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Warsaw Ghetto Uprising

Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
Part of World War II and the The Holocaust
Stroop Report - Warsaw Ghetto Uprising 06b.jpg
Photo from Jürgen Stroop's report to Heinrich Himmler from May 1943 and one of the best-known pictures of World War II.
The original German caption reads: "Forcibly pulled out of dug-outs". The boy in the picture might be Tsvi Nussbaum, who survived the Holocaust.[1]
Date April 19, 1943 - May 16, 1943
Location Warsaw Ghetto, General Government
Result German victory
Belligerents
Nazi Germany Germany
(Waffen-SS, SD, OrPo, Gestapo, Wehrmacht)
Collaborators
(Latvian police, Jewish police, Polish police, Lithuanian police, Ukrainian volunteers)
Jewsin Poland.svg Jewish resistance

Flaga PPP.svg Polish resistance

  • Flag of Poland (normative).svg AK (Home Army)
  • Socialist red flag.svg GL (People's Guard)
Commanders
Jürgen Stroop
Ferdinand von Sammern-Frankenegg
Franz Bürkl
Mordechaj Anielewicz  â
Dawid Moryc Apfelbaum  â
Icchak Cukierman
Marek Edelman
PaweÅ Frenkiel  â
Henryk Iwański (AK)
Zivia Lubetkin
Dawid Wdowiński
Strength
Official daily average of 2,090 troops (including 821 Waffen-SS) according to the German internal report. Some 220[2] to 600[3] ŻOB and 150 to 400 ŻZW fighters (on April 19, 1943), thousands of civilians either fought or provided support. Smaller numbers of Polish fighters outside of the ghetto provided support.
Casualties and losses
17 killed
93 wounded
(German figures)
300 casualties
(Jewish estimate)
13,000 killed on site
56,885 gassed
(German estimate)
According to Stroop's unofficial account, 71,000 Jews and Poles were killed or deported. The 17 Germans killed do not include Jewish forced collaborators

The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (Yiddish: אױפö¿שטאöנד אין װאöרשעװער געטאö; Polish: Powstanie w getcie warszawskim; German: Aufstand im Warschauer Ghetto) was the Jewish resistance that arose within the Warsaw Ghetto in German occupied Poland during World War II, and which opposed Nazi Germany's effort to transport the remaining ghetto population to Treblinka extermination camp.

The insurgency was launched against the Germans on January 18, 1943. The most significant portion of the rebellion took place from April 19 until May 16, 1943, and ended when the poorly armed and supplied resistance was crushed by the German troops under the direct command of Jürgen Stroop. It was the largest single revolt by the Jews during the Holocaust.[4]

Contents

[edit] Background

Corner of Å»elazna Street 70 and ChÅodna 23 (looking East). This section of Å»elazna Street was connecting Little and Big Ghetto.

In 1940, the German Nazis began to concentrate Poland's population of over three million Jews into a number of extremely crowded ghettos located in large Polish cities. The largest of these, the Warsaw Ghetto, concentrated approximately 300,000â400,000 people into a densely packed central area of Warsaw. Thousands of Jews died due to rampant disease and starvation under the SS and Police Leader Odilo Globocnik and SS-Standartenführer Ludwig Hahn, even before the mass deportations from the ghetto to the Treblinka extermination camp began.

The Nazi forces conducted many of the deportations during the operation code-named Grossaktion Warschau, between July 23 and September 21, 1942. Just before the operation began, the German "Resettlement Commissioner" SS-Sturmbannführer Hermann Höfle called the meeting of the Ghetto Jewish Council Judenrat and informed its leader Adam Czerniaków about the "resettlement to the East".[5][6][7] Czerniaków committed suicide once he became aware of the true meaning of the treacherous Nazi plan. Approximately 254,000â300,000 Ghetto residents met their deaths at Treblinka during the two months-long operation. The Grossaktion was directed by SS-Oberführer Ferdinand von Sammern-Frankenegg, the commander of the Warsaw area since 1941.[8] He was relieved of duty by SS-and-Polizeiführer Jürgen Stroop sent to Warsaw by Heinrich Himmler on April 17, 1943.[9][10] Stroop took over from Sammern following his unsuccessful ghetto offensive.[11]

