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List of events named massacres

This is a list of events for which one of the commonly accepted names includes the word "massacre". Massacre is defined in the Oxford English Dictionary as "the indiscriminate and brutal slaughter of people or (less commonly) animals; carnage, butchery, slaughter in numbers". It also states that the term is used "in the names of certain massacres of history".[1]

The first recorded use in English of the word massacre in the name of an event is "Marlowe (c1600) (title) The massacre at Paris",[1] (a reference to the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre). Massacre can also be used as a verb, as "To kill (people or, less commonly, animals) in numbers, esp. brutally and indiscriminately".[2] The first usage of which was "1588 J. PENRY Viewe Publ. Wants Wales 65 Men which make no conscience for gaine sake, to breake the law of the Γ¦ternall, and massaker soules..are dangerous subjects",[2] and this usage is not recorded in this list.

Massacre is also used figuratively and idiomatically for events that do not involve any deaths, such as the Saturday Night Massacre, which refers to the firing and resignations of political appointees during the Watergate scandal. Such events are not listed in the table below.

[edit] List of events

Note: the location column will sort by the following sub regions: Eastern Africa, Southern Africa, Central America, Northern America, South America, Eastern Asia, South-eastern Asia, Southern Asia, Western Asia, Eastern Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Western Europe, and Oceania

