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Timeline of LGBT history


The following is a timeline of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) related history.

[edit] 12,000 BP

[edit] 5th millennium BCE

[edit] 25th/24th century BCE

[edit] 7th century BCE

Marriage between men in Greece was not legally recognized, although life-long relationships between adult men were not uncommon. The partnerships between two men in Greece were similar to heterosexual marriages with the exception that generally there was about a generation difference in age and the older person served as the educator or mentor.[4]

[edit] 6th century BCE

[edit] 4th century BCE

[edit] 2nd century BCE

[edit] 1st century BCE

Romans, like the Greeks, tolerated love and sex amongst men. Two Roman Emperors publicly married men, some had gay lovers themselves, and homosexual prostitution was taxed. However, like the Greeks, passivity and effeminacy were not tolerated, and an adult male freeborn Roman could lose his citizen status if caught performing fellatio or being penetrated.[6]

[edit] 1st century

[edit] 2nd century

[edit] 3rd century

[edit] 4th century

[edit] 5th century

[edit] 6th century

[edit] 7th Century

[edit] 9th century

[edit] 10th century

[edit] 11th Century

[edit] 12th century

[edit] 13th century

[edit] 14th century

[edit] 15th Century

[edit] 16th century

[edit] 17th century

[edit] 18th century

“Whosoever shall be guilty of rape, polygamy, or sodomy with a man or woman, shall be punished; if a man, by castration, a woman, by boring through the cartilage of her nose a hole of one half inch in diameter at the least.” (Virginia Bill number 64; authored by Jefferson; June 18, 1779).

[edit] 19th century

Karl Heinrich Ulrichs (1825–1895), a pioneer of LGBT rights

[edit] 20th century

[edit] 1901–1909

[edit] 1910s

[edit] 1920s

[edit] 1930s

[edit] 1940s

[edit] 1950s

Mattachine Review published by the Mattachine Society

[edit] 1960s

The purple handprint became a symbol of gay liberation in 1969, following a San Francisco newspaper dumping purple ink on members of the Gay Liberation Front protesting their offices.

[edit] 1970s

[edit] 1980s

[edit] 1990s

[edit] 2000

[edit] 21st century

[edit] 2001–2009

Same-sex sexual activity legal      Same-sex marriage      Other type of partnership (or unregistered cohabitation)      Foreign same-sex marriages recognized      No recognition of same-sex couples
Same-sex sexual activity illegal      Minimal penalty      Large penalty      Life in prison      Death penalty

 v â€’ d â€’ e 

(See individual year page for more info)

[edit] 2010s

(See individual year page for more info)