When the deportations first began, members of the Jewish resistance movement met and decided not to fight the SS directives, believing that the Jews were being sent to labour camps and not to their deaths. By the end of 1942 however, it became known to Ghetto inhabitants that the deportations were part of an extermination process. Many of the remaining Jews decided to revolt.[12]

[edit] The fighting

[edit] January 1943 rebellion

On January 18, 1943, the Germans began their second deportation of the Jews, which led to the first instance of armed insurgency within the ghetto. While Jewish families hid in their "bunkers", Jewish Military Union (Å»ydowski Zwiäzek Wojskowy, Å»ZW), joined by elements of the Jewish Combat Organization (Å»ydowska Organizacja Bojowa, Å»OB) fighters engaged the Germans in two direct clashes.[13] Even though the Å»ZW and Å»OB suffered heavy losses (including some of the leaders), the Germans also took casualties, and the deportation was halted within a few days. Only 5,000 Jews were removed instead of the 8,000 as planned by Globocnik. There were hundreds of people in the Warsaw ghetto ready to fight, adults and even children, sparsely armed with handguns, gasoline bottles and a few other weapons that had been smuggled into the ghetto by the resistance fighters.[3]

Two resistance organizations, the Å»ZW and Å»OB, took control of the Ghetto. They built dozens of fighting posts and executed collaborators, including Jewish Police officers, members of German-sponsored and controlled Å»agiew organization, as well as the Gestapo agents (like Judenrat member Dr Alfred Nossig on 22 February 1943).[14] The Å»OB established a prison to hold and execute traitors and collaborators.[15] Józef SzeryÅ„ski, the former head of the Jewish Police, committed suicide.[16]

[edit] Opposing forces

[edit] Jewish insurgents

Alleged Jewish fighters.
Stroop Report original caption: "Women captured with arms." (Other versions of caption read "He-Chaluts women captured with arms" and "Armed hags of the Haluzzen movement captured!". Jewish resistance women, among them Malka Zdrojewicz (right), who survived Majdanek extermination camp.

The Ghetto fighters (numbering some 400 to 1,000 by April 19) were armed primarily with pistols and revolvers. Just a few rifles and automatic firearms smuggled into the Ghetto were available. The insurgents had little ammunition, and relied heavily on improvised explosive devices and incendiary bottles; more weapons were supplied throughout the uprising or captured from the Germans. Some weapons were hand-made by resistance: sometimes such weapons worked, other times they jammed repeatedly. In his report, Stroop wrote his forces were able to recover the "booty" consisting of:

Seven Polish rifles, one Russian and one German rifle, 59 pistols of various calibers, several hundred incendiary bottles, home-made explosives, infernal machines with fuses, a large amount of explosives and ammunition for weapons of all calibers, including some machine gun ammunition. Regarding the booty of arms, it must be taken into consideration that the arms themselves could in most cases not be captured, as the bandits and Jews would, before being arrested, throw them into hiding places or holes which could not be ascertained or discovered. The smoking out of the dug-out by our men, also often made the search for arms impossible. As the dug-outs had to be blown up at once, a search later on was out of the question.