Date Location Name Deaths Description
00061 61 Anglesey, Britannia Menai Massacre 0,000,001 unknown Gaius Suetonius Paulinus ordered the Roman army to destroy the Celtic Druid stronghold on Anglesey in Britain, sacking Druidic colleges and sacred groves. The massacre helped impose Roman religion on the world and sent Druidism into a decline from which it never recovered.[3][4]
00390 390 Thessaloniki, Macedonia Massacre of Thessaloniki 0,007,000 7,000 Emperor Theodosius I of Rome ordered the executions after the citizens of Thessaloniki murdered a top-level military commander during a violent protest against the arrest of a popular charioteer.[5][6]
01002-11-13 November 13, 1002 various cities, England St. Brice's Day massacre 0,000,001 unknown King Ethelred II of England ordered all Danes living in England killed. The Danes were accused of aiding Viking raiders. The King of Denmark invaded England and deposed King Ethelred.[7][8][9]
01066-12-30 December 30, 1066 Granada, Al-Andalus Granada massacre 0,004,0004,000 A Muslim mob crucified Jewish vizier Joseph ibn Naghrela and killed most of the Jewish population of the city, apparently angered by the prominence and wealth attained by Naghrela and his people.[10][11][12][13]
01182-05 May 1182 Constantinople, Byzantine Empire Massacre of the Latins[14] 0,060,000 60,000–80,000 Wholesale massacre of all Latin (Western European) inhabitants of Constantinople by a mob.
01325 1325 Crow Creek Site, South Dakota) Crow Creek massacre[15][16] 0,000,500 500[17] Native Americans indigenous to South Dakota killed Central Plains villagers.[17][18]
01520-11-08 November 8, 1520 Stockholm, Sweden Stockholm Massacre
(Stockholm Bloodbath)
0,000,080 80–90[19] Days after his coronation in Stockholm, King Christian II of Denmark – trying to maintain the personal union between Sweden, Norway and Denmark, and thus keep up his claims to the Swedish throne – liquidated nobles and bishops who earlier had opposed him, or who might stir up fresh opposition.[20][21][22]
01570 1570 Cyprus Cyprus massacre 0,030,000 30,000–50,000[23][24][25][26] Ottoman forces capturing Cyprus killed mostly Greek and Armenian Christian inhabitants.
01572-08-23 August 23, 1572 Paris, France St. Bartholomew's Day massacre[27][28] 0,003,000 3,000[29] A wave of Catholic mob violence against the Huguenots.[29][30][31]
01615 1615 Westfjords, Iceland Spanish Killings 0,000,03131 Spanish whalers went on a whaling expedition to Iceland and were killed after conflict with the people of Iceland.
01622-03-22 March 22, 1622 Jamestown, Virginia Jamestown Massacre[32][33] 0,000,347 347 The Powhatans killed 347 settlers, almost one-third of the English population of the Virginia colony.
01644-05-28 May 28, 1644 Bolton, England Bolton Massacre 0,000,200 200–1,600 Royalist forces killed many of the town's defenders and citizens.[34][35][36]
01692-02-13 February 13, 1692 Scotland Massacre of Glencoe[37] 0,000,038 38[38] Government soldiers, mainly from Clan Campbell, killed members of the Clan MacDonald of Glencoe.[38]
01768-10-05 October 5, 1768 Southwark in South London, England Massacre of St George's Fields 0,000,007 7[39] British garrison troops fired at a mob that was protesting the imprisonment of John Wilkes, whose crime was criticizing King George III.[39]
01770-03-05 March 5, 1770 Boston, Province of Massachusetts Bay Boston Massacre 0,000,005 5[40] British troops fired at a mob of colonists. This helped spark the American Revolution even though an all-colonist jury found the soldiers innocent.[41][42]
01771-07-17 July 17, 1771 Kugluktuk, Nunavut Bloody Falls Massacre 0,000,020 20[43] Chipewyan warriors attacked an Inuit camp, killing men, women and children.[44][45][46]
01778-09-28 September 28, 1778 River Vale, New Jersey Baylor Massacre 0,000,015 15[47] British infantry troops attacked sleeping Continental Light Dragoons using bayonets.[47]
01780-05-29 May 29, 1780 Lancaster, South Carolina Waxhaw Massacre 0,000,113 113[48] Loyalist troops under the command of British Colonel Banastre Tarleton slashed and bayoneted fallen American troops during the late stages of the Battle of Waxhaws. Conflicting contemporary accounts claim violation of an American white flag by one or the other of the sides involved.[49]
01782-03-08 March 8, 1782 Gnadenhutten, Ohio Gnadenhutten massacre[50]
(Moravian massacre)
0,000,096 96 Pennsylvania militia men attacked a Moravian mission and killed 96 peaceful Christian American Indians there in retaliation for unrelated deaths of several white Pennsylvanians.[50][51]
01792 1792 France September Massacres[52][53] 0,001,440 ~1440 Popular courts in the French Revolution sentenced prisoners to death, including around 240 priests.[54]
01794 1794 Warsaw, Poland Massacre of Praga 0,020,000 20,000 All inhabitants of the Warsaw district Praga were brutally tortured, raped and than violently murdered by the Russian troops.
01809-12 December 1809 Whangaroa, New Zealand Boyd massacre 0,000,066 66 Whangaroa Maori killed and ate 66 crew and passengers on ship The Boyd.[55]
01819-08-16 August 16, 1819 Manchester, England Peterloo Massacre 0,000,011 11[55] Armed cavalry charged a peaceful pro-democracy meeting of 60,000 people.[55]
01821-04 April 1821 Peloponnese, Greece Tripolitsa Massacre 0,035,000 35,000[56] Up to 30,000 Turks were killed in Tripolitsa and the whole Jewish population was wiped out.[55]
01838-01 January 1838 Waterloo Creek, Australia Waterloo Creek massacre[57] 0,000,100 100–300 Aboriginal Australians killed by a force of colonial mounted police.[58]
01838-06-10 June 10, 1838 Myall Creek, Australia Myall Creek massacre[57] 0,000,028 28 A white posse killed Aboriginal Australians. The perpetrators were convicted and sentenced to death.[59]
01838-10-30 October 30, 1838 Caldwell County, Missouri, USA Haun's Mill massacre[60] 0,000,019 19 About 240 Livingston County Missouri Regulators militiamen and volunteers killed 18 Mormons and one non-Mormon friend.[61][62]
01840 1840 Gippsland, Australia Gippsland massacres[63] 0,000,450 ~450[64] A series of massacres spanning several years: 1840 – Nuntin, 1840 – Boney Point, 1841 – Butchers Creek – 30–35, 1841 – Maffra, 1842 – Skull Creek, 1842 – Bruthen Creek – "hundreds killed", 1843 – Warrigal Creek – between 60 and 180 shot, 1844 – Maffra, 1846 – South Gippsland – 14 killed, 1846 – Snowy River – 8 killed, 1846–47 – Central Gippsland – 50 or more shot, 1850 – East Gippsland – 15–20 killed, 1850 – Murrindal – 16 poisoned, 1850 – Brodribb River – 15–20 killed.[64]. See also Angus McMillan.
01842-01-06 January 6, 1842 Afghanistan Massacre of Elphinstone's Army 0,016,000 16,000 Afghan tribes massacred Elphinstone's British army including some 12,000 civilians.[65][66][67]
01854-08-20 August 20, 1854 Oregon Territory, USA (near Caldwell, Idaho) Ward massacre[68] 0,000,019 19[68] Shoshone tortured, killed and plundered Oregon emigrant wagon train members.[69]
01857-09-11 September 11, 1857 Mountain Meadows, Utah, USA Mountain Meadows massacre 0,000,120 120–140[70][71] Mormon militia, some dressed as Indians, and Paiute tribesmen killed and plundered unarmed members of the Fancher–Baker emigrant wagon train.[72]
01857-11 November 1857 Utah Territory, USA Aiken massacre 0,000,006 6[73] Six well-to-do Californians travelling through the territory during the so-called Mormon War, were arrested by Mormons as spies, released, then killed and robbed.[74]
01859-07-27 July 27, 1859 Washington Territory, USA near Holbrook, Idaho Shepherd massacre 0,000,0055[75] Bannock, Shoshone, and white men dressed as Indians killed and plundered California emigrant wagon train members.[76]
01859-08-31 August 31, 1859 Washington Territory, USA near Massacre Rocks, Idaho Miltimore massacre 0,000,0088[75] Bannock, Shoshone, and whites dressed as Indians tortured, killed and plundered Oregon emigrant wagon train members.[77]
01860-09-09 September 9, 1860 Washington Territory, USA near Castle Butte, Idaho & Farewell Bend, Oregon Utter massacre 0,000,02828[78] Bannock, Shoshone, tortured, killed and plundered Oregon emigrant wagon train members. Of four captured children, one was rescued in 1862 by California Volunteers.[79]
01863-01-18 January 18, 1863 Madison County, North Carolina, USA Shelton Laurel Massacre 0,000,01313 Thirteen boys and men, accused of being Union sympathizers and spies, were summarily executed by members of the 64th North Carolina Regiment of the Confederate Army.[80]
01863-01-29 January 29, 1863 Franklin County, Idaho, USA Bear River massacre 0,000,225 ~225[81] 3rd Regiment California Volunteer Infantry destroyed a village of Shoshone in southeastern Idaho.[82]
01863-08-21 August 21, 1863 Lawrence, Kansas, USA Lawrence Massacre 0,000,150 ~150[83][84] Pro-Confederate bushwhackers attacked the town of Lawrence, Kansas during the American Civil War in retaliation for the Union attack on Osceola, Missouri.[85][86]
01864-11-29 November 29, 1864 Kiowa County, Colorado, USA Sand Creek massacre 0,000,200 ~200[87] Colorado Territory 90-day militia destroyed a peaceful village of Cheyenne and Arapaho on the eastern plains.[88][89]
01868-11-27 November 27, 1868 Indian Territory, USA Washita Massacre
(Battle of Washita River)
0,000,029 29–150 Lt. Col. G.A.Custer's 7th cavalry attacked a village of sleeping Cheyenne led by Black Kettle. Custer reported 103 – later revised to 140 – warriors, "some" women and "few" children killed, and 53 women and children taken hostage. Other casualty estimates by cavalry members, scouts and Indians vary widely, with the number of men killed ranging as low as 11 and the numbers of women and children ranging as high as 75. Before returning to their base, the cavalry killed several hundred Indian ponies and burned the village.[90][91][92][93][94][95][96][97][98][99][100]
01876-04-30 April 30, 1876 Batak Ottoman Empire Batak massacre[101][102][103] 0,003,000 3,000–5,000 Ottoman army irregulars killed Bulgarian civilians barricaded in Batak's church.[104]
01885-04-02 April 2, 1885 Frog Lake, North-West Territories, Canada Frog Lake Massacre 0,000,009 9 Cree warriors, dissatisfied with the lack of support from the Canadian Government for Treaty Indians, and exacerbated by food shortages resulting from the near-extinction of bison, killed nine white settlers, including Indian agent Thomas Quinn.[105][106]
01885-10-02 October 2, 1885 Rock Springs, Wyoming, USA Rock Springs massacre 0,000,028 28 Rioting white immigrant miners killed 28 Chinese miners, wounded 15, and 75 Chinese homes burned.[107][108][109]
01890-12-29 December 29, 1890 Wounded Knee, South Dakota, USA Wounded Knee Massacre 0,000,200 200–300[110] The U.S. 7th Cavalry intercepted a band of Lakota Sioux people on their way to the Pine Ridge Reservation for shelter from the winter; as they were disarming them, a gun was fired, and the soldiers turned their artillery on the Lakota, killing men women and children.[111][112]
01894 18941894–1896 Anatolia, Ottoman Empire Hamidian massacres 0,100,000100,000–300,000[113]