[edit] See also

[edit] Footnotes

  1. ^ Explaining the early human mind
  2. ^ Timeline of more History
  3. ^ Reeder, Greg (October 2000). "Same-sex desire, conjugal constructs, and the tomb of Niankhkhnum and Khnumhotep". World Archaeology 32 (2): 193–208. doi:10.1080/00438240050131180. 
  4. ^ Boswell, John (1994). Same-Sex Unions in Pre-Modern Europe. New York: Vintage Books
  5. ^ OED etymology for Lesbian: After the alleged practice of Sappho, the poetess of Lesbos.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r (Fone, 2000)
  7. ^ Haggerty, George E. (2000). Gay histories and cultures: an encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. p. 418. ISBN 9780815318804. 
  8. ^ Sergio Musitelli, Maurizio Bossi, Remigio Allegri, Storia dei costumi sessuali in occidente dalla preistoria ai giorni nostri, Rusconi, Milano 1999, pp. 126–127.
  9. ^ Suetonius, Julius 2–3; Plutarch, Caesar 2–3; Cassius Dio, Roman History 43.20
  10. ^ Martial attests to same-sex marriages between men during the early Roman Empire, q.v. Martial Epigrams 1.24, 12.42
  11. ^ Ancient History Sourcebook: Suetonius: De Vita Caesarum-Nero, c. 110 C.E Although this action was criticized by contemporary historians, these same historians do not criticize emperors such as Hadrian and Trajan who also had male lovers. The real reason behind the criticism of Nero and Elagabalus is that both of these emperors ignored the Senators (who wrote the surviving historical accounts) and appointed low class men (such as freedmen) to important positions of power, thereby incurring the hatred of the Senatorial class.
  12. ^ Dio Cassius, Epitome of Book 68.6.4; 68.21.2–6.21.3
  13. ^ Apologia I, 27, UTA, RANKE-HEINEMANN, Eunuchi per il regno dei cieli, Rizzoli 1990, p. 66.
  14. ^ Augustan History, Life of Elagabalus 10
  15. ^ Theodosian Code 9.8.3: "When a man marries and is about to offer himself to men in womanly fashion (quum vir nubit in feminam viris porrecturam), what does he wish, when sex has lost all its significance; when the crime is one which it is not profitable to know; when Venus is changed to another form; when love is sought and not found? We order the statutes to arise, the laws to be armed with an avenging sword, that those infamous persons who are now, or who hereafter may be, guilty may be subjected to exquisite punishment.
  16. ^ (Theodosian Code 9.7.6): All persons who have the shameful custom of condemning a man's body, acting the part of a woman's to the sufferance of alien sex (for they appear not to be different from women), shall expiate a crime of this kind in avenging flames in the sight of the people.
  17. ^ Evagrius Ecclesiastical History 3.39
  18. ^ Justinian Novels 77, 144
  19. ^ Visigothic Code 3.5.5, 3.5.6; Online at:; "The doctrine of the orthodox faith requires us to place our censure upon vicious practices, and to restrain those who are addicted to carnal offences. For we counsel well for the benefit of our people and our country, when we take measures to utterly extirpate the crimes of wicked men, and put an end to the evil deeds of vice. For this reason we shall attempt to abolish the horrible crime of sodomy, which is as contrary to Divine precept as it is to chastity. And although the authority of the Holy Scriptures, and the censure of earthly laws, alike, prohibit offences of this kind, it is nevertheless necessary to condemn them by a new decree; lest if timely correction be deferred, still greater vices may arise. Therefore, we establish by this law, that if any man whosoever, of any age, or race, whether he belongs to the clergy, or to the laity, should be convicted, by competent evidence, of the commission of the crime of sodomy, he shall, by order of the king, or of any judge, not only suffer emasculation, but also the penalty prescribed by ecclesiastical decree for such offences, and promulgated in the third year of our reign."
  20. ^ David Bromell. Who's Who in Gay and Lesbian History, London, 2000 (Ed. Wotherspoon and Aldrich)
  21. ^
  22. ^ PETRI DAMIANI Liber gomorrhianus , ad Leonem IX Rom. Pon. in Patrologiae Cursus completus...accurante J.P., MIGNE, series secunda, tomus CXLV, col. 161; CANOSA, Romano, Storia di una grande paura La sodomia a Firenze e a Venezia nel quattrocento, Feltrinelli, Milano 1991, pp.13–14
  23. ^ Opera Omnia.
  24. ^ John Boswell, Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality (1980) p. 293.
  25. ^ storia completa qui
  26. ^ Crompton, Louis. Homosexuality and Civilization. Cambridge & London: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2003