[edit] Polish support

â The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising had a real influence...in encouraging the activitity of the Polish underground â

âSamuel Krakowski[17]

Announcement of death penalty for Jews captured outside the Ghetto and for Poles helping Jews, November 1941

Support from outside the Ghetto was limited, but Polish Resistance units from Armia Krajowa (AK) (the Home Army)[18] and Polish Communist Gwardia Ludowa (GL) (the People's Guard)[19] attacked German units near the ghetto walls and attempted to smuggle weapons, ammunition, supplies and instructions into the ghetto.[20] Polish resistance also provided the insurgents with a limited number of badly needed weapons and ammunitions from its meager stocks.[21] Jewish fighters from ŻZW received only from PKB: 2 heavy machine guns, 4 light machine guns, 21 submachine guns, 30 rifles, 50 pistols, and over 400 grenades.[22] AK also disseminated information and appeals to help the Jews in the ghetto, both in Poland and by way of radio transmissions to the Allies.[18] Several ŻOB commanders and fighters later escaped through the sewers with assistance from the Poles and joined Polish underground.[18]

Polish AK unit, the National Security Corps (PaÅ„stwowy Korpus BezpieczeÅ„stwa), under the command of Henryk IwaÅ„ski ("Bystry"), fought inside the Ghetto along with Å»ZW. Subsequently, both groups retreated together (including 34 Jewish fighters) to the so-called Aryan side. Although IwaÅ„ski's action is the most well-known rescue mission, it was only one of many actions undertaken by the Polish resistance to help the Jewish fighters.[23] In one attack, three cell units of AK under the command of Kapitan Józef Pszenny ("Chwacki") tried to breach the Ghetto walls with explosives, but the Germans defeated this action.[20] AK and GL engaged the Germans between April 19 and April 23 at six different locations outside the ghetto walls, shooting at German sentries and positions and in one case attempting to blow-up a gate.[20]

Participation of the Polish underground in the uprising was confirmed by a report of the German commander Jürgen Stroop, who reported:

â When we invaded the Ghetto for the first time, the Jews and the Polish bandits succeeded in repelling the participating units, including tanks and armored cars, by a well-prepared concentration of fire. (...) The main Jewish battle group, mixed with Polish bandits, had already retired during the first and second day to the so-called Muranowski Square. There, it was reinforced by a considerable number of Polish bandits. Its plan was to hold the Ghetto by every means in order to prevent us from invading it. (...) Time and again Polish bandits found refuge in the Ghetto and remained there undisturbed, since we had no forces at our disposal to comb out this maze. (...) One such battle group succeeded in mounting a truck by ascending from a sewer in the so-called Prosta [Street], and in escaping with it (about 30 to 35 bandits). ... The bandits and Jews - there were Polish bandits among these gangs armed with carbines, small arms, and in one case a light machine gun - mounted the truck and drove away in an unknown direction. â

âJürgen Stroop Stroop Report 1943[24][25][26]

[edit] Nazi forces

Ultimately, the efforts of the Jewish resistance fighters proved insufficient against the German forces. The Germans eventually committed an average daily force of 2,090 well-armed troops, including 821 Waffen-SS Panzergrenadier troops (consisting of five SS reserve and training battalions and one SS cavalry reserve and training battalion), as well as 363 Polish Blue Policemen, who were ordered by the Germans to cordon the walls of the Ghetto.[26]

Two Askaris[27] peer into a doorway past the bodies of Jews killed during the suppression of the uprising.
Stroop Report original caption: "Askaris used during the operation."

The other forces were drawn from the Ordnungspolizei (Orpo) "uniformed order police" (battalions from the regiments 22rd and 23rd), the SS Sicherheitsdienst (SD) "security service", Warsaw Gestapo, one battalion each from two Wehrmacht railroad combat engineers regiments, a battery of Wehrmacht anti-aircraft artillery (and one field gun), a battalion of Ukrainian Trawniki-Männer from the Final Solution training camp Trawniki, Lithuanian and Latvian auxiliary policemen known by the nickname Askaris (Latvian Arajs Kommando and Lithuanian Saugumas), and technical emergency corps. Polish fire brigade personnel were ordered to help in the operation. In addition, a number of criminals and executioners from the nearby Gestapo Pawiak prison, under the command of Franz Bürkl, volunteered to "hunt the Jews". Most of the remaining Jewish policemen were executed by the Gestapo, or used in the offensive and then subsequently executed as well.[28]