Sultan Abdul Hamid II ordered Ottoman forces to kill Armenians across the empire.[113][114][115]

01902-01-31 January 31, 1902 Leliefontein, Northern Cape, South Africa Leliefontein massacre[116] 0,000,035 35 During the Second Boer War, Boer forces under Manie Maritz massacred 35 Khoikhoi for being British sympathisers.
01906-03-10 March 10, 1906 Bud Dajo, Jolo Island, Philippines Moro Crater massacre[117][118] 0,000,800800–1,000 A U.S. Army force of 540 soldiers under the command of Major General Leonard Wood, accompanied by a naval detachment and with a detachment of native constabulary, armed with artillery and small firearms, attacked a village hidden in the crater of a dormant volcano.[119]
01909-04 April 1909April–May 1909 Adana Province, Anatolia, Ottoman Empire Adana massacre 0,015,000 15,000–30,000 In April 1909, a religious-ethnic clash in the city of Adana, amidst governmental upheaval, resulted in a series of anti-Armenian pogroms throughout the district, resulting in an estimated 15,000 to 30,000 deaths.[120][121][122][123][124]
01914-04-20 April 20, 1914 Ludlow, Colorado, USA Ludlow massacre 0,000,020 20 Twenty people, 11 of them children, died during an attack by the Colorado National Guard on a tent colony of 1,200 striking coal miners and their families at Ludlow, Colorado. The event led to wider conflict quelled only by Federal troops sent in by U.S. President Woodrow Wilson.[125][126][127]
01919-04-13 April 13, 1919 Amritsar, India Amritsar massacre 0,000,379 379[128][129] 90 British Indian Army soldiers, led by Brigadier Reginald Dyer, opened fire on an unarmed gathering of men, women and children. The firing lasted for 10 to 15 minutes, till they ran out of ammunition.[128][129]
01920-11-21 November 21, 1920 Dublin, Ireland Croke Park Massacre 0,000,023 23[130] British Auxiliary police and Black and Tans fired at Gaelic football spectators at Croke Park.[130][131]
01923-01 January 1923 Rosewood, Florida, USA Rosewood Massacre 0,000,0088 Several days of violence by white mobs, ranging in size up to 400 people, resulted in the deaths of six blacks and two whites and the destruction of the town of Rosewood, which was abandoned after the incident.[132]
01929-02-14 February 14, 1929 Chicago, Illinois, USA Saint Valentine's Day massacre 0,000,007 7[133] Al Capone's gang shot rival gang members and their associates.[134]
01929-08 August 1929 Hebron, British Mandate for Palestine 1929 Hebron massacre 0,000,069 69[135] Arabs kill 69 Jews after being incited by religious leaders. Survivors were relocated to Jerusalem, "leaving Hebron barren of Jews for the first time in hundreds of years." [135]
01929-08 August 1929 Safed, British Mandate for Palestine 1929 Safed massacre 0,000,069 18[136] Arabs killed 18 Jews, wounded around 40, and some 200 houses were burned and looted.[137]
01930-04-23 April 23, 1930 Peshawar, British Raj Qissa Khwani bazaar massacre 0,000,200 200–250[138][139] Soldiers of the British Raj fired on unarmed non-violent protestors of the Khudai Khidmatgar with machine guns during the Indian independence movement[138][139]
01937-03-21 March 21, 1937 Ponce, Puerto Rico Ponce Massacre 0,000,019 19[140] The Insular Police fired on unarmed Nationalist demonstrators peacefully marching to commemorate the ending of slavery in Puerto Rico.[140] It was the biggest massacre in Puerto Rican history.[141]
01937 1937 Nanjing, China Nanking Massacre[142][143]
(Rape of Nanking)
0,260,000 42,000–400,000
(median 260,000)[144]
The Imperial Japanese Army pillaged Nanking for six weeks[145]
01940 1940 Katyn, Soviet Union Katyn massacre 0,022,000 21,857–25,700[146][147][148] Soviet NKVD executed Polish intelligentsia, POWs and reserve officers.[149][150]
01941 1941 Soviet Union, Baltic states NKVD prisoner massacres 0,100,000 100,000[151] The Soviet People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del, or NKVD) executed tens of thousands of political prisoners in the initial stages of Operation Barbarossa.[151][152]
01941-09-29 September 29, 1941 Ukraine Babi Yar massacre 0,030,001 >30,000[153] Nazi Einsatzgruppen killed the Jewish population of Kiev.[153][154][155][156][157]
01941-10-08 October 8, 1941 Serbia Kragujevac massacre 0,002,796 >2,796-5,000 Nazi soldiers massacred Serb and Roma hostages in retaliation for attacks on the occupying forces.
01942 1942 Laha Airfield, Ambon Island Laha massacre 0,000,300 ~300[158] The Japanese killed surrendered Australian soldiers.[158][159]
01942-03-26 March 26, 1942 Lari near Nairobi, Kenya Lari Massacre 0,000,150 ~150 About 150 Kikuyu were killed by fellow tribesmen.[160][161]
01942-06-10 June 10, 1942 Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia Lidice massacre 0,000,340 340[162] Nazis killed 192 men, and sent the women and children to Nazi concentration camps where many died.[162][163][164]
01943-09-21 September 21, 1943 Kefalonia, Greece Massacre of the Acqui Division 0,005,000 5,000 Wehrmacht troops executed POWs from the Italian 33 Infantry Division Acqui
01943 1943 Volhynia, Ukraine Massacres of Poles in Volhynia 0,050,001 >50,000 The brutal murders of Polish citizens of the WołyÅ„ Voivodeship, orchestrated and conducted in most part by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA) in years 1943-1947. The peak of the massacres took place in July and August 1943 when a senior UPA commander, Dmytro Klyachkivsky, ordered the extermination of the entire Polish population between 16 and 60 years of age.[165][166][167].
01944 1944 Italy Marzabotto massacre 0,000,700 700–1,800[168] The SS killed Italian civilians in reprisal for support given to the resistance movement.[168][169]
01944-06-10 June 10, 1944 Oradour-sur-Glane, France Oradour-sur-Glane massacre 0,000,642 642[170] The Waffen-SS killed 642 men, women and children without giving any specific reasons for their actions.[170]

