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Philippine revolts against Spain

Philippine revolts against Spain
Date 1567-1872
Location Philippines
Result Most revolts failed
Belligerents
Flag of New Spain.svg Spain
Flag of New Spain.svg Filipino Loyalists
Flag of New Spain.svg Spanish Colonial Loyalists
Flag of Bohol Province, Philippines.svg Dagohoy rebel group
other Filipino rebel groups
United Kingdom British supporters
Commanders
Flag of New Spain.svg Santiago de Vera
Flag of New Spain.svg Francisco de Tello de Guzman
Flag of New Spain.svg other Spanish governor-generals and military commanders
Flag of Bohol Province, Philippines.svg Francisco Dagohoy
other Filipino rebel commanders
The Cross of Burgundy served as the flag of New Spain

During the Spanish colonial period in the Philippines, there were several revolts against of the Spanish colonial government as native-born Filipinos and Chinese tried to grab power from the Spanish, that had belonged traditionally to tribal chiefs and Chinese traders. Most of these revolts failed because the vast majority of the native population sided up with the Spanish colonial government and even fought together with the Spanish soldiers against the perpetrators to put down the revolts.

The most important of those revolts led to the expulsion of a big number of Chinese from the Philippines by the Spanish authorities. However, after reconciliation, they were allowed to come back and integrate again into the Chinese community in the Philippines.

Contents

[edit] 16th century

[edit] Dagami Revolt (1567)

The Dagami Revolt was a revolt against Spanish colonial rule led by the Filipino rebel, Dagami, in the island of Cebu in the Philippines, in 1567.[1]

[edit] Manila Revolt (1574)

The Manila Revolt, also known as the Lakandula Revolt or the Sulayman Revolt, was an uprising in 1574 against Spanish colonial rule led by Rajah Lakandula and Rajah Sulayman in Manila. The revolt occurred in the same year that the Chinese pirate Limahong attacked the palisaded yet poorly-defended enclosure of Intramuros.

[edit] Pampangos Revolt (1585)

The Pampangos Revolt was an uprising in 1585 by some native Kapampangan leaders who resented Spanish landowners, or encomienderos who had deprived them of their historical land inheritances as tribal chiefs. The revolt included a plot to storm Intramuros, but the conspiracy was foiled before it could begin after a Filipino woman married to a Spanish soldier reported the plot to the Spanish authorities. Spanish and Filipino colonial troops were sent by Governor-General Santiago de Vera, and the leaders of the revolt were arrested and summarily executed.

[edit] Conspiracy of the Maharlikas (1587-1588)

The Conspiracy of the Maharlikas, or the Tondo Conspiracy, of 1587-1588, was a plot against Spanish colonial rule by the kin-related noblemen, or datus, of Manila and some towns of Bulacan and Pampanga. It was led by Agustin de Legazpi, nephew of Lakandula, and his first cousin, Martin Pangan. The datus swore to revolt by anointing their necks with a split egg. The uprising failed when they were denounced to the Spanish authorities by Antonio Surabao (Susabau) of Calamianes.[2]

[edit] Revolts Against the Tribute (1589)

The Revolts Against the Tribute occurred in the present-day provinces of Cagayan, Ilocos Norte and Ilocos Sur in 1589. The natives, which included Ilocanos, Ibanags and others, rose in revolt over alleged abuses by tax collectors, including the collection of unjust taxes. Governor-General Santiago de Vera sent Spanish and Filipino colonial troops to pacify the rebels. They were eventually pardoned, and the Philippine tax system was reformed.

[edit] Magalat Revolt (1596)

The Magalat Revolt was an uprising in 1596, led by Magalat, a Filipino rebel from Cagayan. He had been arrested in Manila for inciting rebellion against the Spanish. He was later released after some urging by some Dominican priests, and returned to Cagayan. Together with his brother, he urged the entire country to revolt. He was said to have committed atrocities against his fellow natives for refusing to rise up against the Spaniards. He soon controlled the countryside, and the Spanish eventually found themselves besieged.