[edit] German assault

On April 19, 1943, on the eve of Passover, the police and SS auxiliary forces entered the Ghetto planning to complete their Action within three days. However, they suffered losses as they were repeatedly ambushed by Jewish insurgents, who shot and launched Molotov cocktails and hand grenades at them from alleyways, sewers and windows. A French-made Lorraine 37L armoured fighting vehicle and an armoured car were set afire with ŻOB petrol bombs, and the German advance was halted.[28]

A group of SS men on the street of Warsaw Ghetto during the uprising.
Stroop Report original caption: "A patrol." SS men on the Nowolipie street of Warsaw Ghetto during the uprising. Buildings in the image from the right: Nowolipie 50a, then 52, 54 and wall of the townhouse nr. 56.
Surrounded by heavily armed guards, SS-Brigadeführer Jürgen Stroop (center) watches housing blocks burn. SD Rottenführer at right is possibly Josef Blösche ("Frankenstein"). Picture taken at Nowolipie street looking East, near intersection with Smocza street. On the left burning balcony of the townhouse Nowolipie 66, next to it ghetto wall.
Stroop Report original caption: "The leader of the grand operation."

The Jewish insurgents achieved noteworthy success against von Sammern-Frankenegg and he subsequently lost his post as the SS and police commander of Warsaw. He was replaced by SS-Brigadeführer Jürgen Stroop, who rejected von Sammern-Frankenegg's proposal to call in bomber aircraft from Kraków and proceeded with a better-organized ground assault.

The longest-lasting defense of a position took place around the ŻZW stronghold at Muranowski Square from April 19 to late April. In the afternoon of April 19, two boys climbed up on the roof of the headquarters of the Jewish Resistance there and raised two flags: the red-and-white Polish flag and the blue-and-white banner of the ŻZW (blue and white are the colors of the flag of Israel today). These flags were well-seen from the Warsaw streets and remained atop the house for four entire days, despite German attempts to remove them. Stroop recalled:

The matter of the flags was of great political and moral importance. It reminded hundreds of thousands of the Polish cause, it excited them and unified the population of the General Government, but especially Jews and Poles. Flags and national colors are a means of combat exactly like a rapid-fire weapon, like thousands of such weapons. We all knew that - Heinrich Himmler, Krüger, and Hahn. The Reichsfuehrer [Himmler] bellowed into the phone: "Stroop, you must at all costs bring down those two flags."[29]

Another German armoured vehicle was destroyed in an insurgent counterattack, in which ŻZW commander Dawid Apfelbaum was also killed. After Stroop's ultimatum to surrender was rejected by the defenders, the Nazis resorted to systematically burning houses block by block using flamethrowers and blowing up basements and sewers. "We were beaten by the flames, not the Germans," resistance leader Marek Edelman said in 2007.[2] In 2003, he recalled:

The sea of flames flooded houses and courtyards... There was no air, only black, choking smoke and heavy burning heat radiating form (sic) the red-hot walls, from the glowing stone stairs.[30]

The ŻZW lost all its leaders and, on April 29, 1943, the remaining fighters escaped the ghetto through the Muranowski tunnel, and relocated to the Michalin forest. This event marked the end of the organized resistance, and of significant fighting.

The original German caption reads: "Forcibly pulled out of dug-outs". Captured Jews are led by German soldiers to the assembly point for deportation. Picture taken at Nowolipie street looking East, near intersection with Smocza street. On the right townhouse at Nowolipie 63 further the ghetto wall with a gate. On the left burning balcony of the townhouse Nowolipie 66. Jewish IDs can be found here at [2]
German sentries with a Maschinengewehr 08 machine gun at one of the gates to the ghetto. Original Caption read "Measures for covering a street." (view on Nowolipie street near Smocza street).

The remaining Jewish civilians and surviving fighters took cover in the bunker dugouts which were hidden among the ruins of the Ghetto. The German troops used dogs to look for the hideouts. Smoke grenades, tear gas and reportedly even poison gas were used to force people out. In many instances, the Jewish fighters came out of their hiding places firing at the Germans, while a number of female fighters lobbed hidden grenades or fired concealed handguns after they had surrendered. Small groups of Jewish insurgents engaged German patrols in night-time skirmishes. However, German losses were mostly minimal following the first days of the uprising.