[171] [172] [173] [174] [175] [176]

01944-08-08 August 8, 1944 Warsaw, Poland Wola massacre 0,040,00040,000–100,000 Special groups of SS and German soldiers of the Wehrmacht went from house to house in Warsaw district Wola, rounding-up and shooting all inhabitants.
01944-08-12 August 12, 1944 Sant'Anna di Stazzema, Italy Sant'Anna di Stazzema massacre 0,000,560560 Retreating SS-men of the II Battallion of SS-Panzergrenadier-Regiment 35 of 16th SS Panzergrenadier Division ReichsfΓΌhrer-SS, rounded up 560 villagers and refugees — mostly women, children and older men — shot them and then burned their bodies.
01944-08 August 1944 Warsaw, Poland Ochota massacre 0,010,00010,000 Mass murders of citizens of Warsaw district Ochota in August 1944, committed by Waffen-SS.
01944-12 December 1944 Malmedy, Belgium Malmedy massacre 0,000,088 88 Nazi Waffen SS soldiers shot American POWs (43 escaped).[177][178]
01945-01 January 1945 Chenogne, Belgium Chenogne massacre 0,000,060 60 German prisoners of war were shot by American soldiers in an unauthorized retaliation for the Malmedy Massacre.
01945-05 May 1945 Setif, Algeria SΓ©tif massacre 0,006,000 6,000 Muslim villages were bombed by French aircraft and the cruiser Duguay-Trouin standing off the coast, in the Gulf of Bougie, shelled Kerrata. Pied noir vigilantes lynched prisoners taken from local gaols or randomly shot Muslims [179][180][181]
01947-02-28 February 28, 1947 Taiwan 228 Massacre 0,010,000 10,000–30,000
01948-04-03 April 3, 1948 Jeju island, South Korea Jeju massacre 0,025,00025,000[182]-60,000[183] Communist sympathizer civilians were killed by South Korean troops. The victims were 25,000 to 60,000.[183]
01948-04-09 April 9, 1948 Deir Yassin, Palestine Deir Yassin Massacre 0,000,120120 The Deir Yassin massacre took place when the Irgun and Lehi Zionist paramilitary groups attacked the Palestinian village of Deir Yassin near Jerusalem, population of 750. 25 Palestinian men were taken to Jerusalem and shot. Around 120 Palestinian civilians were killed.[184]
01948-10-31 October 31, 1948October 31 – November 1, 1948 Hula, Lebanon Hula Massacre 0,000,03535 The Hula massacre took place October 31 – November 1, 1948. Hula is a Lebanese Shi'a Muslim village near the Lebanese Litani River. It was captured by the Carmeli Brigade without any resistance. 35–58 captured men were reportedly shot down in a house which was later blown up on top of them. Two officers were responsible for the massacre; one served a one year prison sentence and later received presidential amnesty. Shmuel Lahis was later to become Director General of the Jewish Agency.[185][186]
01948-12-12 December 12, 1948 Batang Kali, Burma Batang Kali massacre 0,000,02424 Villagers were purportedly shot by British troops before the village was burnt.[187][188][189]
01949-12-24 December 24, 1949 Mungyeong, South Korea Mungyeong massacre 0,000,08686-88[190][191] Communist sympathizer civilians were killed by South Korean troops.
01950 1950 South Korea Bodo League massacre 0,100,000100,000[192]-1,200,000[193] During the Korean War, communist sympathizer civilians or prisoners were killed by South Korean troops. The victims were 100,000 to 1,200,000.[192][193]
01950-07-26 July 26, 1950July 26–29, 1950 No Gun Ri, South Korea No Gun Ri Massacre 0,000,100100-400[194] During the Korean War, groups of refugees fleeing a North Korean advance attempted to cross American lines. Between July 26 and July 29, 1950, U.S. soldiers, who suspected that such groups were infiltrated by North Korean soldiers, killed an undetermined number of South Korean refugees at No Gun Ri.
01950-08-14 August 14, 1950 Waegwan, South Korea Hill 303 massacre 0,000,04141[195] During the Korean War, American POW were massacred by North Korean Army on August 14, 1950.[195]
01951-01-06 January 6, 1951January 06–09, 1951 Ganghwa, South Korea Ganghwa massacre 0,000,212212[196]-1,300[197] During the Korean War, Communist collabolator civilians were massacred by South Korean forces, South Korean Police forces and pro-South Korea forces Militia.
01951-02-07 February 7, 1951 Sancheong and Hamyang, South Korea Sancheong and Hamyang massacre 0,000,705705[198] During the Korean War, Communist sympathizer civilians were massacred by South Korean Army on February 7, 1951.[198]
01951-02-09 February 9, 1951February 9–11, 1951 Geochang, South Korea Geochang massacre 0,000,719719[199] During the Korean War, Communist sympathizer civilians were massacred by South Korean Army between February 9 and February 11, 1951.[199]
01960-03-21 March 21, 1960 Sharpeville, South Africa Sharpeville massacre 0,000,072 72–90[200] South African police shot down black protesters.[201]
01962 1962 Novocherkassk, Soviet Union Novocherkassk massacre 0,000,023 23–70[202][203] The MVD open fire on a crowd of protesters demonstrating against inflation.[204]
01964-01-18 January 18, 1964January 18–21, 1964 Zanzibar Massacres during the Zanzibar Revolution 0,008,000 8,000–17,000[205][206] Following the overthrow of the Sultan, thousands of Arabs and Indians were massacred by John Okello's forces.[207][208][209]
01966-08-01 August 1, 1966 Austin, Texas, USA University of Texas massacre 0,000,016 16 University of Texas was the site of a massacre by Charles Whitman, who killed his mother and wife at their homes before killing 14 and wounding 32 others at the University atop the university tower before the police killed him.
01968-03-16 March 16, 1968 South Vietnam My Lai Massacre 0,000,504 504[210] US soldiers killed 504 unarmed South Vietnamese villagers ranging in ages from 1 to 81 years, mostly women and children.[210][211]
01968-10-02 October 2, 1968 Mexico City, Mexico Tlatelolco massacre 0,000,025 25–350[212][213] Government troops massacred between 25 (officially) and 350 (according to human rights activists) students on the eve of the 1968 Summer Olympics taking place in Mexico City, and then tried to wash the blood away, along with evidence of the massacre.[213][214]
