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May Day

May Day
May Day
Soviet-era poster for the 1st of May (1920)
Also called Labour Day
Observed by Trade unionists, various peoples
Type Cultural, religious, seasonal, political
Date 1 May
Celebrations Maypoles, festivals
Observances Demonstrations, marches, speeches
Related to International Workers' Day, Roodmas, Beltane, Walpurgis Night


May Day occurs on May 1st and refers to several public holidays.[1] In many countries, May Day is synonymous with International Workers' Day, or Labour Day, a day of political demonstrations and celebrations organised by unions and other groups. May Day is also a traditional holiday in many cultures.

Contents

[edit] Traditional celebrations

May Day is related to the Celtic festival of Beltane and the Germanic festival of Walpurgis Night. May Day falls exactly half a year from November 1, another cross-quarter day which is also associated with various northern European pagan and neopagan festivals such as Samhain. May Day marks the end of the winter half of the year in the Northern hemisphere, and it has traditionally been an occasion for popular and often raucous celebrations.

As Europe became Christianized the pagan holidays either lost their religious character and became popular secular celebrations, as with May Day, or they were merged with or replaced by new Christian holidays such as Christmas, Easter and All Saints' Day. In the 20th Century many neopagans began reconstructing the old traditions and celebrating May Day as a pagan religious festival again.

[edit] Origins

Marian procession on 1 May in London

The earliest May Day celebrations appeared in pre-Christian times, with the festival of Flora, the Roman Goddess of flowers, and the Walpurgis Night celebrations of the Germanic countries. It is also associated with the Gaelic Beltane. Many pagan celebrations were abandoned or Christianized during the process of conversion in Europe. A more secular version of May Day continues to be observed in Europe and North America. In this form, May Day may be best known for its tradition of dancing the Maypole and crowning of the Queen of the May. Various Neopagan groups celebrate reconstructed (to varying degrees) versions of these customs on May the 1st. The day was a traditional summer holiday in many pre-Christian European pagan cultures. While February 1 was the first day of Spring, May 1 was the first day of summer; hence, the summer solstice on June 25 (now June 21) was Midsummer. In the Roman Catholic tradition, May is observed as Mary's month, and in these circles May Day is usually a celebration of the Blessed Virgin Mary. In this connection, in works of art, school skits, and so forth, Mary's head will often be adorned with flowers in a May crowning. Fading in popularity since the late 20th century is the giving of "May baskets," small baskets of sweets and/or flowers, usually left anonymously on neighbours' doorsteps.[2]

[edit] Asia

[edit] India

`May Day’ is commemorated in India as the ‘Labour Day’ which began with the United States Labour Movement on May 1, 1886. Labour organizations within the U.S. called a strike on that date for better working conditions to include shorter, 8-hour work shifts. Additional details can be found in a section below under `International Workers' Day'.

While these demonstrations and protests did not garner immediate results, reforms were gradually achieved and 8-hour working days have become standard in many countries around the world. ‘Labour Day’ was therefore selected as a day for rallies, processions, parades and speeches. ‘Labour Day’ is an important holiday in the United States as well as in Russia and Socialist nations.

Trade unions and labor activists benefit from the media exposure surrounding these events in their calls for increased attention to industrial workplace safety and economic issues.

`Maharashtra Day' on May 1st is celebrated in Maharashtra, a state on the western coast of India. Maharashtra attained statehood on May 1, 1960 when the state was divided into Maharashtra and Gujarat on the basis of different languages, Marathi and Gujarati, under the Saurashtra Re-Organization Act. Maharashtra retained the old capital city of Bombay which was renamed Mumbai several decades later.

[edit] Pakistan

'May Day' is celebrated in Pakistan by Government and by the people of Pakistan for prosperity to Labor. All the workers get together and solute the Labor and Government announce special incentive for labor.[clarification needed] The labor day , May 1st is always off in Pakistan.

[edit] Europe

[edit] England

Roodmas was a Christian Mass celebrated in England at midnight on May 1st.

Morris dancing on May Day in Oxford, England 2004.

Traditional English May Day rites and celebrations include Morris dancing, crowning a May Queen and celebrations involving a Maypole. Much of this tradition derive from the pagan Anglo-Saxon customs held during "Γžrimilci-mōnaΓΎ"[3] (the Old English name for the month of May meaning Month of Three Milkings).

