F card, relieving him of his service obligations.[41]

In late 1945, Little returned to Boston. With a group of associates, he began a series of elaborate burglaries targeting the residences of wealthy white families.[43] On January 12, 1946, Little was arrested for burglary while trying to pick up a stolen watch he had left for repairs at a jewelry shop.[44] The shop owner called the police because the watch was very expensive, and the police had alerted all Boston jewelers that it had been stolen. Little told the police that he had a gun on his person and surrendered so the police would treat him more leniently.[45] Two days later, Little was indicted for carrying firearms. On January 16, he was charged with larceny and breaking and entering, and eventually sentenced to eight to ten years in prison.[46]

On February 27, Little began serving his sentence at the Charlestown State Prison in Charlestown, Boston. While in prison, Little earned the nickname of "Satan" for his hostility toward religion.[47] Little met a self-educated man in prison named John Elton Bembry (referred to as "Bimbi" in The Autobiography of Malcolm X).[48] Bembry was a well-regarded prisoner at Charlestown, and Malcolm X would later describe him as "the first man I had ever seen command total respect ... with words."[49] Gradually, the two men became friends and Bembry convinced Little to educate himself.[50] Little developed a voracious appetite for reading, and he frequently read after the prison lights had been turned off.[51]

In 1948, Little's brother Philbert wrote, telling him about the Nation of Islam. Like the UNIA, the Nation preached black self-reliance and, ultimately, the unification of members of the African diaspora, free from white American and European domination.[52] Little was not interested in joining until his brother Reginald wrote, saying, "Malcolm, don't eat any more pork and don't smoke any more cigarettes. I'll show you how to get out of prison."[53] Little quit smoking, and the next time pork was served in the prison dining hall, he refused to eat it.[54]

When Reginald came to visit Little, he described the group's teachings, including the belief that white people are devils. Afterward, Little thought about all the white people he had known, and he realized that he'd never had a relationship with a white person or social institution that wasn't based on dishonesty, injustice, greed, and hatred. Little began to reconsider his dismissal of all religion and he became receptive to the message of the Nation of Islam. Other family members who had joined the Nation wrote or visited and encouraged Little to join.[55]

In February 1948, mostly through his sister's efforts, Little was transferred to an experimental prison in Norfolk, Massachusetts, a facility that had a much larger library.[56] In late 1948, he wrote a letter to Elijah Muhammad, the leader of the Nation of Islam. Muhammad advised him to atone for his crimes by renouncing his past and by humbly bowing in prayer to Allah and promising never to engage in destructive behavior again. Little, who always had been rebellious and deeply skeptical, found it very difficult to bow in prayer. It took him a week to bend his knees. Finally he prayed, and he became a member of the Nation of Islam.[57] For the remainder of his incarceration, Little maintained regular correspondence with Muhammad.[58]

On August 7, 1952, Little was paroled and was released from prison.[46] He later reflected on the time he spent in prison after his conversion: "Months passed without my even thinking about being imprisoned. In fact, up to then, I had never been so truly free in my life."[59]

[edit] Nation of Islam

In 1952, after his release from prison, Little visited Elijah Muhammad in Chicago, Illinois.[60] Then, like many members of the Nation of Islam, he changed his surname to "X". In his autobiography, Malcolm X explained the "X": "The Muslim's 'X' symbolized the true African family name that he never could know. For me, my 'X' replaced the white slavemaster name of 'Little' which some blue-eyed devil named Little had imposed upon my paternal forebears."[61]

The FBI opened a file on Malcolm X in March 1953 after hearing from an informant that Malcolm X described himself as a Communist. Soon the FBI turned its attention from concerns about possible Communist Party association to Malcolm X's rapid ascent in the Nation of Islam.[62]

In June 1953, Malcolm X was named assistant minister of the Nation of Islam's Temple Number One[63] in Detroit.[64] By late 1953, he established Boston's Temple Number Eleven.[65] In March 1954, Malcolm X expanded Temple Number Twelve in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.[66] Two months later he was selected to lead the Nation of Islam's Temple Number Seven in Harlem.[67] He rapidly expanded its membership.[68] After a 1959 television broadcast in New York City about the Nation of Islam, The Hate That Hate Produced, Malcolm X became known to a much wider audience. Representatives of the print media, radio, and television frequently asked him for comments on issues. He was also sought as a spokesman by reporters from other countries.[69]

Beside his skill as a speaker, Malcolm X had an impressive physical presence. He stood 6 feet 3 inches (1.91 m) tall and weighed about 180 pounds (82 kg).[70] According to one writer, Malcolm X was "powerfully built",[71] and another described him as a "mesmerizingly handsome ... and always spotlessly well-groomed".[70]

From his adoption of the Nation of Islam in 1952 until he left the organization in 1964, Malcolm X promoted the Nation's teachings. He taught that black people were the original people of the world,[72] and that white people were a race of devils.[73] In his speeches, Malcolm X said that black people were superior to white people, and that the demise of the white race was imminent.[74]

While the civil rights movement fought against racial segregation, Malcolm X advocated the complete separation of African Americans from white people. He proposed the establishment of a separate country for black people[75] as an interim measure until African Americans could return to Africa.[76] Malcolm X also rejected the civil rights movement's strategy of nonviolence and instead advocated that black people use any necessary means of self-defense to protect themselves.[77]

Malcolm X's speeches had a powerful effect on his audiences, generally African Americans who lived in the Northern and Western cities who were tired of being told to wait for freedom, justice, equality, and respect.[78] Many blacks felt that he articulated their complaints better than the civil rights movement did.[79][80]

Many white people, and some blacks, were alarmed by Malcolm X and the things he said. He and the Nation of Islam were described as hatemongers, black segregationists, violence-seekers, and a threat to improved race relations. Civil rights organizations denounced Malcolm X and the Nation as irresponsible extremists whose views were not representative of African Americans.[81]

Malcolm X was equally critical of the civil rights movement.[82] He described its leaders as "stooges" for the white establishment and said that Martin Luther King, Jr. was a "chump".[83][84] He criticized the 1963 March on Washington, which he called "the farce on Washington".[85] He said he did not know why black people were excited over a demonstration "run by whites in front of a statue of a president who has been dead for a hundred years and who didn't like us when he was alive".[86]

Malcolm X has been widely considered the second most influential leader of the Nation of Islam after Elijah Muhammad.[87] He was largely credited with increasing membership in the Nation of Islam from 500 in 1952 to 25,000 in 1963.[88][89] He inspired the boxer Cassius Clay (later known as Muhammad Ali) to join the Nation of Islam.[90] Ali later left the Nation of Islam and became a Sunni Muslim, as did Malcolm X.[91]

In early 1963, Malcolm X started collaborating with Alex Haley on The Autobiography of Malcolm X.[92] In 1964, he told Haley, "If I'm alive when this book comes out, it will be a miracle."[93] The book was not finished when Malcolm X was assassinated in 1965. Haley completed it and published it later that year.[94]

[edit] Marriage and family

On January 14, 1958, Malcolm X married Betty X (nΓ©e Sanders) in Lansing, Michigan.[95] The two had been friends for several years and—although they had never discussed the subject—Betty X suspected that he was interested in marriage. One day, he called and asked her to marry him.[96]