01970-05-04 May 4, 1970 Kent State University, Ohio, USA Kent State massacre 0,000,004 4[215] 29 members of the Ohio National Guard opened fire on unarmed students protesting the expansion of the Vietnam War into Cambodia on the Kent State University college campus, killing 4 and wounding 9, one of whom was permanently paralyzed.[215][216][217]
01972-01-30 January 30, 1972 Derry, Northern Ireland Bogside Massacre
(Bloody Sunday)[218]
0,000,01414[219] British paratroopers fired on unarmed civil rights protesters, killing 14.[220]. The government sponsored Saville Report, released in June 2010, found all those killed were innocent civil rights demostrators, prompting an apology by UK Prime Minister David Cameron. As of that time, no one had been prosecuted for the killings.[221]
01972-05-30 May 30, 1972 Lod, Israel Lod Airport massacre 0,000,02626[222] Three members of the Japanese Red Army, on behalf of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, killed 26 people and injured 80 others at Tel Aviv's Lod airport (now Ben Gurion International Airport).[222][223][224][225][226]
01972-09-05 September 5, 1972 Munich, Germany Munich Massacre[227] 0,000,012 12[228] Members of the Israeli Olympic team were taken hostage and killed by the Palestinian Black September group. Also killed was a West German police officer.
01974-05-15 May 15, 1974 Ma'alot, Israel Ma'alot massacre[229][230] 0,000,029 29[230] Members of the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine infiltrate Israel from Lebanon, shoot and kill a Christian Arab woman and a Jewish couple and their 4 year old son, and then take hostage and kill 22 high school students and three of their adult escorts.[230]
01975-07-31 July 31, 1975 Northern Ireland Miami Showband massacre 0,000,005 5 Members of the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) killed three members of pop group the Miami Showband in a gun and bomb attack. Two UVF members also died when the bomb exploded prematurely.[231][232][233][234][235]
01976-01-05 January 5, 1976 Northern Ireland Kingsmill massacre 0,000,010 10[236] Irish republicans shot ten Protestant workers dead outside the village of Kingsmill in County Armagh, Northern Ireland.[236][237]
01976 1976 Lebanon Damour massacre 0,000,582 582[238] Palestinian militia aligned with the Lebanese National Movement kill 582 civilians in the village of Damour during the Lebanese Civil War.[238][239]
01978-03-11 March 11, 1978 Israel Coastal Road massacre 0,000,035 35[240] Palestinian Fatah members based in Lebanon land on a beach north of Tel Aviv, kill an American photographer, and hijack an inter-city bus driving along Israel's Coastal Highway. 35 civilians are killed and 80 wounded.[240][241][242][243]
01979 1979 Mexico Tula Massacre 0,000,013 13 13 tortured bodies were found at Tula, Hidalgo,Mexico at the time of Arturo Durazo Moreno Administration
01981-12-11 December 11, 1981 El Salvador El Mozote Massacre 0,001,001 >1,000 The El Mozote Massacre took place in the village of El Mozote, in MorazΓ¡n department, El Salvador, on December 11, 1981, when Salvadoran armed forces trained by the United States military killed at least 1000 civilians in an anti-guerrilla campaign.[244][245]
01982-02-02 February 2, 1982 Syria Hama massacre 0,007,000 7,000–35,000[246][dead link] The Syrian Army killed an estimated 30,000 people in the city of Hama. Instances of mass execution and torture by the Syrian military were documented during the attacks.[247]
01982-09 September 1982 Lebanon Sabra and Shatila massacre 0,000,700 700–3,500 Refugees are killed by the Christian Lebanese Forces militia in refugee camps surrounded by Israel Defense Forces. The United Nations General Assembly condemned the massacre and declared it to be an act of genocide.[248][249][250]
01983-04 April 1983 Peru Lucanamarca massacre 0,000,069 69 Maoist Shining Path guerrillas massacre 69 men, women and children with axes, machetes and guns in and around the town of Lucanamarca, Peru.[251]
01984-07-18 July 18, 1984 San Diego, California, USA San Ysidro McDonald's Massacre 0,000,021 21 Gunman James Oliver Huberty killed 21 people in a McDonald's restaurant before being fatally shot by a SWAT team sniper.[252][253][254]
01985-03-23 March 23, 1985 Iraq Dujail Massacre 0,000,148 148[255] Dujail was the site of an unsuccessful assassination attempt against then Iraqi president, Saddam Hussein, on July 8, 1982. Saddam Hussein ordered his special security and military forces to carry out a reprisal attack against the town, imprisoning hundreds of men, women and children. In March 1985, 148 of the town's men were executed.[255][256][257][258]
01985-08-14 August 14, 1985 Peru Accomarca massacre 0,000,047 47–74[259][260][261] An army massacre of campesinos (including six children) in Accomarca, Ayacucho.[260]
01987-08-19 August 19, 1987 Hungerford, England Hungerford massacre 0,000,016 16[262] A gunman armed with semi-automatic rifles and a handgun killed 16 people before committing suicide.[263]
01987-11-08 November 8, 1987 Enniskillen, Northern Ireland Remembrance Day bombing
(Poppy Day Massacre)
0,000,012 12 Provisional IRA bombing at the town's cenotaph on Remembrance Sunday.[264]
01988-03-16 March 16, 1988 Belfast, Northern Ireland Milltown massacre 0,000,003 3 Ulster Freedom Fighters member Michael Stone kills three people and injures 60 others in a gun and grenade attack at the funeral of three IRA members being held in Milltown Cemetery, Belfast.[265][266]
01988-Expression error: Unrecognised word "summer" 1988 Tehran, Iran 1988 executions of Iranian political prisoners 0,030,000 4482-30000 1988 executions of political prisoners in Iran (Persian: Ϋ±Ϋ³ΫΆΫ· ø§øΉø―ø§ù… ø²ù†ø―ø§ù†ΫŒø§ù† ø³ΫŒø§ø³ΫŒ ø―ø± øͺø§ø¨ø³øͺø§ù†) refers to the systematic execution of "thousands" of political prisoners across Iran by the government of Iran, starting on 19 July 1988 and lasting about five months. The majority of the prisoners killed were supporters of the People's Mujahedin of Iran, although thousands of supporters of other groups, including the Fedaian and the Tudeh Party of Iran (Communist Party), were also executed.[267][268]