May Day has been a traditional day of festivities throughout the centuries. With Christianity came agricultural feasts such as Plough Sunday (the first Sunday in January), Rogationtide, Harvest Festival and May Day. It is most associated with towns and villages celebrating Springtime fertility and revelry with village fetes and community gatherings. Since May 1st is the Feast of St Philip & St James, they became the patron saints of workers. Seeding has been completed by this date and it was convenient to give farm labourers a day off. Perhaps the most significant of the traditions is the Maypole, around which participants dance whilst grasping the ends of long colorful streamers or ribbons extending from the Maypole itself.

The May Day Bank Holiday, on the first Monday in May, was traditionally the only one to affect the state school calendar, although new arrangements in some areas to even out the length of school terms mean that the Good Friday and Easter Monday Bank Holidays, which vary from year to year, may also occur during the school term.

1 May 1707 was the day the Act of Union came into effect, joining England and Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.

In Oxford, it is traditional for May Morning revellers to gather below the Great Tower of Magdalen College at 06.00h to listen to the college choir sing traditional madrigals as a conclusion to the previous night's celebrations. It is then thought to be traditional for some people to jump off Magdalen Bridge into the River Cherwell. However this has actually only been fashionable since the 1970s.[4] In recent years the bridge has been closed on 1 May to prevent people from jumping, as the water under the bridge is only 2 feet (61 cm) deep and jumping from the bridge has resulted in serious injury in the past. Yet there are still people who insist on climbing the barriers, leaping into the water and risking and/or actually suffering injury.[5]

In Durham, students of the University of Durham gather on Prebend's Bridge to see the sunrise and enjoy festivities, folk music, dancing, madrigal singing and a barbecue breakfast. This is an emerging Durham tradition having somewhat irregular observances since 2002.

Whitstable, Kent hosts a good example of more traditional May Day festivities. It was here that the `Jack In The Green' festival was revived in 1976 and continues to lead an annual procession of morris dancers through the town on the May Day Bank Holiday. A separate revival occurred in Hastings in 1983 and has become a major event in the town calendar. Padstow also holds its annual 'Obby 'Oss festival. A traditional Sweeps Festival is performed over the May Day Bank Holiday in Rochester, Kent where the Jack In The Green is awakened at dawn on the 1st of May by Morris dancers.

The Maydayrun involves thousands of motorbikes taking a 55-mile (89 km) trip from London(Locksbottom) to the Hastings seafront, East Sussex. This has been going on for almost 30 years now and has grown in popularity all around the country, both commercially and publicly. The event is not officially organised; the police only manage the traffic while volunteers manage the parking.

Padstow in Cornwall holds its annual 'Obby-Oss' day of festivities. This is believed to be one of the oldest fertility rites in the UK. Revellers dance with the Oss through the streets of the town and even through the private gardens of the citizens, accompanied by accordion players and followers dressed in white with red or blue sashes who sing the traditional 'May Day' song. The whole town is decorated with Springtime greenery, and every year thousands of onlookers attend. Prior to the 19th century distinctive May day celebrations were widespread throughout West Cornwall , and are being revived in St. Ives and Penzance.

Kingsand, Cawsand and Millbrook in Cornwall celebrate Flower Boat Ritual on the May Day Bank Holiday. A model of the ship The Black Prince[disambiguation needed] is covered in flowers and is taken in procession from the Quay at Millbrook to the beach at Cawsand where it is cast adrift. The houses in the villages are decorated with flowers and people traditionally wear red and white clothes. There are further celebrations in Cawsand Square with Morris dancing and May pole dancing.

[edit] Scotland

In St Andrews, some of the students gather on the beach late on April 30th and run into the North Sea at sunrise on May Day. This is accompanied by torchlit processions and much enthusiastic celebration.

Both Edinburgh and Glasgow organize Mayday festivals and rallies. In Edinburgh, the Beltane Fire Festival is held on the evening of May Day's Eve and into the early hours of May Day on the city's Calton Hill.

[edit] Ireland

A traditional May Day has been celebrated in Ireland since pagan times as the Feast of Bealtaine and in latter times as Mary's day. Bonfires are lit to mark the coming of Summer and to banish the long nights of Winter. (Irish Mayday Bank Holiday is now officially observed on the first Monday in May). In modern times May Day is associated with anti-government rallies which are held every year on this date. The Festival of the Fires in Killare, Co.Westmeath marks the celebration of May Day.