On May 8, 1943, the Germans discovered the Å»OB's main command post, located at MiÅa 18 Street. Most of its leadership and dozens of remaining fighters were killed, while others committed mass suicide by ingesting cyanide. The dead included the organization's commander, Mordechaj Anielewicz. His deputy, Edelman, escaped through the sewers on May 10 with a handful of comrades. Two days later, the Bundist Szmul Zygielbojm committed suicide in London in protest, citing a lack of assistance for the insurgents on the part of Western governments:

I cannot continue to live and to be silent while the remnants of Polish Jewry, whose representative I am, are being murdered. My comrades in the Warsaw ghetto fell with arms in their hands in the last heroic battle. I was not permitted to fall like them, together with them, but I belong with them, to their mass grave. By my death, I wish to give expression to my most profound protest against the inaction in which the world watches and permits the destruction of the Jewish people.

The suppression of the uprising officially ended on May 16, 1943. Nevertheless, sporadic shooting could be heard within the Ghetto throughout the summer of 1943. The last skirmish which took place on June 5, 1943 between Germans and a holdout group of armed criminals without connection to the resistance groups.


[edit] Death toll

13,000 Jews were killed in the ghetto during the uprising (some 6,000 among them were burnt alive or died from smoke inhalation). Of the remaining 50,000 residents, most were captured and shipped to concentration and extermination camps, in particular to Treblinka.

Jürgen Stroop's internal SS daily report for Friedrich Krüger, written on May 16, 1943, stated:

180 Jews, bandits and sub-humans, were destroyed. The former Jewish quarter of Warsaw is no longer in existence. The large-scale action was terminated at 20:15 hours by blowing up the Warsaw Synagogue. (...) Total number of Jews dealt with 56,065, including both Jews caught and Jews whose extermination can be proved. (...) Apart from 8 buildings (police barracks, hospital, and accommodations for housing working-parties) the former Ghetto is completely destroyed. Only the dividing walls are left standing where no explosions were carried out.[26]

According to the Stroop's report (both causality lists and separate daily reports), his forces suffered 17 killed in action (16 listed by name) and 93 wounded (86 of them listed by name); these figures included over 60 members of Waffen-SS, and did not include the Jewish collaborators). The real number of German losses, however, may be well higher if unknown (by Edelman's estimate about 300 casualties). For the propaganda purposes, official German casualties were announced to be only a few wounded, while bulletins of the Polish Underground State claimed that hundreds of Nazis died in the fighting.

German daily losses and the official figures for killed or captured Jews and "bandits", according to the Stroop report:

[edit] Aftermath

[edit] Former Ghetto under continued Nazi occupation

After the uprising, most of the incinerated houses were completely razed, and the Warsaw concentration camp complex was established in their place. Thousands of people died in the camp or were executed in the ruins of the ghetto. At the same time, the SS were hunting down the remaining Jews still hiding in the ruins.

In 1944, during the general Warsaw Uprising, the AK battalion ZoÅka was able to rescue 380 Jewish concentration camp prisoners from the Gäsiówka sub-camp, most of whom immediately joined AK and fought in the Polish uprising. A few small groups of Ghetto inhabitants also managed to survive in the underground sewer system.

[edit] Fate of the Germans involved

In October 1943 Bürkl, as "a sadist and a mass murderer", was convicted of crimes against the Polish nation by the Polish resistances Special Courts, sentenced to death, and shot dead on the street of Warsaw in Operation Bürkl a part of big action known as Operation Heads. In the same month, von Sammern-Frankenegg was killed by Yugoslav partisan ambush in Croatia.

Globocnik, Himmler, and Krüger all followed Adolf Hitler and committed suicide in May 1945.