The killings have been called "an act of violence unprecedented in Iranian history — unprecedented in form, content, and intensity."[269] The exact number of prisoners executed remains unclear. Amnesty International recorded the names of over 4,482 political prisoners reportedly killed during this time,[270] but Iranian opposition groups suggest that the number of prisoners executed was far higher, and as many as 30,000 prisoners may have been executed.[271][272]

01989-06-04 June 4, 1989 Tiananmen Square, Beijing Tiananmen Square Massacre 0,000,400 400–3,000[273] Anti-corruption demonstrations escalated in a clash between the demonstrators and the authorities.[274][275]
01989-12-06 December 6, 1989 Γ‰cole Polytechnique, MontrΓ©al, Quebec, Canada Γ‰cole Polytechnique massacre[276] 0,000,014 14 Marc LΓ©pine, claiming to fight feminism, shot and killed 14 female students of the Γ‰cole Polytechnique de MontrΓ©al and wounded 14 other people before turning his gun on himself. The event led to stricter gun control laws[277] and changes in police tactical response to shootings in Canada.[278]
01990-09-05 September 5, 1990 Batticaloa District, Sri Lanka Eastern University massacre, 0,000,158 158[279] Eastern University massacre is the massacre of 158 minority Sri Lankan Tamil civilians by the Sri Lankan Army in the eastern Batticaloa District, Sri Lanka.[280][279][281]
01990-09-09 September 9, 1990 Batticaloa District, Sri Lanka Sathurukondan massacre 0,000,184 184[282][283] Sathurukondan massacre, also known as the 1990 Batticaloa massacre is the massacre of 184 minority Sri Lankan Tamil civilians by the Sri Lankan Army in the eastern Batticaloa District, Sri Lanka.[282][283][284][285][286]
01990-11-13 November 13, 1990 Aramoana, New Zealand Aramoana massacre 0,000,013 13 The Aramoana massacre occurred on 13 November 1990 in the small seaside township of Aramoana in New Zealand. Lone gunman David Malcolm Gray began shooting indiscriminately at people, killing 13 people before being killed by police himself, allegedly after a dispute with his next door neighbor. It remains New Zealands deadliest criminal shooting.[287][288][289][290]
01991-10-16 October 16, 1991 Killeen, Texas, USA Luby's massacre 0,000,022 22 George Jo Hennard drove his pickup truck into a Luby's Cafeteria and shot and killed 22 people, wounded another 20 and then committed suicide by shooting himself.[291][292][293][294][295]
01991-11-18 November 18, 1991November 18–21, 1991 Croatia Vukovar massacre 0,000,264 264 Members of the Serb militias, aided by the Yugoslav People's Army, killed Croat civilians and POWs.[296][297][298][299]
01992-02-26 February 26, 1992 Khojaly, Nagorno-Karabakh, Azerbaijan Khojaly Massacre 0,000,613 613[300] Armenian armed forces, reportedly with help of the Russian 366th Motor Rifle Regiment, raided the town of Khojaly and massacred its Muslim civilian population. The death toll according to the Government of Azerbaijan was 613 civilians, of whom 106 were women and 83 were children.[301][302][303]
01992-04-10 April 10, 1992 Maraghar, Nagorno-Karabakh, Azerbaijan Maraghar Massacre 0,000,045 45[304] Azerbaijani forces attacked the ethnic Armenian town of Maraghar. According to Caroline Cox, who observed the damage and interviewed eyewitnesses, the Azerbaijani forces decapitated about forty five villagers, burned and looted much of the town, and kidnapped about one hundred women and children[305]. The inhabitants of Maraghar who were driven out after the attack were unable to return to their village after the ceasefire of 1994, as the area was still under Azeri control.
01992-06-17 June 17, 1992 Boipatong, South Africa Boipatong massacre 0,000,045 45[306] 45 African National Congress (ANC) supporters were killed by members of the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP).
01992-09-07 September 7, 1992 Bisho, Ciskei/South Africa Bisho massacre 0,000,029 29 28 African National Congress (ANC) supporters and one soldier were shot dead by the Ciskei Defence Force during a protest march.
01993-01-08 January 8, 1993 Palatine, Illinois, USA Brown's Chicken massacre 0,000,007 7 Seven people were murdered at the Brown's Chicken and Pasta in Palatine[307]
01993-07-02 July 2, 1993 Sivas, Turkey Sivas massacre 0,000,033 33 33 Alevi intellectuals were killed when a mob of radical Islamists set fire to the hotel where the group had assembled.[308][309][310]
01993-07-25 July 25, 1993 Cape Town, South Africa St James Church massacre 0,000,011 11 11 People were killed during a church service by Azanian People's Liberation Army (APLA) armed with assault rifles and grenades.
01993-10-30 October 30, 1993 Greysteel, Northern Ireland Greysteel massacre 0,000,008 8 Ulster Freedom Fighters (UFF) opened fire in a crowded bar using an AK-47 and automatic pistol. Eight civilians were killed and thirteen wounded.[311][312][313][314][315][316][317][318]
01993 1993 Brazil Yanomami Massacre 0,000,016 16–73[319][320] Garimpeiros (illegal gold miners) killed Yanomami people.
01994 1994 West Bank Cave of the Patriarchs massacre[321][322]
(Ibrahimi Mosque massacre)[323]
0,000,029 29 Baruch Goldstein opens fire with an assault rifle killing 29 Muslims and wounding 150 at prayer in the Ibrahimi Mosque before being subdued and beaten to death.[324][325]
01994 1994 et seq. Algeria Algerian Village Massacres of the 1990s 0,010,001>10,000[326][327] During the 1990s, many large-scale massacres of villagers in Algeria were perpetrated by groups attacking villages at night and cutting the throats of the inhabitants. The Armed Islamic Group (GIA) has avowed its responsibility for many of them. The massacres peaked in 1997 (with a smaller peak in 1994). There are allegations reported by the BBC that government infiltrators spurred the GIA to higher levels of violence in order to discredit them.[328] According to a few reports former Algerian army officer, Habib Souaidia testified to his government's involvement of the massacres. The differing accounts are not yet reconciled.[326][329][330][331]
01994-03-28 March 28, 1994 Johannesburg, South Africa Shell House massacre 0,000,019 19 Security guards of the African National Congress (ANC) fired on 20,000 Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) marchers.[332][333][334]