The couple had six daughters. Their names were Attallah, born in 1958 and named after Attila the Hun;[97] Qubilah, born in 1960 and named after Kublai Khan;[98] Ilyasah, born in 1962 and named after Elijah Muhammad;[99] Gamilah Lumumba, born in 1964 and named after Patrice Lumumba;[100] and twins, Malikah and Malaak, born in 1965 after their father's assassination and named for him.[101]

[edit] Meeting Fidel Castro and other world leaders

In September 1960, Fidel Castro arrived in New York to attend the meeting of the United Nations General Assembly. He and his entourage stayed at the Hotel Theresa in Harlem. Malcolm X was a prominent member of a Harlem-based welcoming committee made up of community leaders who met with Castro.[102] Castro was so impressed by Malcolm X that he requested a private meeting with him. At the end of their two-hour meeting, Castro invited Malcolm X to visit him in Cuba.[103] During the General Assembly meeting, Malcolm X was also invited to many official embassy functions sponsored by African nations, where he met heads of state and other leaders, including Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt, Ahmed SΓ©kou TourΓ© of Guinea, and Kenneth Kaunda of the Zambian African National Congress.[104]

[edit] Leaving the Nation of Islam

On December 1, 1963, when he was asked for a comment about the assassination of President Kennedy, Malcolm X said that it was a case of "chickens coming home to roost". He added that "chickens coming home to roost never did make me sad; they've always made me glad."[105] The New York Times wrote, "in further criticism of Mr. Kennedy, the Muslim leader cited the murders of Patrice Lumumba, Congo leader, of Medgar Evers, civil rights leader, and of the Negro girls bombed earlier this year in a Birmingham church. These, he said, were instances of other 'chickens coming home to roost'."[105]

The remarks prompted a widespread public outcry. The Nation of Islam, which had issued a message of condolence to the Kennedy family and ordered its ministers not to comment on the assassination, publicly censured their former shining star.[106] Although Malcolm X retained his post and rank as minister, he was prohibited from public speaking for 90 days.[107]

Martin Luther King, Jr. speaking with Malcolm X
Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X, March 26, 1964

On March 8, 1964, Malcolm X publicly announced his break from the Nation of Islam. He said that he was still a Muslim, but he felt the Nation of Islam had "gone as far as it can" because of its rigid religious teachings.[108] Malcolm X said he was going to organize a black nationalist organization that would try to "heighten the political consciousness" of African Americans.[108] He also expressed his desire to work with other civil rights leaders and said that Elijah Muhammad had prevented him from doing so in the past.[108]

One reason for the separation was growing tension between Malcolm X and Elijah Muhammad because of Malcolm X's dismay about rumors of Muhammad's extramarital affairs with young secretaries. Such actions were against the teachings of the Nation. Although at first Malcolm X ignored the rumors, he spoke with Muhammad's son Wallace and the women making the accusations. He came to believe that they were true, and Muhammad confirmed the rumors in 1963. Muhammad tried to justify his actions by referring to precedents by Biblical prophets.[109]

Another reason was resentment by people within the Nation. As Malcolm X had become a favorite of the media, many in the Nation's Chicago headquarters felt that he was over-shadowing Muhammad. Louis Lomax's 1963 book about the Nation of Islam, When the Word Is Given, featured a picture of Malcolm X on its cover and included five of his speeches, but only one of Muhammad's, which greatly upset Muhammad. Muhammad was also envious that a publisher was interested in Malcolm X's autobiography.[92]

After leaving the Nation of Islam, Malcolm X founded Muslim Mosque, Inc., a religious organization,[110][111] and the Organization of Afro-American Unity, a secular group that advocated Pan-Africanism.[112][113] On March 26, 1964, he met Martin Luther King, Jr. in Washington, D.C., after a press conference which followed both men attending the Senate to hear the debate on the Civil Rights bill. This was the only time the two men ever met; their meeting lasted only one minute, just long enough for photographers to take a picture.[114][115]

In April, Malcolm X made a speech titled "The Ballot or the Bullet" in which he advised African Americans to exercise their right to vote wisely.[116][117] Several Sunni Muslims encouraged Malcolm X to learn about Islam. Soon he converted to Sunni Islam, and decided to make his pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj).[118]

[edit] International travel

[edit] Pilgrimage to Mecca

On April 13, 1964, Malcolm X departed JFK Airport in New York for Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. His status as an authentic Muslim was questioned by Saudi authorities because of his United States passport and his inability to speak Arabic. Since only confessing Muslims are allowed into Mecca, he was separated from his group for about 20 hours.[119][120]

According to his autobiography, Malcolm X saw a telephone and remembered the book The Eternal Message of Muhammad by Abdul Rahman Hassan Azzam, which had been presented to him with his visa approval. He called Azzam's son, who arranged for his release. At the younger Azzam's home, he met Azzam Pasha, who gave Malcolm his suite at the Jeddah Palace Hotel. The next morning, Muhammad Faisal, the son of Prince Faisal, visited and informed Malcolm X that he was to be a state guest. The deputy chief of protocol accompanied Malcolm X to the Hajj Court, where he was allowed to make his pilgrimage.[121]

On April 19, Malcolm X completed the Hajj, making the seven circuits around the Kaaba, drinking from the Zamzam Well and running between the hills of Safah and Marwah seven times.[122] Malcolm X said the trip allowed him to see Muslims of different races interacting as equals. He came to believe that Islam could be the means by which racial problems could be overcome.[123]

[edit] Africa

Malcolm X visited Africa on three separate occasions, once in 1959 and twice in 1964. During his visits, he met officials, gave interviews to newspapers, and spoke on television and radio in Egypt, Ethiopia, Tanganyika (now Tanzania), Nigeria, Ghana, Guinea, Sudan, Senegal, Liberia, Algeria, and Morocco.[124] Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana, Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt, and Ahmed Ben Bella of Algeria invited Malcolm X to serve in their governments.[125]

In 1959, Malcolm X traveled to Egypt (then known as the United Arab Republic), Sudan, Nigeria, and Ghana to arrange a tour for Elijah Muhammad.[126] The first of the two trips Malcolm X made to Africa in 1964 lasted from April 13 until May 21, before and after his Hajj.[127] On May 8, following his speech at the University of Ibadan, Malcolm X was made an honorary member of the Nigerian Muslim Students' Association. During this reception the students bestowed upon him the name "Omowale", which means "the son who has come home" in the Yoruba language.[128] Malcolm X wrote in his autobiography that he "had never received a more treasured honor."[129]

On July 9, 1964, Malcolm X returned to Africa.[130] On July 17, he was welcomed to the second meeting of the Organization of African Unity in Cairo as a representative of the Organization of Afro-American Unity. By the time he returned to the United States on November 24, 1964, Malcolm had met with every prominent African leader and established an international connection between Africans on the continent and those in the diaspora.[125]

[edit] France and the United Kingdom

On November 23, 1964, on his way home from Africa, Malcolm X stopped in Paris, where he spoke at the Salle de la MutualitΓ©.[131][132] A week later, on November 30, Malcolm X flew to the United Kingdom, and on December 3 participated in a debate at the Oxford Union. The topic of the debate was "Extremism in the Defense of Liberty is No Vice; Moderation in the Pursuit of Justice is No Virtue", and Malcolm X argued the affirmative. Interest in the debate was so high that it was televised nationally by the BBC.[133][134]