Stroop was convicted of war crimes in two different trials and executed by hanging in Poland in 1952 (his aide Erich Steidtmann was exonerated for "minimal involvement"). Hahn went into hiding until 1975, when he was apprehended and sentenced to life for crimes against humanity; he died in prison in 1986.

[edit] Relation to 1944 Warsaw Uprising

The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising of 1943 took place over a year before the Warsaw Uprising of 1944. The Ghetto had been totally destroyed by the time of the Warsaw uprising, which was part of the larger Operation Tempest. Hundreds of the survivors from the first uprising took part in the 1944 Warsaw Uprising, fighting in the ranks of Armia Krajowa and Armia Ludowa.

[edit] The Warsaw kneeling

Monument to the Ghetto Heroes in Warsaw in 2006

On December 7, 1970, West German Chancellor Willy Brandt spontaneously knelt while visiting a monument to the Uprising in the former People's Republic of Poland. At the time, the action surprised many and was the focus of controversy, but it has since been credited with helping improve relations between the NATO and Warsaw Pact countries.

[edit] Remembrance in Israel

A number of survivors of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, known as the "Ghetto Fighters," went on to found Kibbutz Lohamey ha-Geta'ot (literally: "Ghetto Fighters' Kibbutz"), which is located north of Acre. The founding members of the kibbutz include Yitzhak Zuckerman, ŻOB deputy commander, and his wife Zivia Lubetkin, who also commanded a fighting unit. In 1984, the members of the kibbutz published Dapei Edut ("Testimonies of Survival"), four volumes of personal testimonies from 96 kibbutz members. The settlement also features a museum and archives dedicated to remembering the Holocaust.

Yad Mordechai, another kibbutz just north of the Gaza Strip, was named after Mordechaj Anielewicz.

In 2008, Israel Defense Forces Chief of Staff Gabi Ashkenazi led a group of IDF officials to the site of uprising and spoke about the event's "importance for IDF combat soldiers."[32]

[edit] In popular culture

The uprising was the subject of the 1948 film Border Street by Aleksander Ford, the 1955 film A Generation and the 1995 film The holy week, both by Andrzej Wajda, the 2001 film Uprising and the 2002 film The Pianist by Roman Polanski, as well as the 1961 novel Mila 18 by Leon Uris. Johnny Clegg has also written and sung a song devoted to the uprising, "Warsaw 1943". It was also featured in the 1978 NBC miniseries Holocaust, the 1986 film Highlander and the 2009 video game Velvet Assassin. The power-metal band Sabaton also released the track "Uprising" on their newest album, Coat of Arms in dedication to the people of Warsaw.