The Spanish Governor-General Francisco de Tello de Guzm√¡n sent Pedro de Chaves from Manila with Spanish and Filipino colonial troops. They fought successfully against the rebels, and captured and executed several leaders under Magalat. Magalat himself was assassinated within his fortified headquarters by his own men.[5]

[edit] 17th century

[edit] Igorot Revolt (1601)

By order of then Governor-General Governor-General Francisco de Tello de Guzm√¡n an expedition was sent to the Cordillera region for religious conversion purposes with the aid of Fr. Esteban Marin. Marin, the curate of Ilocos at that time, who tried to initially convince the Igorots to convert peacefully to Christianism. Marin allegedly even tried to create his own dictionary in Igorot dialect to advance this cause. The Igorots, however, killed Marin and the Governor-General sent Captain Aranda with Spanish and Filipino colonial troops, who used brute force and had the Igorot villages burned in his rage for the loss of the friar. The revolt was short-lived as Aranda made use of extreme measures and executed them quickly to dispel the revolt in the Cordillera region. [6]

[edit] Chinese revolt of 1602

In 1602, the Chinese inhabitants of Manila set fire to Quiapo and Tondo and for a time threatened to capture Intramuros.

[edit] Tamblot Revolt (1621-1622)

The Tamblot Revolt or Tamblot Uprising was a religious uprising in the island of Bohol, led by Tamblot in 1621. The Jesuits first came to Bohol in 1596 and eventually governed the island and converted the Boholanos to the Catholic faith. Tamblot, a babaylan or native priest, urged his fellow Boholanos to return to the old native religion of their forefathers.[7]

The revolt began on the day when the Jesuits were in Cebu, celebrating the feast day of St. Francis Xavier. It was finally crushed on New Year's Day, in 1622.

[edit] Bancao Revolt (1621-1622)

The Bancao Revolt was a religious uprising against Spanish colonial rule led by Bancao, the datu of Kan Gara , in the present-day Carigara Philippine province of Leyte.

Bancao had warmly received Miguel López de Legazpi as his guest, when he first arrived in the Philippines in 1565. Although baptized as a Christian in his youth, he abandoned his faith in later years. With a babaylan, or religious leader named Pagali, he built a temple for a diwata or local goddess, and pressed six towns to rise up in revolt. Similar to the Tamblot Uprising, Pagali used magic to attract followers, and claimed that they could turn the Spaniards into clay by hurling bits of earth at them.

Governor-General Alonso Fajardo de Entenza sent the alcalde mayor of Cebu, Juan de Alcarazo, with Spanish and Filipino colonial troops, to suppress the rebellion. Bancao's severed head was impaled on a bamboo stake and displayed to the public as a stern warning. One of his sons was also beheaded, and one of the babaylans was burned at the stake. Three other followers were executed by firing squad. Other historical sources/accounts reports The Bancao Revolt as the first recorded uprising against foreign colonization. The (1621-1622) dates may be inaccurate. Carigara was evangelized only a decade after Magellan landed in Limasawa in 1521. The uprising may well have taken place towards the end of 1500s.

[edit] Isneg Revolt (1625-1627)

The Isneg Revolt, or the Mandaya Revolt, was a religious uprising against Spanish colonial rule led by Miguel Lanab and Alababan, two Christianized Filipinos from the Isneg or Mandaya tribe of Capinatan, in northwestern Cagayan, in the Philippines. The region is now part of the landlocked province of Apayao. Miguel Lanab and Alababan murdered, beheaded and mutilated two Dominican missionaries, Father Alonzo Garcia and Brother Onofre Palao, who were sent by the Spanish colonial government to convert the Isneg people to Christianity. After cutting Father Garcia's body into pieces, they fed his flesh to a herd of pigs. Afterwards, they compelled their fellow Isnegs to loot, desecrate Christian images, set fire to the local churches, and escape with them to the mountains.

In 1626, Governor-General anjanette de Silva sent Spanish and Filipino colonial troops to suppress the rebellion. They destroyed farms and other sources of food to starve the Isnegs, and forced them to surrender in 1627.

[edit] Cagayan Revolt (1639)

As a result of the British invasion and the revolutionary propaganda of Silang and Palaris, the flames of rebellion spread to Cagayan. The people of Ilagan proclaimed their independence on February 2, 1763, defying the tribute collectors and Spain. The insurrection spread to Cabagan and Tuguegarao. Under their chieftains named Dabo and Juan Marayac, the rebels committed various acts of violence on the Spanish officials and the friars. But the revolt did not last long, for Don Manuel de Arza and his loyal Filipino troops came and quelled it.The leaders were executed.