On February 5, 1965, Malcolm X went to Europe again.[135] On February 8, he spoke in London, before the first meeting of the Council of African Organizations.[136] The next day, Malcolm X tried to go to France, but he was refused entry.[137] On February 12, he visited Smethwick, near Birmingham, which had become a byword for racial division after the 1964 general election, when the Conservative Party won the parliamentary seat after rumors that their candidate's supporters had used the slogan "If you want a nigger for your neighbour, vote Labour."[138]

[edit] In the United States

Malcolm X in March 1964

After leaving the Nation of Islam, Malcolm X spoke before a wide variety of audiences in the United States. He spoke at regular meetings of Muslim Mosque, Inc., and the Organization of Afro-American Unity. He was one of the most sought-after speakers on college campuses,[139] and one of his top aides later wrote that he "welcomed every opportunity to speak to college students."[140] Malcolm X also spoke before political groups such as the Militant Labor Forum.[141]

Tensions increased between Malcolm X and the Nation of Islam. As early as February 1964, a member of Temple Number Seven was given orders by the Nation of Islam to wire explosives to Malcolm X's car.[142] In September 1964, Ebony published a photograph of Malcolm X holding an M1 Carbine and peering out a window. The photo was intended to illustrate his determination to defend himself and his family against the death threats he was receiving.[143][144]

The Nation of Islam and its leaders began making threats against Malcolm X both in private and in public. On March 23, 1964, Elijah Muhammad told Boston minister Louis X (later known as Louis Farrakhan) that hypocrites like Malcolm should have "their heads cut off."[145] The April 10 edition of Muhammad Speaks featured a cartoon in which his severed head was shown bouncing.[146] On July 9, John Ali, a top aide to Muhammad, answered a question about Malcolm X by saying that "anyone who opposes the Honorable Elijah Muhammad puts their life in jeopardy."[147] The December 4 issue of Muhammad Speaks included an article by Louis X that railed against Malcolm X and said that "such a man as Malcolm is worthy of death."[148]

Some threats were made anonymously. During the month of June 1964, FBI surveillance recorded two such threats. On June 8, a man called Malcolm X's home and told Betty Shabazz to "tell him he's as good as dead."[149] On June 12, an FBI informant reported getting an anonymous telephone call from somebody who said "Malcolm X is going to be bumped off."[150]

In June 1964, the Nation of Islam sued to reclaim Malcolm X's residence in Queens, New York, which they claimed to own. The suit was successful, and Malcolm X was ordered to vacate.[151] On February 14, 1965, the night before a scheduled hearing to postpone the eviction date, the house burned to the ground. Malcolm X and his family survived. No one was charged with any crime.[152]

[edit] Assassination

An overturned chair in front of a mural, on which several chalk circles have been drawn around bullet-holes
Bullet holes in back of the stage where Malcolm X was shot (circled)

On February 21, 1965, in Manhattan's Audubon Ballroom, Malcolm X began to speak to a meeting of the Organization of Afro-American Unity when a disturbance broke out in the crowd of 400.[153] A man yelled, "Nigger! Get your hand outta my pocket!"[154][155] As Malcolm X and his bodyguards moved to quiet the disturbance,[156] a man rushed forward and shot him in the chest with a sawed-off shotgun.[157] Two other men charged the stage and fired handguns, hitting him 16 times.[155] Furious onlookers caught and beat one of the assassins as the others fled the ballroom.[158][159] Malcolm X was pronounced dead at 3:30 p.m., shortly after he arrived at Columbia Presbyterian Hospital.[153]

Talmadge Hayer, a Nation of Islam member also known as Thomas Hagan, was arrested on the scene.[159] Eyewitnesses identified two more suspects, Norman 3X Butler and Thomas 15X Johnson, also members of the Nation. All three were charged in the case.[160] At first Hayer denied involvement, but during the trial he confessed to having fired shots at Malcolm X. He testified that Butler and Johnson were not present and were not involved in the assassination, but he declined to name the men who had joined him in the shooting.[161] All three men were convicted.[162]

Butler, now known as Muhammad Abdul Aziz, was paroled in 1985. He became the head of the Nation of Islam's Harlem mosque in New York in 1998. He continues to maintain his innocence.[163] Johnson, now known as Khalil Islam, was released from prison in 1987. During his time in prison, he rejected the teachings of the Nation of Islam and converted to Sunni Islam. He, too, maintains his innocence.[164] Hayer, now known as Mujahid Halim,[165] was paroled in 2010.[166]

[edit] Funeral

The number of mourners who came to the public viewing in Harlem's Unity Funeral Home from February 23 through February 26 was estimated to be between 14,000 and 30,000.[167] The funeral of Malcolm X was held on February 27 at the Faith Temple Church of God in Christ in Harlem. The Church was filled to capacity with more than 1,000 people.[168] Loudspeakers were set up outside the Temple so the overflowing crowd could listen[169] and a local television station broadcast the funeral live.[170]

Among the civil rights leaders in attendance were John Lewis, Bayard Rustin, James Forman, James Farmer, Jesse Gray, and Andrew Young.[168][171] Actor and activist Ossie Davis delivered the eulogy, describing Malcolm X as "our shining black prince".

There are those who will consider it their duty, as friends of the Negro people, to tell us to revile him, to flee, even from the presence of his memory, to save ourselves by writing him out of the history of our turbulent times. Many will ask what Harlem finds to honor in this stormy, controversial and bold young captain—and we will smile. Many will say turn away—away from this man, for he is not a man but a demon, a monster, a subverter and an enemy of the black man—and we will smile. They will say that he is of hate—a fanatic, a racist—who can only bring evil to the cause for which you struggle! And we will answer and say to them: Did you ever talk to Brother Malcolm? Did you ever touch him, or have him smile at you? Did you ever really listen to him? Did he ever do a mean thing? Was he ever himself associated with violence or any public disturbance? For if you did you would know him. And if you knew him you would know why we must honor him.[172]

Malcolm X was buried at Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, New York.[170] At the gravesite after the ceremony, friends took the shovels away from the waiting gravediggers and completed the burial themselves.[173] Actor and activist Ruby Dee (wife of Ossie Davis) and Juanita Poitier (wife of Sidney Poitier) established the Committee of Concerned Mothers to raise funds to buy a house and pay educational expenses for Malcolm X's family.[174]

[edit] Responses to assassination

Reactions to Malcolm X's assassination were varied. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. sent a telegram to Betty Shabazz, expressing his sadness over "the shocking and tragic assassination of your husband."