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ Richard Raskin. A Child at Gunpoint. A Case Study in the Life of a Photo. Aarhus University Press, 2004. [1]
  2. ^ a b Last Warsaw ghetto revolt commander honours fallen comrades
  3. ^ a b World War II: Warsaw Ghetto Uprising history.net
  4. ^ Jewish uprisings in Ghettos and Camps, 1941-1944 USHMM
  5. ^ "Operation Reinhard: Treblinka Deportations" The Nizkor Project, 1991â2008
  6. ^ Treblinka â ein Todeslager der "Aktion Reinhard", in: "Aktion Reinhard" â Die Vernichtung der Juden im Generalgouvernement, Bogdan Musial (ed.), Osnabrück 2004, pp. 257â281.
  7. ^ Court of Assizes in Düsseldorf, Germany. Excerpts From Judgments (Urteilsbegründung). AZ-LG Düsseldorf: II 931638.
  8. ^ The Nizkor Project, Statement by Stroop to CMP investigators about his actions in the Warsaw Ghetto (February 24, 1946) Wiesbaden, Germany, 24 February 1946.
  9. ^ Moshe Arens, Who Defended The Warsaw Ghetto? (The Jerusalem Post)
  10. ^ Jurgen Stroop Diary, including The Stroop Report: Table of Contents (Jewish Virtual Library)
  11. ^ Jewish Virtual Library, Ferdinand von Sammern-Frankenegg Source: Danny Dor (Ed.), Brave and Desperate. Israel Ghetto Fighters, 2003, p. 166.
  12. ^ Warsaw Ghetto Uprising USHMM
  13. ^ (English) David WdowiÅ„ski (1963). And we are not saved. New York: Philosophical Library. pp. 222. ISBN 0-8022-2486-5.  Note: Chariton and Lazar were never co-authors of WdowiÅ„ski's memoir. WdowiÅ„ski is considered the "single author."
  14. ^ The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman
  15. ^ Benjamin Wald Jewish Virtual Library
  16. ^ Josef âAndziâ Szerynski Jewish Virtual Library
  17. ^ Samuel Krakowski "War of the Doomed - Jewish Armed Resistance in Poland, 1942-1944" ISBN 0841908516 , p. 213-14, Holmes & Meier Publishers 1984
  18. ^ a b c Addendum 2 â Facts about Polish Resistance and Aid to Ghetto Fighters, Roman Barczynski, Americans of Polish Descent, Inc. Last accessed on 13 June 2006.
  19. ^ Getto 1943
  20. ^ a b c Stefan Korbonski The Polish Underground State: A Guide to the Underground, 1939-1945
  21. ^ Andrzej SÅawiÅ„ski, Warsaw Ghetto Uprising and The Polish Home Army â Questions and Answers. Translated from Polish by Antoni Bohdanowicz. Article on the pages of the London Branch of the Polish Home Army Ex-Servicemen Association. Last accessed on March 14, 2008.
  22. ^ Richard C. Lukas "Forgotten holocaust - The Poles under German Occupation 1939-1944" Hippocrene Books 1997 ISBN 0-7818-0901-0
  23. ^ Stefan Korbonski, "The Polish Underground State: A Guide to the Underground, 1939-1945", pages 120-139, Excerpts
  24. ^ "The Stroop report", Pantheon 1986 ISBN 0394738179
  25. ^ "The Stroop Report - The Jewish Quarter of Warsaw is No More", Secker & Warburg 1980
  26. ^ a b c From the Stroop Report by SS Gruppenführer Jürgen Stroop, May 1943.
  27. ^ Two Ukrainian Members of the SS
  28. ^ a b World War II: Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
  29. ^ The changing face of memory: Who defended the Warsaw Ghetto? The Jerusalem Post
  30. ^ Warsaw Jews mark uprising BBC News
  31. ^ Online transcript of Stoop's report in German and English translation
  32. ^ Azoulay, Yuval. "IDF Chief, in Warsaw: Israeli, its army are answer to Holocaust.", Haaretz, 29 April 2008.

[edit] Further reading

  • Edelman, Marek (1990). The Ghetto Fights: Warsaw, 1941-43. London: Bookmarks Publications. ISBN 0-9062-2456-X. 
  • Gebhardt-Herzberg, Sabine (2003) (in German). "Das Lied ist geschrieben mit Blut und nicht mit Blei": Mordechaj Anielewicz und der Aufstand im Warschauer Ghetto. Bielefeld: S. Gebhardt-Herzberg. ISBN 3-0001-3643-6. 
  • Goldstein, Bernard (2005). Five Years in the Warsaw Ghetto. Oakland: AK Press. pp. 256. ISBN 1904859054. [3]
  • Jahns, Joachim (2009). Der Warschauer Ghettokönig. Dingsda-Verlag, Leipzig, ISBN 978-3-928-49899-9
  • Moczarski, Kazimierz (1984). Conversations with an Executioner. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-300-09546-3. 
  • Paulsson, Gunnar S. (2002). Secret City: The Hidden Jews of Warsaw, 1940-1945. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-1317-1918-1. Review
  • WdowiÅ„ski, Dawid; Lazar, Chaim; Chariton, Morris (1985). And we are not saved. New York: Philosophical Library. ISBN 0-8022-2486-5 

[edit] External links




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