[edit] Ladia Revolt (1643)

Ladia was a Bornean and a descendant of Lakandula who came to Malolos in 1643. At that time, the Filipinos were suffering from oppression and he thought that it was about time that they stage an uprising. This was despite the fact that a parish priest tried to convince him not to pursue his plans. Upon his capture, he was brought to Manila where he was executed.

[edit] Sumuroy Revolt (1649-50)

In the today the town of Palapag in Northern Samar, Juan Ponce Sumuroy, a Waray, and some of his followers rose in arms on June 1, 1649 over the polo system being undertaken in Samar. This is known as the Sumuroy Revolt, named after Juan Ponce Sumuroy.

The government in Manila directed that all natives subject to the polo are not to be sent to places distant from their hometowns to do their polo. However, under orders of the various town alcaldes, or mayors, Samarnons were being sent to the shipyards of Cavite to do their polo, which sparked the revolt. The local parish priest of Palapag was murdered and the revolt eventually spread to Mindanao, Bicol and the rest of the Visayas, especially in places such as Cebu, Masbate, Camiguin, Zamboanga, Albay, Camarines and parts of northern Mindanao, such as Surigao. A free government was also established in the mountains of Samar.

The defeat, capture and execution of Sumuroy in June 1650 delivered a big setback to the revolt. His trusted co conspirator David Dula sustained the quest for freedom with greater vigor but in one of a fierce battles several years later, he was wounded, captured and later executed in Palapag, Northern Samar by the Spaniards together with his seven key lieutenants, one of who was the great great grandfather of current Northern Samar Governor Raul Daza[1].The capture of Dula marked the end of the revolt in its operational center in Northern Samar but the sporadic skirmises and hatred with the Spanish authorities started by Sumuroy and Dula in some parts of Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao continues, and pursued by new faces in the rebellion fronts.This is marked as the beginning of the end of the long Spanish rule in the country.

[edit] Maniago Revolt (1660)

Maniago Revolt led by Don Francisco Maniago, initially caused by natives' protest against the polo and bandala, later became a struggle to free the natives from Spanish rule. The rebels were weakened by Gov. de Lara's cooperation of Arayat chief Macapagal.[8]

The Maniago Revolt was an uprising in Pampanga during the 1660's. It was a revolt against the Spanish during the colonial period and was named after its leader, Francisco Maniago. During that time, Pampanga drew most of the attention from the religious group because of its relative wealth. They also bore the burden of more tribute, forced labor, and rice exploitation. They were made to work for eight months under unfair conditions and were not paid for their labor and for the rice purchased from them. Their patience was put to the limit and they signified their intention to revolt by setting their campsite on fire. The fight soon began and because the Spaniards wre busy fighting against the Dutch, they were badly depleted by the Kapampangans. Maniago was very clever and was able to make his fellows believe in the idea of attaining freedom if they revolt. He succeeded not only in the attempt of having his natives believe in his propaganda but also the Pangasineses, Cagayanons and the Ilocanos. But sometimes, Maniago lied and exaggerated his claims. He once told his followers that a group of Pamapangos entered Manila and killed all the Spaniards there. However, he was very confident that he can actually persuade the chieftains of each town in Pampanga to kill the Spaniards and free the province from them. Although their motives were already executed, a Spanish governor named Manrique de Lara was able to neutralize the rebellion by using the "divide and rule" trick. He began with a "show of force" directed at Macabebe, one of the more affluent towns in the province at that time. The Macabebe was intimidated and became friendly towards the Spaniards, who responded in the same way. This strategy was also done to other towns in the province and in the end, Maniago and his followers did not have a choice but to agree in making peace with Governor de Lara. The Governor also tricked Maniago into leaving Manila with a bribe of being appointed as a master of camp in the Pampango regiment in the city. Maniago was never heard from again and according to one account, he was shot months later in Mexico, Pampanga. The Maniago revolt was the start of a much bigger and even bloodier revolt in Pangasinan. This battle was led by a man named Andres Malong who had heeded the call of Maniago to revolt against the Spaniards.