While we did not always see eye to eye on methods to solve the race problem, I always had a deep affection for Malcolm and felt that he had a great ability to put his finger on the existence and root of the problem. He was an eloquent spokesman for his point of view and no one can honestly doubt that Malcolm had a great concern for the problems that we face as a race.[175]

Elijah Muhammad told the annual Savior's Day convention on February 26, "Malcolm X got just what he preached."[176] "We didn't want to kill Malcolm and didn't try to kill him," Muhammad said. "We know such ignorant, foolish teachings would bring him to his own end."[177]

The New York Times wrote that Malcolm X was "an extraordinary and twisted man" who "turn[ed] many true gifts to evil purpose" and that his life was "strangely and pitifully wasted".[7] The New York Post wrote that "even his sharpest critics recognized his brilliance—often wild, unpredictable and eccentric, but nevertheless possessing promise that must now remain unrealized."[178]

The international press, particularly that of Africa, was sympathetic. The Daily Times of Nigeria wrote that Malcolm X "will have a place in the palace of martyrs."[8] The Ghanaian Times likened him to John Brown and Patrice Lumumba among "a host of Africans and Americans who were martyred in freedom's cause".[179]

Guangming Daily, published in Beijing, stated that "Malcolm was murdered because he fought for freedom and equal rights."[180] In Cuba, El Mundo described the assassination as "another racist crime to eradicate by violence the struggle against discrimination".[10]

[edit] Allegations of conspiracy

Within days of the assassination, questions were raised about who bore ultimate responsibility. On February 23, James Farmer, the leader of the Congress of Racial Equality, announced at a news conference that local drug dealers, and not the Nation of Islam, were to blame.[181] Others accused the New York Police Department, the FBI, or the CIA, citing the lack of police protection, the ease with which the assassins entered the Audubon Ballroom, and the failure of the police to preserve the crime scene.[182][183]

In the 1970s, the public learned about COINTELPRO and other secret FBI programs directed towards infiltrating and disrupting civil rights organizations during the 1950s and 1960s.[184] John Ali, national secretary of the Nation of Islam, was identified as an FBI undercover agent.[185] Malcolm X had confided in a reporter that Ali exacerbated tensions between him and Elijah Muhammad. He considered Ali his "archenemy" within the Nation of Islam leadership.[185] On February 20, 1965, the night before the assassination, Ali met with Talmadge Hayer, one of the men convicted of killing Malcolm X.[186]

In 1977 and 1978, Talmadge Hayer submitted two sworn affidavits re-asserting his claim that Butler and Johnson were not involved in the assassination. In his affidavits Hayer named four men, all members of the Nation of Islam's Newark Temple Number 25, as having participated with him in the crime. Hayer asserted that a man, later identified as Wilbur McKinley, shouted and threw a smoke bomb to create a diversion. Hayer said that another man, later identified as William Bradley, had a shotgun and was the first to fire on Malcolm X after the diversion. Hayer asserted that he and a man later identified as Leon David, both armed with pistols, fired on Malcolm X immediately after the shotgun blast. Hayer also said that a fifth man, later identified as Benjamin Thomas, was involved in the conspiracy.[187][188] Hayer's statements failed to convince authorities to reopen their investigation of the murder.[189]

Some, including the Shabazz family, have accused Louis Farrakhan of being involved in the plot to assassinate Malcolm X.[190][191][192][193] In a 1993 speech, Farrakhan seemed to boast of the assassination:

Was Malcolm your traitor or ours? And if we dealt with him like a nation deals with a traitor, what the hell business is it of yours? A nation has to be able to deal with traitors and cutthroats and turncoats.[194][195]

In a 60 Minutes interview that aired during May 2000, Farrakhan stated that some of the things he said may have led to the assassination of Malcolm X. "I may have been complicit in words that I spoke", he said. "I acknowledge that and regret that any word that I have said caused the loss of life of a human being."[196] A few days later Farrakhan denied that he "ordered the assassination" of Malcolm X, although he again acknowledged that he "created the atmosphere that ultimately led to Malcolm X's assassination."[197] No consensus on who was responsible has been reached.[198]

[edit] Philosophy

Except for his autobiography, Malcolm X left no writings. His philosophy is known almost entirely from the myriad speeches and interviews he gave between 1952 until his death in 1965.[199] Many of those speeches, especially from the last year of his life, were recorded and have been published.[200]

[edit] Beliefs of the Nation of Islam

Before he left the Nation of Islam in 1964, Malcolm X taught its beliefs in his speeches. His speeches were peppered with the phrase "The Honorable Elijah Muhammad teaches us that ...".[201] It is virtually impossible to discern whether Malcolm X's beliefs diverged from the teachings of the Nation of Islam.[202][203] Malcolm X once compared himself to a ventriloquist's dummy who could only say what Elijah Muhammad told him.[201]

Malcolm X taught that black people were the original people of the world,[72] and that white people were a race of devils who were created by an evil scientist named Yakub.[73] The Nation of Islam believed that black people were superior to white people, and that the demise of the white race was imminent.[74]

When he was questioned concerning his statements that white people were devils, Malcolm X said that "history proves the white man is a devil."[204] He enumerated some of the historical reasons that, he felt, supported his argument: "Anybody who rapes, and plunders, and enslaves, and steals, and drops hell bombs on people... anybody who does these things is nothing but a devil."[205]

Malcolm X said that Islam was the "true religion of black mankind" and that Christianity was "the white man's religion" that had been imposed upon African Americans by their slave-masters.[206] He said that the Nation of Islam followed Islam as it was practiced around the world, but the Nation's teachings varied from those of other Muslims because they were adapted to the "uniquely pitiful" condition of black people in America.[207] He taught that Wallace Fard Muhammad, the founder of the Nation, was Allah incarnate,[208] and that Elijah Muhammad was his Messenger, or prophet.[209]

While the civil rights movement fought against racial segregation, Malcolm X advocated the complete separation of African Americans from white people. The Nation of Islam proposed the establishment of a separate country for black people in the Southern[75] or Southwestern United States[210] as an interim measure until African Americans could return to Africa.[76] Malcolm X suggested the United States government owed reparations to black people for the unpaid labor of their enslaved ancestors.[211] He also rejected the civil rights movement's strategy of nonviolence and instead advocated that black people use any necessary means of self-defense to protect themselves.[77]

[edit] Independent views

Malcolm X at a 1964 press conference

After leaving the Nation of Islam, Malcolm X announced his willingness to work with leaders of the civil rights movement,[108] though he felt that it should change its focus to human rights. So long as the movement remained a fight for civil rights, its struggle would remain a domestic issue, but by framing the struggle as a fight for human rights, it would become an international issue, and the movement could bring its complaint before the United Nations. Malcolm X said the emerging nations of the world would add their support to the cause of African Americans.[212]

Malcolm X declared that he and the other members of the Organization of Afro-American Unity were determined to defend themselves from aggressors, and to secure freedom, justice and equality "by whatever means necessary", arguing that if the government was unwilling or unable to protect black people, they should protect themselves.[213]

Malcolm X stressed the global perspective he gained from his international travels. He emphasized the "direct connection" between the domestic struggle of African Americans for equal rights with the liberation struggles of Third World nations.[214] He said that African Americans were wrong when they thought of themselves as a minority; in a global context, black people were a majority, not a minority.[215]

In his speeches at the Militant Labor Forum, which was sponsored by the Socialist Workers Party, Malcolm X criticized capitalism.[141] After one such speech, when he was asked what political and economic system he wanted, he said he didn't know, but that it was no coincidence the newly liberated countries in the Third World were turning toward socialism.[216] Malcolm X still was concerned primarily with the freedom struggle of African Americans. When a reporter asked him what he thought about socialism, Malcolm X asked whether it was good for black people. When the reporter told him it seemed to be, Malcolm X told him, "Then I'm for it."[216][217]

Although he no longer called for the separation of black people from white people, Malcolm X continued to advocate black nationalism, which he defined as self-determination for the African-American community.[218] In the last months of his life, however, Malcolm X began to reconsider his support of black nationalism after meeting northern African revolutionaries who, to all appearances, were white.[219]

After his Hajj, Malcolm X articulated a view of white people and racism that represented a deep change from the philosophy he had supported as a minister of the Nation of Islam. In a famous letter from Mecca, he wrote that the white people he met during his pilgrimage forced him to "rearrange" his thinking about race and "toss aside some of [his] previous conclusions".[220]

In a 1965 conversation with Gordon Parks, two days before his assassination, Malcolm said:

[L]istening to leaders like Nasser, Ben Bella, and Nkrumah awakened me to the dangers of racism. I realized racism isn't just a black and white problem. It's brought bloodbaths to about every nation on earth at one time or another.