  27. ^ R v Jacobs (1817) Russ & Ry 331 confirmed that buggery related only to intercourse per anum by a man with a man or woman or intercourse per anum or per vaginum by either a man or a woman with an animal. Other forms of "unnatural intercourse" may amount to indecent assault or gross indecency, but do not constitute buggery. See generally, Smith & Hogan, Criminal Law (10th ed), ISBN 0 406 94801 1
  28. ^ Godbeer, Richard (2002). Sexual revolution in early America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0801868009.  p.123
  29. ^ Borris, Kenneth (2004). Same-sex desire in the English Renaissance: a sourcebook of texts, 1470–1650. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0815336268.  p.113
  30. ^ Foster, Thomas (2007). Long Before Stonewall: Histories of Same-Sex Sexuality in Early America. New York University Press.
  31. ^ Norton, Rictor (February 5, 2005). "The Raid of Mother Clap's Molly House". Retrieved Feb. 12, 2010. 
  32. ^ Thomas Jefferson, The Writings of Thomas Jefferson, Andrew A. Lipscomb, ed. (Washington, Thomas Jefferson Memorial Association, 1904) Vol. I, pp. 226–27, from Jefferson’s “For Proportioning Crimes and Punishments.”
  33. ^ Gunther, Scott (2009). "The Elastic Closet: A History of Homosexuality in France, 1942–present" Book about the history of homosexual movements in France (sample chapter available online). Palgrave-Macmillan, 2009. ISBN 023022105X.
  34. ^
  35. ^ Galloway, Bruce (1984). Prejudice and Pride: Discrimination Against Gay People in Modern Britain. Routledge. ISBN 9780710099167. 
  36. ^ (Chauncey, 1995)
  37. ^ Marc Vargo. Scandal: infamous gay controversies of the twentieth century Routledge, 2003. pp 165–7.
  38. ^ Steakley, James D. (revised 1989). "Iconography of a Scandal: Political Cartoons and the Eulenburg Affair in Wilhelmin Germany", Hidden from History: Reclaiming the Gay & Lesbian Past (1990), Duberman, et al., eds. New York: Meridian, New American Library, Penguin Books. ISBN 0-452-01067-5.
  39. ^ Goldman, Emma (1923). "Offener Brief an den Herausgeber der JahrbΓΌcher ΓΌber Louise Michel" with a preface by Magnus Hirschfeld. Jahrbuch fΓΌr sexuelle Zwischenstufen 23: 70.
 Translated from German by James Steakley. Goldman's original letter in English is not known to be extant.
  40. ^[dead link] Jeffrey Escoffier, Left-wing Homosexuality Emancipation, Sexual Liberation, and Identity Politics.
    "During the first decade of the twentieth-century, the great anarchist and feminist leader Emma Goldman argued for the acceptance of homosexuals in her speeches and writings."]
  41. ^ Russian Gay History
    "It was not until 1832 that the criminal code included Article 995, which made muzhelozhstvo (men lying with men, which the courts interpreted as anal intercourse) a criminal act punishable by exile to Siberia.... The October Revolution of 1917 did away with the entire Criminal Code .... The new Russian Criminal Codes of 1922 and 1926 eliminated the offence of muzhelozhstvo from the law."
  42. ^ Wayne R. Dynes, Stephen Donaldson. History of homosexuality in Europe and America. Taylor & Francis, 1992, pp. 174+
  43. ^, The first Institute for Sexual Science
  44. ^
  45. ^ Atina Grossmann. Reforming Sex. Oxford University Press, 1995.
  46. ^
  47. ^ West, Donald James; Richard Green (1997). Sociolegal control of homosexuality: a multi-nation comparison. Springer. p. 224. ISBN 0306455323. 
  48. ^ Archer, p. 110
  49. ^ Vern L. Bullough, RN, PhD, ed (2002) [2002]. Before Stonewall, Activists for Gay and Lesbian Rights in Historical Context. New York: Harrington Park Press. p. 424. ISBN 1560231920. 
  50. ^ Hodges, Andrew (1995 ...). "A short on-line biography in eight parts: Part 8 — Alan Turing's Crisis". ALAN TURING founder of computer science. Andrew Hodges. Retrieved 24 June 2010. 
  51. ^ Daily Mail: "Lord Montagu on the court case which ended the legal persecution of homosexuals," 17 July 2007
  52. ^ Miller, p. 347
  53. ^ 1961 Ill. Laws 2044.
  54. ^ McLeod, Donald W.. A Brief History of Gay: Canada's First Gay Tabloid, 1964–1966. 
  55. ^ "Our Silver Anniversary: Canadians have been organizing for twenty five years!". Newsletter of the Canadian Gay Archives (National Archives for Lesbians and Gay Men) 7. June 1989. 
  56. ^ Wittman, Carl (1970). "A Gay Manifesto (1970)". Gay Homeland Foundation. Retrieved 28 June 2010. 
  57. ^ Blasius, Mark; Shane Phelan (1997). We are everywhere: a historical sourcebook in gay and lesbian politics. Routledge. pp. 380-â€â“90. ISBN 0415908590. 