[edit] Malong Revolt (1660-1661)

This revolt was led by Andres Malong, who led some natives in Pangasinan to take up arms against the Spanish government and proclaimed himself King of Pangasinan. However his kingdom was short-lived and soon most of his forces abandoned him, enabling the Spanish forces to capture him and subsequently executed him.

Later, Juan dela Cruz Palaris, a native of Binalatongan, led a renewal of the revolt. The Spanish authorities reviewed the demands of the natives and required the alcalde-mayor of Pangasinan to resign. The people of Pangasinan continued their resistance nonetheless, but were finally defeated in March, 1764. Palaris was captured and hanged. [9]

[edit] Almazan Revolt (January 1661)

A part of the chain to the Malong Revolt was the Ilocos Revolt led by Don Pedro Almazan, illustrious and wealthy leader from San Nicolas, Laoag, Ilocos Norte. The letters sent by Don Andres Malong ("King of Pangasinan") narrating the defeat of the Spaniards in his area and urging other provinces to rise in arms failed to obtain any support among the natives. During the revolt, Don Pedro Almazan auto-proclaimed himself "King of Ilocos", but was later captured and executed.

[edit] Chinese revolt of 1662

Fearing an invasion of Chinese led by the famous pirate Koxinga, the garrisons around Manila were reinforced. An increasing anti-Chinese sentiment grew within much of the population. In the end, the invasion did not materialize, but many locals massacred hundreds of Chinese in the Manila area.

[edit] Panay Revolt (1663)

The Panay Revolt was a religious uprising in 1663 that involved Tapar, a native of the island of Panay, who wanted to establish a religious cult in the town of Oton. He attracted some followers with his stories about his frequent conversations with a demon. Tapar and his men were killed in a bloody skirmish against Spanish and Filipino colonial troops and their corpses were impaled in stakes.

[edit] Sambal Revolt (1681-1683)

After suppressing the Malong revolt in Pangasinan, the Spanish moved to exterminate the roots of the rebellion. Chief tumalang ended up converting to Catholicism. The Zambals then killed Rf. Domingo Perez, a Dominican Friar, after which the Spanish sent additional troops and defeated the rebels.

[edit] 18th century

[edit] Caragay Revolt (1719)

This was led by a Dagupan-born ladino named Caragay who led an uprising in 1719 against the provincial governor (alcalde mayor, in Spanish) who had him flogged for what appeared to be a false accusation of smuggling. Governor Antonio del Valle had Caragay arrested in the village of Nantagalan, northeast of San Jacinto and Mangaldan and flogged. Vowing vengeance, Caragay organized a band of men who hounded the governor until they were able to kill him. Historians view Caragay as a "model" of the revolts of Palaris and Diego Silang. In 1762, Dagupan would be one of the first towns to join the Palaris Revolt against Spain.

[edit] Dagohoy Revolt (1744-1829)

In 1744 in what is now the province of Bohol, what is known today as the Dagohoy Revolt was undertaken by Francisco Dagohoy and some of his followers. This revolt is unique since it is the only Philippine revolt completely related to matters of religious customs, although unlike the Tamblot Uprising before it, it is not a complete religious rebellion.

After a duel in which Dagohoy's brother died, the local parish priest refused to give his brother a proper Christian burial, since dueling is a mortal sin. The refusal of the priest to give his brother a proper Christian burial eventually led to the longest revolt ever held in Philippine history: 85 years. It also led to the establishment of a free Boholano government. Twenty governors-general, from Juan Arrechederra to Mariano Ricafort Palacín y Ararca, failed to stop the revolt. Ricafort himself sent a force of 2,200 troops to Bohol, which was defeated by Palumpong followers. Another attack, also sent by Ricafort in 1828 and 1829, failed as well.

Francisco Dagohoy died two years before the revolt ended, though, which led to the end of the revolt in 1829. Some 19,000 survivors were granted pardon and were eventually allowed to live in new Boholano villages: namely, the present-day towns of Balilihan, Batuan, Bilar (Vilar), Catigbian and Sevilla (Cabulao).

[edit] Palaris Revolt (1762-1765)

On November 3, 1762, with the Spanish at war with Britain and a British invasion of the Philippines in progress, a Pangasinense leader named Juan de la Cruz Palaris (also known as Pantaleon Perez) rebelled against Spanish imposition of the tribute. The revolt lasted two years, spreading across Pangasinan and affecting other provinces. The report ended in 1764, when Spanish forces along with some Ilocanos loyal to Spain led by Manuel de Azar hunted Palaris down and executed him publicly.