Brother, remember the time that white college girl came into the restaurant—the one who wanted to help the [Black] Muslims and the whites get together—and I told her there wasn't a ghost of a chance and she went away crying? Well, I've lived to regret that incident. In many parts of the African continent I saw white students helping black people. Something like this kills a lot of argument. I did many things as a [Black] Muslim that I'm sorry for now. I was a zombie then—like all [Black] Muslims—I was hypnotized, pointed in a certain direction and told to march. Well, I guess a man's entitled to make a fool of himself if he's ready to pay the cost. It cost me 12 years.

That was a bad scene, brother. The sickness and madness of those days—I'm glad to be free of them.[221]

[edit] Legacy

Wax sculpture of Malcolm X at Madame Tussauds in Washington, D.C.

Malcolm X has been described as one of the greatest and most influential African Americans in history.[12][13][14] He is credited with raising the self-esteem of black Americans and reconnecting them with their African heritage.[222] He is largely responsible for the spread of Islam in the black community in the United States.[223][224][225] Many African Americans, especially those who lived in cities in the Northern and Western United States, felt that Malcolm X articulated their complaints concerning inequality better than the mainstream civil rights movement did.[79][80] One biographer says that by giving expression to their frustration, Malcolm X "made clear the price that white America would have to pay if it did not accede to black America's legitimate demands."[226]

In the late 1960s, as black activists became more radical, Malcolm X and his teachings were part of the foundation on which they built their movements. The Black Power movement,[70][227] the Black Arts Movement,[70][228] and the widespread adoption of the slogan "Black is beautiful"[229] can all trace their roots to Malcolm X.

During the late 1980s and early 1990s, there was a resurgence of interest in Malcolm X among young people fueled, in part, by his use as an icon by hip hop groups such as Public Enemy.[230][231] Images of Malcolm X could be found on T-shirts and jackets.[232] Pictures of him were on display in hundreds of thousands of homes, offices, and schools.[233] This wave peaked in 1992 with the release of Malcolm X, a much-anticipated film adaptation of The Autobiography of Malcolm X.[234]

[edit] Portrayals in film and on stage

The 1992 film Malcolm X was directed by Spike Lee and based on The Autobiography of Malcolm X. It starred Denzel Washington, with Angela Bassett as Betty Shabazz and Al Freeman, Jr., as Elijah Muhammad.[235] Critic Roger Ebert and director Martin Scorsese both named the film one of the ten best of the 1990s.[236] Washington had previously played the part of Malcolm X in the 1981 Off Broadway play When the Chickens Came Home to Roost.[237] Other actors who have portrayed Malcolm X include:

[edit] Memorials and tributes

The Malcolm X House Site, at 3448 Pinkney Street in North Omaha, Nebraska, marks the place where Malcolm Little first lived with his family. The house where the Little family lived was torn down in 1965 by owners who did not know of its connection with Malcolm X.[247] The site was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1984 and a historic marker identifies the site because of the importance of Malcolm X to American history and national culture.[248][249] In 1987 the site was added to the Nebraska register of historic sites and marked with a state plaque.[250]

Lansing, Michigan, where Malcolm Little spent his early, formative years, is home to a Michigan Historical Marker erected in 1975 marking his homesite.[251] The city is also home to El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz Academy, a public charter school with an Afrocentric focus. The Academy is located in the building where Little attended elementary school.[252]

Two green street signs, one reading Lenox Avenue, the other reading Malcolm X Boulevard
Malcolm X Boulevard in New York City

In cities around the world, Malcolm X's birthday (May 19) is commemorated as Malcolm X Day. The first known celebration of Malcolm X Day took place in Washington, D.C., in 1971.[253] The city of Berkeley, California has recognized Malcolm X's birthday as a citywide holiday since 1979.[254]

There have been dozens of schools named after Malcolm X, including Malcolm X Shabazz High School in Newark, New Jersey,[255] Malcolm Shabazz City High School in Madison, Wisconsin,[256] and Malcolm X College in Chicago, Illinois.[257]

Many cities have renamed streets after Malcolm X. In 1987, New York mayor Ed Koch proclaimed Lenox Avenue in Harlem to be Malcolm X Boulevard.[258] The name of Reid Street in Brooklyn, New York, was changed to Malcolm X Boulevard in 1985.[259] In 1997, Oakland Avenue in Dallas, Texas, was renamed Malcolm X Boulevard.[260]

The U.S. Postal Service issued a Malcolm X postage stamp in 1999.[261] In 2005, Columbia University announced the opening of the Malcolm X and Dr. Betty Shabazz Memorial and Educational Center. The memorial is located in the Audubon Ballroom, where Malcolm X was assassinated.[262]