[edit] France

On May 1, 1561 King Charles IX of France received a lily of the valley as a lucky charm. He decided to offer a lily of the valley each year to the Ladies of the Court. At the beginning of the 20th Century it became the custom on the 1st of May to give someone a sprig of lily of the valley, a symbol of Springtime. The government permits individuals and workers' organisations to sell them free of taxation. It is also traditional for the Lady receiving the spray of lily of valley to give a kiss in return. Nowadays people may present loved ones with bunches of lily of the valley or dog rose flowers [6]

[edit] Germany

A stamp from East Germany celebrating the 100-year anniversary of International Workers Day on 1 May 1990.

In rural regions of Germany, especially the Harz Mountains, Walpurgisnacht celebrations of Pagan origin are traditionally held on the night before May Day, including bonfires and the wrapping of Maypoles, and young people use this opportunity to party, while the day itself is used by many families to get some fresh air. Motto: "Tanz in den Mai!" ("Dance into May!"). In the Rhineland, a region in the Western part of Germany, May 1st is also celebrated by the delivery of a tree covered in streamers to the house of a girl the night before. The tree is typically from a love interest, though a tree wrapped only in white streamers is a sign of dislike. On leap years it is the responsibility of the females to place the Maypole, though the males are still allowed and encouraged to do so.

[edit] Finland

While most celebrations take place on Mayday Eve (see Walpurgis Night in Finland), May Day itself is a public holiday that is the only carnival-style festivity in the country. Students are especially earnest about celebrating this day in their arranging picnics and wearing the student cap. All political organizations, however, including right- and left-wing parties, also arrange speeches and other events.

[edit] Sweden

Mayday is denoted "First of May" ("FΓΆrsta maj" in Swedish) and has been a public holiday in Sweden since 1939. The main events on Mayday are political demonstrations carried out by the working class organisations and political parties historically associated with the working class movement.

[edit] Pacific

In Hawaii May Day is known as Lei Day and is normally set aside to celebrate island culture in general and Native Hawaiian culture in particular. While it was invented by a poet and a local newspaper columnist in the 1920s, it has since been adopted by state and local government as well as by the residents, and it has taken on a sense of a general Spring celebration there. The first Lei Day was proposed in 1927 in Honolulu. Leonard "Red" and Ruth Hawk composed "May Day is Lei Day in Hawai'i", the traditional holiday song. Originally it was a contemporary fox trot, later rearranged as the Hawaiian hula song performed today.

[edit] Americas

May Day festivities at National Park Seminary in Maryland, 1907.

May Day was also celebrated by some early European settlers of the American Continent. In some parts of the United States May baskets are made. These are small and usually filled with flowers or treats and left at someone's doorstep. The basket giver would ring the bell and run away. The person receiving the basket would try to catch the fleeing giver. If they caught the person, a kiss was to be exchanged.[citation needed]

Modern May Day ceremonies in the U.S. vary greatly from region to region and many unite both the holiday's "Green Root" (pagan) and "Red Root" (labor) traditions[7]. Among the largest is the May Day Parade and Pageant created by In the Heart of the Beast Puppet and Mask Theatre, an event that has happened every year since 1975 in Minneapolis and now attracts some 35,000 people.

At Bryn Mawr College, an all-women's college in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania, students wear white for a May Day celebration that occurs on the first Sunday after the end of classes (usually very near May 1st). Seniors begin the May Day celebration by serenading the college president who then joins in the singing of a hymn to the Sun. Breakfast involves strawberries, cream and, for the seniors, champagne. The celebration includes a parade led by bagpipers, morris dancing, plays, hoop racing and a guest band. Five Maypoles are decorated with ribbons for a Maypole competition. There is a "May Hole" dance, a feminist reinterpretation of the Maypole, in which a deployed silk or nylon parachute piled high with flower petals is bounced up and down whilst students chant, "Hey, hey, ho, ho, the patriarchy has got to go." Throughout the day other traditional May Day events occur, such as a Robin Hood play. [8]

Harvard College's Lowell House participates in a similar tradition. Every May Day at dawn, residents of Lowell House dress up for a celebration on the Weeks Footbridge. Waltzing is accompanied by strawberries, sparkling cider and champagne. Cantabrigians and other nearby residents flock to celebrate on the banks of the Charles River. They participate in full costume in May Day festivities like the wrapping of the May Pole.