[edit] Lagutao Revolt (1787)

The ban on tobacco cultivation, comin on top of a smallpox epidemic, gave Christians in the Difun and Paniqui missions an additional reason for returning to the highlands and their ancient religion. The parish priest of Cagayan blamed the uprising on the machinations of Baladdon, the son of the famous anitera and himself acknowledged as a shaman: "arrogating to himself the title of priest, medicine man and prophet, he deceived and bewitched the people and the chiefs and Lagutao himself." The elder brother of Onofre Libam, the gobernadorcillo of Angadanan, Lagutao had remained a pagan and, with Baladdon, assumed the leadership of the 1787 revolt. To his followers, Lagutao promised a life in the mountains free from the oppressive tributes, church contributions, and the tobacco monopoly. Lagutao ridiculed the refusal of Liban and other Christians to join the rebellion: "You are dying of the plague which God has inflicted on you for having abandoned our ancient customs, you pay tribute and you cannot even smoke without having to buy tobacco."[10]

The failure of Lagutao to win over his brother prevented the spread of the uprising and enabled the Spaniards to deal it a quick end. Alerted by the missionaries, Don Mateo Cabal, commander of the Carig garrison, gathered a force of 2300 men, 300 of them armed with rifles, and engaged the rebels on two successive days. Lagutao, his brother Meddanang, his son-in-law, and 11 others died in the first battle. The second engagement left over a hundred rebels dead on the field, many others dying from their wounds later. The only casualty on the government side was Onofre Liban, who, upon receiving news of the battlefield results, fell into a state of depression from which, three days later, he died.

[edit] 19th century

[edit] Ambaristo Revolt (1807)

The Ambaristo Revolt, also known as the Basi Revolt, was a revolt undertaken from September 16-September 28 or 28, 1807. It was led by Pedro Mateo with its events occurring in the present-day town of Piddig in Ilocos Norte. This revolt is unique as it revolves around the Ilocanos' love for basi, or sugarcane wine.

In 1786, the Spanish colonial government expropriated the manufacture and sale of basi, effectively banning private manufacture of the wine, which was done before expropriation. Ilocanos were forced to buy from government stores. However, wine-loving Ilocanos in Piddig rose in revolt on September 16, 1807, with the revolt spreading to nearby towns and with fighting lasting for weeks. Spanish troops eventually quelled the revolt on September 28, 1807, albeit with much force and loss of life on the losing side.

[edit] Cavite Mutiny (1872)

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ Central and Eastern Visayas Dagami and Eugenio S. Daza, msc.edu.ph, http://www.msc.edu.ph/centennial/hero/cev/page2.html, retrieved 2008-07-04 
  2. ^ Se√Īor Enrique, Wish You Were Here, http://senorenrique.blogspot.com/2006/10/brunei-connection.html, retrieved 2008-07-14 
  3. ^ Philippine History Group of Los Angeles, Alfonso S. Quilala Jr., http://www.bibingka.com/phg/ilocos/default.htm, retrieved 2008-07-17 
  4. ^ Electronic Kabalen, J. Reylan Bustos Viray -- JOE MARK, http://eksite.com/x.html?http://eksite.com/viray.071029.html, retrieved 2008-07-17 
  5. ^ Bartleby, The Philippines 1500-1800, http://www.bartleby.com/67/867.html, retrieved 2008-07-04 
  6. ^ Aklasan ng mga Igorot nuong 1601, elaput.org, http://www.elaput.org/chrm1601.htm, retrieved 2008-07-04 
  7. ^ The Revolts before the Revolution www.nhi.gov.ph Retrieved 21 November, 2006.
  8. ^ Rowena Reyes-Boquiren, HISTORY OF COLONIALISM AND STRUGGLE : LOCAL STREAMS IN PHILIPPINE NATIONALISM, (Prepared for the 1999 Ibon Philippine Educators Training, Baguio City), self-published.
  9. ^ The Andress Malong Revolt, pangasinan.gov.ph
  10. ^ Ed. C. de Jesus, The tobacco monopoly in the Philippines: Bureaucratic enterprise and social change, 1766-1880



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