[edit] Published works

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ This name includes the honorific El-Hajj, which is given to a Muslim who has completed the Hajj to Mecca. Malise Ruthven (1997). Islam: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. p. 147. ISBN 978-0-19-285389-9. 
  2. ^ Baldwin, Lewis V.; Al-Hadid, Amiri YaSin. Between Cross and Crescent: Christian and Muslim Perspectives on Malcolm and Martin. Gainesville, Fla.: University Press of Florida. p. 135. ISBN 0-8130-2457-9. 
  3. ^ Dyson, pp. 13–14.
  4. ^ Khan, Ali (1994). "Lessons from Malcolm X: Freedom by Any Means Necessary". Howard Law Journal 38: 80. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=938821. Retrieved August 2, 2009. 
  5. ^ Morris, Jerome E. (Summer 2001). "Malcolm X's Critique of the Education of Black People". The Western Journal of Black Studies 25 (2). http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_go2877/is_2_25/ai_n28889706/. Retrieved August 2, 2009. 
  6. ^ Cone, pp. 99–100, 251–252, 310–311.
  7. ^ a b "Malcolm X". The New York Times. February 22, 1965. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F20E13F63F5812738DDDAB0A94DA405B858AF1D3. Retrieved August 2, 2008. 
  8. ^ a b Evanzz, p. 305.
  9. ^ Lomax, When the Word Is Given, p. 172.
  10. ^ a b Rickford, p. 248.
  11. ^ "The Black Supremacists". Time. August 10, 1959. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,811191-1,00.html. Retrieved July 28, 2009. 
  12. ^ a b Asante, Molefi Kete (2002). 100 Greatest African Americans: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Amhert, N.Y.: Prometheus Books. p. 333. ISBN 1-57392-963-8. 
  13. ^ a b Marable, Manning; Nishani Frazier, John Campbell McMillian (2003). Freedom on My Mind: The Columbia Documentary History of the African American Experience. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 251. ISBN 0-231-10890-7. 
  14. ^ a b Salley, Columbus (1999). The Black 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential African-Americans, Past and Present. New York: Citadel Press. p. 88. ISBN 0-8065-2048-5. 
  15. ^ a b Perry, p. 2.
  16. ^ Perry, p. 3.
  17. ^ Natambu, p. 7.
  18. ^ Malcolm X, Autobiography, pp. 3–4. There have been many editions of The Autobiography of Malcolm X. Page numbers cited in the notes refer to the One World trade paperback edition (1992).
  19. ^ a b Natambu, p. 6.
  20. ^ Perry, pp. 3–4.
  21. ^ Perry, pp. 2–3.
  22. ^ Malcolm X, Autobiography, p. 5.
  23. ^ Malcolm X, Autobiography, pp. 7, 10–11.
  24. ^ Perry, pp. 2, 4.
  25. ^ DeCaro, pp. 43–44.
  26. ^ Perry, p. 12.
  27. ^ Malcolm X, Autobiography, p. 14.
  28. ^ Natambu, p. 10.
  29. ^ Perry, p. 24.
  30. ^ Perry, pp. 33–34, 331.
  31. ^ a b Perry, p. 42.
  32. ^ Natambu, pp. 21–29.
  33. ^ Perry, pp. 32–48.
  34. ^ Natambu, pp. 30–31.
  35. ^ Perry, pp. 58–81.
  36. ^ a b Perry, p. 77.
  37. ^ Perry, pp. 82–83.
  38. ^ Rampersad, Arnold, "The Color of His Eyes: Bruce Perry's Malcolm and Malcolm's Malcolm", Wood, p. 131.
  39. ^ Richardson, RichΓ© (2007). Black Masculinity and the U.S. South: From Uncle Tom to Gangsta. Athens, Ga.: University of Georgia Press. p. 157. ISBN 0-8203-2609-7. 
  40. ^ In his autobiography, Malcolm X wrote about the powdering but attributed it to Rudy, a member of his burglary gang. Malcolm X, Autobiography, pp. 161–162.
  41. ^ a b Carson, p. 108.
  42. ^ Malcolm X, Autobiography, p. 124.
  43. ^ Natambu, pp. 106–109.
  44. ^ Perry, p. 99.
  45. ^ Natambu, pp. 110–111.
  46. ^ a b Carson, p. 99.
  47. ^ Perry, pp. 104–106.
  48. ^ Natambu, p. 121.
  49. ^ Malcolm X, Autobiography, p. 178; ellipsis in original.
  50. ^ Perry, pp. 108–110.
  51. ^ Perry, p. 118.
  52. ^ Natambu, pp. 127–128.
  53. ^ Natambu, p. 128.
  54. ^ Perry, p. 113.
  55. ^ Natambu, pp. 132–138.
  56. ^ Perry, pp. 113–114.
  57. ^ Natambu, pp. 138–139.
  58. ^ Perry, p. 116.
  59. ^ Malcolm X, Autobiography, p. 199.
  60. ^ Perry, pp. 142, 144–145.
  61. ^ Malcolm X, Autobiography, p. 229.
  62. ^ Carson, p. 95.
  63. ^ The Nation of Islam numbered its Temples according to the order in which they were established. Perry, pp. 141–142.
  64. ^ Natambu, p. 168.
  65. ^ Perry, p. 147.
  66. ^ Perry, p. 152.
  67. ^ Perry, p. 153.
  68. ^ Perry, pp. 161–164.
  69. ^ Perry, pp. 174–179.
  70. ^ a b c d Marable, p. 301.
  71. ^ Lincoln, p. 189.
  72. ^ a b Lomax, When the Word Is Given, p. 55.
  73. ^ a b Perry, p. 115.
  74. ^ a b Lomax, When the Word Is Given, p. 57.
  75. ^ a b Lomax, When the Word Is Given, pp. 149–152.
  76. ^ a b Malcolm X, End of White World Supremacy, p. 78.
  77. ^ a b Lomax, When the Word Is Given, pp. 173–174.
  78. ^ Natambu, p. 182.
  79. ^ a b Cone, pp. 99–100.
  80. ^ a b West, Cornel (1984). "The Paradox of the Afro-American Rebellion". in Sayres, Sohnya; Stephanson, Anders; Aronowitz, Stanley et al.. The 60s Without Apology. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. p. 51. ISBN 0-8166-1336-2. 
  81. ^ Natambu, pp. 215–216.
  82. ^ Lomax, When the Word Is Given, pp. 79–80.
  83. ^ Perry, p. 203.
  84. ^ King expressed mixed feelings toward Malcolm X. "He is very articulate, ... but I totally disagree with many of his political and philosophical views.... I don't want to seem to sound self-righteous, ... or that I think I have the only truth, the only way. Maybe he does have some of the answer.... I have often wished that he would talk less of violence, because violence is not going to solve our problem. And in his litany of articulating the despair of the Negro without offering any positive, creative alternative, I feel that Malcolm has done himself and our people a great disservice.... [U]rging Negroes to arm themselves and prepare to engage in violence, as he has done, can reap nothing but grief." Haley, Alex (January 1965). "The Playboy Interview: Martin Luther King". Playboy. http://www.playboy.com/arts-entertainment/features/mlk/index.html. Retrieved February 2, 2009. 
  85. ^ Cone, p. 113.
  86. ^ "Timeline". Malcolm X: Make It Plain, American Experience. PBS. May 19, 2005. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/malcolmx/timeline/timeline2.html. Retrieved July 27, 2008. 
  87. ^ Cone, p. 91.
  88. ^ Lomax. When the Word Is Given. pp. 15–16. "Estimates of the Black Muslim membership vary from a quarter of a million down to fifty thousand. Available evidence indicates that about one hundred thousand Negroes have joined the movement at one time or another, but few objective observers believe that the Black Muslims can muster more than twenty or twenty-five thousand active temple people." 
  89. ^ Clegg. p. 115. "The common response of Malcolm X to questions about numbers—'Those who know aren't saying, and those who say don't know'—was typical of the attitude of the leadership." 
  90. ^ Natambu, pp. 296–297.
  91. ^ Ali, Muhammad (2004). The Soul of a Butterfly: Reflections on Life's Journey. with Hana Yasmeen Ali. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 61. ISBN 0-7432-5569-0. 
  92. ^ a b Perry, p. 214.
  93. ^ Haley, "Epilogue", Autobiography, p. 471.
  94. ^ Perry, p. 375.
  95. ^ Rickford, pp. 73–74.
  96. ^ Shabazz, Betty, "Malcolm X as a Husband and Father", Clarke, pp. 132–134.
  97. ^ Rickford, pp. 109–110.
  98. ^ Rickford, p. 122.
  99. ^ Rickford, p. 123.
  100. ^ Rickford, p. 197.
  101. ^ Rickford, p. 286.
  102. ^ Natambu, pp. 230–232.
  103. ^ Lincoln, p. 18.
  104. ^ Natambu, pp. 231–233.
  105. ^ a b "Malcolm X Scores U.S. and Kennedy". The New York Times. December 2, 1963. p. 21. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=FB0812FE35541A7B93C0A91789D95F478685F9. Retrieved July 28, 2008. 
  106. ^ Natambu, pp. 288–290.
  107. ^ Perry, p. 242.
  108. ^ a b c d Handler, M. S. (March 9, 1964). "Malcolm X Splits with Muhammad". The New York Times. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F00D17FB395415738DDDA00894DB405B848AF1D3. Retrieved August 1, 2008. 
  109. ^ Perry, pp. 230–234
  110. ^ Perry, pp. 251–252.
  111. ^ Malcolm X, Malcolm X Speaks, pp. 18–22.
  112. ^ Perry, pp. 294–296.
  113. ^ Malcolm X, By Any Means Necessary, pp. 33–67.
  114. ^ Cone. p. 2. "There was no time for substantive discussions between the two. They were photographed greeting each other warmly, smiling and shaking hands." 
  115. ^ Perry. p. 255. "Camera shutters clicked. The next day, the Chicago Sun-Times, the New York World Telegram and Sun, and other dailies carried a picture of Malcolm and Martin shaking hands." 
  116. ^ Perry, pp. 257–259.
  117. ^ Malcolm X, Malcolm X Speaks, pp. 23–44.
  118. ^ Perry, p. 261.
  119. ^ Perry, pp. 262–263.
  120. ^ DeCaro, p. 204.
  121. ^ Perry, pp. 263–265.
  122. ^ Perry, pp. 265–266.
  123. ^ Malcolm X, Autobiography, pp. 388–393.
  124. ^ Natambu, pp. 304–305.
  125. ^ a b Natambu, p. 308.
  126. ^ Lomax, When the Word Is Given, p. 62.
  127. ^ Natambu, p. 303.
  128. ^ Perry, p. 269.
  129. ^ Malcolm X, Autobiography, p. 403.
  130. ^ Carson, p. 305.
  131. ^ Bethune, Lebert, "Malcolm X in Europe", Clarke, pp. 226–231.
  132. ^ Malcolm X, By Any Means Necessary, pp. 113–126.
  133. ^ Bethune, "Malcolm X in Europe", Clarke, pp. 231–233.
  134. ^ Malcolm X (December 3, 1964). "Malcolm X Oxford Debate". Malcolm X: A Research Site. http://www.brothermalcolm.net/2003/mx_oxford/index.html. Retrieved July 30, 2008. 
  135. ^ Carson, p. 349.
  136. ^ Perry, p. 351.
  137. ^ Natambu, p. 312.
  138. ^ Kundnani, Arun (February 10, 2005). "Black British History: Remembering Malcolm's Visit to Smethwick". Independent Race and Refugee News Network. Institute of Race Relations. http://www.irr.org.uk/2005/february/ak000010.html. Retrieved July 30, 2008. 
  139. ^ Terrill, p. 9.
  140. ^ Karim, p. 128.
  141. ^ a b Perry, pp. 277–278.
  142. ^ Karim, pp. 159–160.
  143. ^ Massaquoi, Hans J. (September 1964). "Mystery of Malcolm X". Ebony. 
  144. ^ Lord, Lewis; Thornton, Jeannye; Bodipo-Memba, Alejandro (November 15, 1992). "The Legacy of Malcolm X". U.S. News & World Report. http://www.usnews.com/usnews/culture/articles/921123/archive_018698.htm. Retrieved June 2, 2010. 
  145. ^ Kondo, p. 170.
  146. ^ Majied, Eugene (April 10, 1964). "On My Own". Muhammad Speaks. Nation of Islam. http://www.columbia.edu/cu/ccbh/mxp/images/sourcebook_img_111.jpg. Retrieved August 1, 2008. 
  147. ^ Evanzz, p. 248.
  148. ^ Evanzz, p. 264.
  149. ^ Carson, p. 473.
  150. ^ Carson, p. 324.
  151. ^ Perry, pp. 290–292.
  152. ^ Perry, pp. 352–356.
  153. ^ a b Kihss, Peter (February 22, 1965). "Malcolm X Shot to Death at Rally Here". The New York Times. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=FA0A15F63F5812738DDDAB0A94DA405B858AF1D3. Retrieved August 1, 2008. 
  154. ^ Karim, p. 191.
  155. ^ a b Evanzz, p. 295.
  156. ^ In his Epilogue to The Autobiography of Malcolm X, Alex Haley wrote that Malcolm said, "Hold it! Hold it! Don't get excited. Let's cool it brothers." (p. 499.) According to a transcription of a recording of the shooting, Malcolm's only words were, "Hold it!", which he repeated 10 times. (DeCaro, p. 274.)
  157. ^ Perry, p. 366.
  158. ^ Perry, pp. 366–367.
  159. ^ a b Talese, Gay (February 22, 1965). "Police Save Suspect From the Crowd". The New York Times. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F20E12F63F5812738DDDAB0A94DA405B858AF1D3. Retrieved August 1, 2008. 
  160. ^ Kondo, p. 97.
  161. ^ Kondo, p. 110.
  162. ^ Rickford, p. 289.
  163. ^ "Malcolm X Killer Heads Mosque". BBC News. March 31, 1998. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/71838.stm. Retrieved August 1, 2008. 
  164. ^ Jacobson, Mark (October 1, 2007). "The Man Who Didn't Shoot Malcolm X". New York. http://nymag.com/news/features/38358/. Retrieved August 1, 2008. 
  165. ^ Rickford, p. 489
  166. ^ Drash, Wayne (April 27, 2010). "Malcolm X Killer Freed After 44 Years". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2010/CRIME/04/26/malcolmx.killer/. Retrieved April 27, 2010. 
  167. ^ Perry, p. 374. Alex Haley, in his Epilogue to The Autobiography of Malcolm X, says 22,000 (p. 519).
  168. ^ a b Rickford, p. 252.
  169. ^ DeCaro, p. 291.
  170. ^ a b Arnold, Martin (February 28, 1965). "Harlem Is Quiet as Crowds Watch Malcolm X Rites". The New York Times. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F60615FD38591B7A93CAAB1789D85F418685F9. Retrieved August 2, 2008. 
  171. ^ DeCaro, p. 290.
  172. ^ Davis, Ossie (February 27, 1965). "Malcolm X's Eulogy". The Official Website of Malcolm X. http://www.malcolmx.com/about/eulogy.html. Retrieved September 6, 2009. 
  173. ^ Rickford, p. 255.
  174. ^ Rickford, pp. 261–262.
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  204. ^ Lomax, When the Word Is Given, p. 67.
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[edit] References