01994-06-18 June 18, 1994 Loughinisland, Northern Ireland Loughinisland massacre 0,000,006 6 Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) opened fire in a crowded bar using assault rifles, killing six civilians and wounding five.[335][336][337][338][339][340][341]
01995-01-22 January 22, 1995 Israel Beit Lid massacre 0,000,022 22[342] First suicide attack by Palestinian Islamic Jihad, killing 22 and wounding 69. Carried out by two bombers; the second waited until emergency crews arrived to assist the wounded and dying before detonating his bomb.[343][344][345][346]
01995-07-01July 1995 Bosnia and Herzegovina Srebrenica massacre 0,008,000 8,000[347] Units of the Army of the Republika Srpska killed male Bosniaks[347][348]
01996-03-13 March 13, 1996 Scotland Dunblane massacre 0,000,017 17 [349] A gunman opened fire in a primary school, killing sixteen children and one teacher before killing himself.[350][351][352]
01996-04-29 April 29, 1996 Port Arthur, Tasmania, Australia Port Arthur massacre 0,000,035 35[353] The Port Arthur massacre of 28 April 1996 was a killing spree which claimed the lives of 35 people and wounded 21 others mainly at the historic tourist site Port Arthur in south-eastern Tasmania, Australia. The massacre remains Australia's deadliest mass killing spree and remains one of the deadliest such incidents worldwide in recent times.[354]
01996 1996 Lebanon Qana Massacre[355][356] 0,000,106 106 Israeli artillery struck the Unifil Headquarters in Qana which was providing shelter to approximately two hundred Lebanese civilians. The Israeli military said the strike was in error and that they were not targeting the U.N. shelter. [357][358][359][360][361]
01997-02-05 February 5, 1997 Ghulja, China Ghulja Massacre 0,000,010 >9 After two days of protests during which the protesters had marched shouting "God is great" and "independence for Xinjiang" the demonstrations were crushed by the People's Liberation Army. Official reports put the death toll at 9 while dissident reports estimated the number killed at more than 100.[362][363][364][365][366][367]
01997-12-22 December 22, 1997 Acteal, Mexico Acteal Massacre 0,000,045 45 Massacre carried out by paramilitary forces of 45 people attending a prayer meeting of indigenous townspeople, who were members of the pacifist group Las Abejas ("The Bees"), in the village of Acteal, municipality of ChenalhΓ³, in the Mexican state of Chiapas.[368][369][370]
01999-04-20 April 20, 1999 Littleton, Colorado, USA Columbine High School massacre 0,000,013 13[371] Two teenagers, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold open fire on their classmates on April 20, 1999 at Columbine High School, killing 12 students and one teacher before committing suicide.
02000-07-27 July 27, 2000 West Bengal, India Nanoor massacre 0,000,011 11 Killing of 11 landless labourers allegedly by activists of Communist Party of India (Marxist), a political party in India, in Suchpur, near Nanoor and under Nanoor police station, in Birbhum district in the Indian state of West Bengal.[372][373][374]
02002-03-27 March 27, 2002 Netanya, Israel Passover massacre 0,000,030 30[375] Killing of 30 guests at the Park Hotel in Netanya, Israel, sitting down to the traditional Passover Seder meal. Another 143 were injured. Hamas claimed responsibility.[375][376][377][378][379]
02002-02-28 February 28, 2002 Ahmedabad, India Gulbarg Society massacre 0,000,069 69 During the 2002 Gujarat riots, a mob attacked the Gulbarg Society, a lower middle-class Muslim neighbourhood in Chamanpura, Ahmedabad. Most of the houses were burnt, and at least 35 victims including a former Congress, Member of Parliament, Ehsan Jafri, were burnt alive, while 31 others went missing after the incident, later presumed dead, bringing the total of the dead to 69.[380][381][382]
02004-09-01 September 1, 2004 Beslan, Russian Federation Beslan School Massacre 0,000,334 334 Armed Chechen separatists[383] took more than 1,200 people hostage at a school. 334 civilians were killed, including 186 school children, and hundreds wounded.[384][385][386]
02005-05-13 May 13, 2005 Andijan, Uzbekistan Andijan massacre 0,000,300 300–500 Uzbek Interior Ministry and National Security Service troops fired into a crowd of protesters.[387][388]
02006-03-25 March 25, 2006 Seattle, Washington, USA Capitol Hill massacre 0,000,006 6 28-year-old Kyle Aaron Huff entered a rave afterparty in the southeast part of Seattle's Capitol Hill neighborhood and opened fire, killing six and wounding two, before committing suicide.[389][citation needed]
02007-04-16 April 16, 2007 Blacksburg, Virginia, USA Virginia Tech Massacre 0,000,032 32 Gunman Seung-Hui Cho, killed 32 people and wounded many others[390] before committing suicide. The massacre is the deadliest peacetime shooting incident by a single gunman in United States history, on or off a school campus.[391]
02009-09-28 September 28, 2009 Conakry, Guinea 28 September Massacre 0,000,157 157 Guinean uniformed security forces opened fire on a political rally trapped in the 28 September Stadium.[392]
02009-11-05 November 5, 2009 Ft. Hood, Texas, United States Fort Hood Massacre
(Fort Hood shooting)
0,000,013 13 Gunman Malik Nadal Hasan, a Major in the US Army, allegedly killed 12 soldiers and one civilian, and wounded at least 30 on the base at Ft. Hood. Initial reports indicate Hassan was upset at being deployed to Iraq.[393][394][395][396][397][398]
02009-11-23 November 23, 2009 Ampatuan, Maguindanao, Philippines Maguindanao massacre
0,000,057 57 A group of 100 armed men, alleged to include police and private militia led by Andal Ampatuan, Jr., stopped a convoy of five cars transporting Genalyn Tiamzon-Mangudadatu, the wife of Esmael Mangudadatu, who is running for provincial governor in the 2010 Philippine elections. She was en-route to the town of Shariff Aguak to file a certificate of candidacy for her husband, accompanied by his sisters, other supporters, and members of the press. The attackers kidnapped and later killed all members of the Mangudadatu group; reports state that women in the group were raped before being killed. Five other people not part of the group, in a car behind the convoy, were also kidnapped and killed.[399][400][401][402][403]