May 1st also is recognized in the U.S. as Law Day.[9]

[edit] International Workers' Day

Approximately 700,000 people at a May Day concert in Rome [10]

May Day can refer to various labour celebrations conducted on May 1st that commemorate the fight for the eight-hour day. May Day in this regard is called International Workers' Day, or Labour Day. The idea for a "workers holiday" began in Australia in 1856; after a Stonemason's victory, April 22nd was "Eight-Hour Day", a public holiday.[11][12] With the idea having spread around the world, the choice of May 1st became a commemoration by the Second International for the people involved in the 1886 Haymarket affair.[13]

The Haymarket affair occurred during the course of a three-day general strike in Chicago, Illinois, United States that involved common laborers, artisans, merchants and immigrants.[14] Following an incident in which police opened fire and killed four strikers at the McCormick Harvesting Machine Co. plant, a rally was called for the following day at Haymarket Square. Toward the end of the rally police moved in to disperse the event and opened fire on the unarmed crowd on the grounds that an unknown assailant threw a bomb into the crowd of police. The bomb and resulting police riot left at least a dozen people dead of which only one was a policeman.[15]

A sensational show trial ensued in which eight defendants were interrogated for their political beliefs and not necessarily for any involvement in the bombing.[16] The trial led to the eventual public hanging of four anarchists.[17] The Haymarket incident was a source of outrage from people around the globe. In the following years, memory of the "Haymarket Martyrs" was observed with various May Day job actions and demonstrations.[18]

May Day has become an international celebration of the social and economic achievements of the Labour Movement. Although the commemoration of May Day as International Workers' Day received its inspiration from the United States, the U.S. Congress designated May 1st as Loyalty Day in 1958 due to the day's perceived appropriation by the Soviet Union.[19] Alternatively, Labor Day traditionally occurs on the first Monday in September in the United States. May Day is often used for political protest. Examples include the million people who demonstrated against far-right candidate Jean-Marie Le Pen in France and the annual rallies in support of immigrants and immigrants' rights in major cities across the United States to include Seattle and New York.[20][21][22]

[edit] See also

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ Anthony Aveni, "May Day: A Collision of Forces," The Book of the Year: A Brief History of Our Seasonal Holidays (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), 79-89.
  2. ^ Charming May Day Baskets
  3. ^ Caput XV: De mensibus Anglorum from De mensibus Anglorum. Available online: [1]
  4. ^ "May Day bridge jumpers flout ban". BBC News. 1 May 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/oxfordshire/6610449.stm. Retrieved 8 July 2010. 
  5. ^ May Day revellers party on bridge
  6. ^ http://www.timeanddate.com/holidays/france/labor-day May Day in France
  7. ^ Colleen J. Sheehy (Ed.), Theatre of Wonder: 25 Years in the Heart of the Beast (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999), 79-89.
  8. ^ http://www.blight.com/~scarlett/traditions/mayday.html
  9. ^ "The Rule of Law" American Bar Association
  10. ^ Concert a Roma, Repubblica
  11. ^ Bliss, William Dwight Porter (1909). The new encyclopedia of social reform. 1. Funk & Wagnalls. pp. 77. 
  12. ^ Journeymen Stone Cutters' Association of North America (1922). The Stone cutters' journal (Journeymen Stone Cutters Association of North America) 37-39: 18. 
  13. ^ What Are the Origins of May Day?, Rosa Luxemburg, Sprawa Robotnicza, 1894
  14. ^ Green, James (2007). "A Storm of Strikes". Death In the Haymarket: A Story of Chicago, the First Labor Movement and the Bombing that Divided Gilded Age America. Anchor. p. 163. ISBN 1400033225. 
  15. ^ Green, James (2007). "Prologue". Death In the Haymarket: A Story of Chicago, the First Labor Movement and the Bombing that Divided Gilded Age America. Anchor. p. 10. ISBN 1400033225. 
  16. ^ Green, James (2007). "Every Man on the Jury Was an American". Death In the Haymarket: A Story of Chicago, the First Labor Movement and the Bombing that Divided Gilded Age America. Anchor. pp. 209–230. ISBN 1400033225. 
  17. ^ Green, James (2007). "You Are Being Weighed in the Balance". Death In the Haymarket: A Story of Chicago, the First Labor Movement and the Bombing that Divided Gilded Age America. Anchor. p. 231. ISBN 1400033225. 
  18. ^ Green, James (2007). "Prologue". Death In the Haymarket: A Story of Chicago, the First Labor Movement and the Bombing that Divided Gilded Age America. Anchor. p. 305. ISBN 1400033225. 
  19. ^ Roots of May Day are in Chicago
  20. ^ Anti-Le Pen Protests Draw a Million Into Streets of France
  21. ^ Business joins May Day reform cry in L.A.
  22. ^ May Day is rally day in Seattle

[edit] External links




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