  • Carson, Clayborne (1991). Malcolm X: The FBI File. New York: Carroll & Graf. ISBN 0-88184-758-5. 
  • Clarke, John Henrik, ed. (1990) [1969]. Malcolm X: The Man and His Times. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press. ISBN 0-86543-201-5. 
  • Clegg III, Claude Andrew (1997). An Original Man: The Life and Times of Elijah Muhammad. New York: St. Martin's Griffin. ISBN 0-312-18153-1. 
  • Cone, James H. (1991). Martin & Malcolm & America: A Dream or a Nightmare. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books. ISBN 0-88344-721-5. 
  • DeCaro, Jr., Louis A. (1996). On the Side of My People: A Religious Life of Malcolm X. New York: New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-1864-7. 
  • Dyson, Michael Eric (1995). Making Malcolm: The Myth and Meaning of Malcolm X. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509235-X. 
  • Evanzz, Karl (1992). The Judas Factor: The Plot to Kill Malcolm X. New York: Thunder's Mouth Press. ISBN 1-56025-049-6. 
  • Karim, Benjamin; with Peter Skutches and David Gallen (1992). Remembering Malcolm. New York: Carroll & Graf. ISBN 0-88184-881-6. 
  • Kondo, Zak A. (1993). Conspiracys: Unravelling the Assassination of Malcolm X. Washington, D.C.: Nubia Press. ISBN 0-9618815-1-13. 
  • Lincoln, C. Eric (1961). The Black Muslims in America. Boston: Beacon Press. OCLC 422580. 
  • Lomax, Louis E. (1987) [1968]. To Kill a Black Man: The Shocking Parallel in the Lives of Malcolm X and Martin Luther King Jr. Los Angeles: Holloway House. ISBN 0-87067-731-4. 
  • Lomax, Louis E. (1963). When the Word Is Given: A Report on Elijah Muhammad, Malcolm X, and the Black Muslim World. Cleveland: World Publishing. OCLC 1071204. 
  • Malcolm X; with the assistance of Alex Haley (1992) [1965]. The Autobiography of Malcolm X. New York: One World. ISBN 0-345-37671-4. 
  • Malcolm X (1989) [1970]. By Any Means Necessary: Speeches, Interviews, and a Letter by Malcolm X. George Breitman, ed. New York: Pathfinder Press. ISBN 0-87348-150-X. 
  • Malcolm X (1989) [1971]. The End of White World Supremacy: Four Speeches by Malcolm X. Benjamin Karim, ed. New York: Arcade. ISBN 1-55970-006-8. 
  • Malcolm X (1990) [1965]. Malcolm X Speaks: Selected Speeches and Statements. George Breitman, ed. New York: Grove Weidenfeld. ISBN 0-8021-3213-8. 
  • Malcolm X (1991) [1968]. The Speeches of Malcolm X at Harvard. Archie Epps, ed. New York: Paragon House. ISBN 1-55778-479-5. 
  • Marable, Manning (2009). "Rediscovering Malcolm's Life: A Historian's Adventures in Living History". in Marable, Manning; Aidi, Hishaam D. Black Routes to Islam. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-8400-X. 
  • Natambu, Kofi (2002). The Life and Work of Malcolm X. Indianapolis: Alpha Books. ISBN 0-02-864218-X. 
  • Perry, Bruce (1991). Malcolm: The Life of a Man Who Changed Black America. Barrytown, N.Y.: Station Hill. ISBN 0-88268-103-6. 
  • Rickford, Russell J. (2003). Betty Shabazz: A Remarkable Story of Survival and Faith Before and After Malcolm X. Naperville, Ill.: Sourcebooks. ISBN 1-4022-0171-0. 
  • Sales, Jr., William W. (1994). From Civil Rights to Black Liberation: Malcolm X and the Organization of Afro-American Unity. Boston: South End Press. ISBN 0-89608-480-9. 
  • Terrill, Robert (2004). Malcolm X: Inventing Radical Judgment. Lansing, Mich.: Michigan State University Press. ISBN 0-87013-730-1. 
  • Wood, Joe, ed. (1992). Malcolm X: In Our Image. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-06609-0. 