  58. ^ Jennings, Rebecca (2008-10-21). "Lesbians". Dictionary of Sydney. Retrieved 28 June 2010. 
  59. ^ Willett, Graham (2000). Living out loud: a history of gay and lesbian activism in Australia. Allen & Unwin. p. 33. 
  60. ^ Getting Rid of Sodomy Laws: History and Strategy that Led to the Lawrence Decision
  61. ^ Sodomy Laws, Idaho
  62. ^ Victora Brittain (28 August 1971). "An Alternative to Sexual Shame: Impact of the new militancy among homosexual groups". The Times. p. 12. 
  63. ^ a b Bergh, Frederick Quist (2001). "[I feel a bit gay today]" (in Swedish). Retrieved 12 December 2009. 
  64. ^ Warner, Tom. ‘’Never Going Back: A History of Queer Activism in Canada’’, 2002 University of Toronto Press, ISBN 0802084605 p41
  65. ^ The Knitting Circle – Gay Left Collective
  66. ^ Coming Out: Homosexual Politics in Britain from the Nineteenth Century to the Present, Quartet Books 1977; 2nd revised edition, with new chapter and bibliography, 1990
  67. ^ ILGA
  68. ^ "HRC – About Us". Human Rights Campaign. 2009. Retrieved 9 April 2009. 
  69. ^ CDC (1981, 5th June) ‘Pheumocystis Pneumonia – Los Angeles’, MMWR, Vol. 30 No. 21.
  70. ^ Oswald, G.A, et al (1982) ‘Attempted immune stimulation in the “gay compromise syndrome”’. BMJ, 1982 October 16; 285(6348): 1082.
  71. ^ MMWR Weekly (1982) ‘Current trends update on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) – United States’. September 24, 31(37); 507–508, 513–514.
  72. ^ Sunstone Magazine March 1986 Interview with Antonio A. Feliz Pages 43–44
  73. ^ Berger, J (1985) ‘Rock Hudson, screen idol, dies at 59’. The New York Times, October 3rd.
  74. ^ ACT UP. Flyer of the demonstration on 24th March, 1987.
  75. ^ Seidman, Steven (1997). Queer Theory/sociology. Blackwell Publishing. p. 414. ISBN 1557867402 
  76. ^ The New York Times (1995, 21st November) ‘New drug to fight AIDS is approved by FDA’.
  77. ^
  78. ^ South Australia gays get new rights
  79. ^ Island Chain Votes To Ban Discrimination Against Gays
  80. ^ Gay sex at 16 legal, Man
  81. ^ [1]
  82. ^ Timeline of lesbian and gay history
  83. ^ "Equality Act 2006". Archived from the original on 2007-12-20. 
  84. ^ BBC: State votes for consent age drop
  85. ^ Sexual Offences (Jersey) Law 2007
  86. ^ See video
  87. ^ (Vietnamese) "Lễ káΊ¿t hΓ΄n ä‘ồng giới táΊ¡i HΓ  Nội". Retrieved 4 August 2009. 
  88. ^ Sweden oks gay marriage
  89. ^ Jeff Eckhoff and Grant Schulte (April 3, 2009). "Unanimous ruling: Iowa marriage no longer limited to one man, one woman". Des Moines Register. Retrieved 7 May 2009. 
  90. ^ Vermont legalizes gay marriage[dead link] The Burlington Free Press
  91. ^ Gay marriage law signed in Maine, advances in N.H. – Local News Updates – The Boston Globe
  92. ^ a b Hopkins, Christopher Dean (October 4, 2009). "Catania: Gay Marriage Bill Will Debut Tuesday". The Washington Post. 
  93. ^ "SB 5688 – 2009–10 – Expanding the rights and responsibilities of state registered domestic partners.". Washington State Legislature. Retrieved 4 August 2009. 
  94. ^ Japan allows its citizens same-sex marriage abroad
  95. ^ "Finland allows gay couples to adopt partner’s children". Pink News. February 24, 2008. Retrieved 18 May 2009. 
  96. ^ Susan M. Cover (4 November 2009). "Mainers vote down gay marriage law". Portland Press Herald. Retrieved 4 November 2009. "The measure is repealed in a close vote, 53–47 percent" 
  97. ^
  98. ^ "Gay sex decriminalised in India". BBC News. July 2, 2009. Retrieved 4 August 2009. 
  99. ^ Moody, Jonas (January 30, 2009). "Iceland Picks the World's First Openly Gay PM". Time.,8599,1875032,00.html. Retrieved 31 January 2009. 
  100. ^ Edelman, Ofra (2009-03-11). "Gay couple wins right to adopt foster son". Haaretz. Retrieved 2009-03-11. 
  101. ^ "California high court upholds Prop. 8". Los Angeles Times. 27 May 2009.,0,7752874.story. Retrieved 30 May 2009. 
  102. ^ "Bill 44: Human Rights, Citizenship and Multiculturalism Amendment Act, 2009 (Blackett)". Legislative Assembly of Alberta. May 26, 2009. Retrieved 4 August 2009. 
  103. ^ "Houston makes its choice; Parker makes history". Houston Chronicle. 2009-12-15. Retrieved 2010-01-18. 
  104. ^ "Argentina legalizes same-sex marriage". CNN. 
  105. ^ Jane Fae (11 March 2010). "Australia is first to recognise 'non-specified' gender". Pink News. Retrieved 14 March 2010. "Pink News: "Australia is first to recognise 'non-specified' gender"" 
  106. ^

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