[edit] Further reading

  • Alkalimat, Abdul. Malcolm X for Beginners. New York: Writers and Readers, 1990.
  • Asante, Molefi K. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero: and Other Afrocentric Essays. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press, 1993.
  • Baldwin, James. One Day, When I Was Lost: A Scenario Based On Alex Haley's "The Autobiography Of Malcolm X". New York: Dell, 1992.
  • Breitman, George. The Last Year of Malcolm X: The Evolution of a Revolutionary. New York: Pathfinder Press, 1967.
  • Breitman, George, Herman Porter, and Baxter Smith. The Assassination of Malcolm X. New York: Pathfinder Press, 1991.
  • Carew, Jan. Ghosts In Our Blood: With Malcolm X in Africa, England, and the Caribbean. Chicago: Lawrence Hill, 1994.
  • Cleage, Albert B., and George Breitman. Myths About Malcolm X: Two Views. New York: Merit, 1968.
  • Collins, Rodney P. Seventh Child: A Family Memoir of Malcolm X. Secaucus, N.J.: Birch Lane Press, 1998.
  • Conyers, Jr., James L., and Andrew P. Smallwood, eds. Malcolm X: A Historical Reader. Durham, N.C.: Carolina Academic Press, 2008.
  • Davis, Thulani. Malcolm X: The Great Photographs. New York: Stewart, Tabon and Chang, 1992.
  • DeCaro, Louis A. Malcolm and the Cross: The Nation of Islam, Malcolm X, and Christianity. New York: New York University Press, 1998.
  • Doctor, Bernard Aquina. Malcolm X for Beginners. New York: Writers and Readers, 1992.
  • Friedly, Michael. The Assassination of Malcolm X. New York: Carroll & Graf, 1992.
  • Gallen, David, ed. Malcolm A to X: The Man and His Ideas. New York: Carroll & Graf, 1992.
  • Gallen, David, ed. Malcolm X: As They Knew Him. New York: Carroll & Graf, 1992.
  • Goldman, Peter. The Death and Life of Malcolm X. Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 1979.
  • Helfer, Andrew, and Randy DuBurke. Malcolm X: A Graphic Biography. New York: Hill and Wang, 2006.
  • Jamal, Hakim A. From The Dead Level: Malcolm X and Me. New York: Random House, 1972.
  • Jenkins, Robert L. The Malcolm X Encyclopedia. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2002.
  • Kly, Yussuf Naim, ed. The Black Book: The True Political Philosophy of Malcolm X (El Hajj Malik El Shabazz). Atlanta: Clarity Press, 1986.
  • Leader, Edward Roland. Understanding Malcolm X: The Controversial Changes in His Political Philosophy. New York: Vantage Press, 1993.
  • Lee, Spike, with Ralph Wiley. By Any Means Necessary: The Trials and Tribulations of The Making Of Malcolm X. New York: Hyperion, 1992.
  • Maglangbayan, Shawna. Garvey, Lumumba, and Malcolm: National-Separatists. Chicago: Third World Press, 1972.
  • Marable, Manning. Malcolm X: A Life of A Life of Reinvention. New York: Viking, 2011. (Forthcoming)
  • Marable, Manning. On Malcolm X: His Message & Meaning. Westfield, N.J.: Open Media, 1992.
  • Shabazz, Ilyasah. Growing Up X. New York: One World, 2002.
  • Strickland, William, et al.. Malcolm X: Make It Plain. New York: Penguin Books, 1994.
  • Terrill, Robert, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Malcolm X. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.
  • T'Shaka, Oba. The Political Legacy of Malcolm X. Richmond, Calif.: Pan Afrikan Publications, 1983.
  • Wolfenstein, Eugene Victor. The Victims of Democracy: Malcolm X and the Black Revolution. London: Free Association Books, 1989.

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