[edit] See also

[edit] Notes and references

  1. ^ a b Oxford English Dictionary Massacre, n.
  2. ^ a b Oxford English Dictionary Massacre, v.
  3. ^ Saint Paul in Britain Or, The Origin Of British As Opposed To Papal Christianity by Rev. R. W. Morgan
  4. ^ Pillar in the Wilderness by Benjamin John
  5. ^ John Julius Norwich (1989). Byzantium: The Early Centuries. New York: Knopf. pp. 112. ISBN [[Special:BookSources/0394537785, OCLC 18164817|0394537785, OCLC 18164817]]. , "…and 7,000 were dead by morning..." (Page 139)
  6. ^ Edward Gibbon, D. M. Low (1960). The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. New York: Harcourt Brace. pp. ch. 27 2:56. OCLC 402038. 
  7. ^ Ann Williams (2003). Γ†thelred the Unready: The Ill-Counselled King. London: Hambledon and London. pp. 54. ISBN [[Special:BookSources/1-85258-382-4, OCLC 51780838|1-85258-382-4, OCLC 51780838]].  "It is usually assumed that this story relates to the St Brice's Day massacre …" (Page 55)
  8. ^ Simon Hall (1998). The Hutchinson Illustrated Encyclopedia of British History. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. pp. 297. ISBN 1-57958-107-2.  "1002 St Brice's Day massacre; Danes in England were killed on order of King Ethelred." (Page 340)
  9. ^ Staff. Saint Brices Day massacre, Encyclopædia Britannica, Accessed 26 December 2007
  10. ^ Lucien Gubbay (1999). Sunlight and Shadow: The Jewish Experience of Islam. New York: Other Press. pp. 80. ISBN 1-892746-69-7.  " It should be noted though that the Granada massacre of 1066 was the first instance of persecution of Jews in Muslim Spain, which had enjoyed an almost unblemished record of tolerance for the preceding 350 years." (Page 80)
  11. ^ Norman Roth (1994). Jews, Visigoths, and Muslims in Medieval Spain: Cooperation and Conflict. Netherlands: E. J. Brill. pp. 110. ISBN 90-04-09971-9.  " Assuming that he was at least ten years old, however, it is again surprising that no more personal recollection of the Granada massacre is found in his writing…" (Page 110)
  12. ^ [[Richard Gottheil |Gottheil, Richard]]; [[Meyer Kayserling |Kayserling, Meyer]]. Granada. G (1906 ed.). Jewish Encyclopedia. http://jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=412&letter=G&search=Granada.  "More than 1,500 Jewish families, numbering 4,000 persons, fell in one day, áΉ¬ebet 9 (= Dec. 30), 1066."
  13. ^ Daud, Abraham Ibd (2007). "On Samuel Ha-Nagid, Vizier of Granada, 993-d after 1056". Medieval Sourcebook. Paul Halsall. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/ha-nagid.html. Retrieved 2009-03-11.  He was proud to his own hurt, and the Berber princes were jealous of him, with the result that on the Sabbath, on the 9th of Tebet in the year 4827 [Saturday, December 30, 1066], he and the Community of Granada were murdered.
  14. ^ The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Middle Ages: 950-1250. Cambridge University Press. 1986. pp. 507–508. ISBN 0521266451. 
  15. ^ Lane A. Beck (1995). Regional Approaches to Mortuary Analysis. New York: Plenum Press. pp. 231. ISBN 0-306-44931-5. 
  16. ^ Michal Strutin (1999). A Guide to Contemporary Plains Indians. Tucson, Arizona: Southwest Parks and Monuments Association. pp. 37. ISBN 1-877856-80-0. 
  17. ^ a b Staff. The Crow Creek Massacre www.nebraskastudies.org
  18. ^ Staff, Crow Creek Massacre, University of South Dakota
  19. ^ Lauritz Weibull. "Nordisk historia. Forskningar och undersΓΆkningar. Del III. FrΓ₯n Erik den helige till Karl XII", Stockholm 1949, p. 160–163
  20. ^ GonzΓ¡lez, Justo K., The Story of Christianity: Volume Two – The Reformation to the Present Day, HarperCollins Publishers, 1984, p. 92, ISBN 0-06-063316-6
  21. ^ Gjerset, Knut, History of the Norwegian People, Volume 2 MacMillan Co., 1915, pp. 111–114, ISBN 978-0404028183
  22. ^ Riis, Jacob A., Hero Tales of the Far North, Project Gutenberg, 2004
  23. ^ Change and Development in the Middle East: essays in honour of W.B. Fisher, John Innes Clarke, Howard Bowen-Jones, 1981, p.290
  24. ^ The Heritage of Armenian Literature, A. J. (Agop Jack) Hacikyan, Nourhan Ouzounian, Gabriel Basmajian, Edward S. Franchuk, 2000, p.777
  25. ^ "Turkey" by Edward Shepherd Creasy, Page 195
  26. ^ Eric Solsten, ed. Cyprus: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1991.
  27. ^ Alastair Armstrong (2003). France, 1500–1715. London: Heinemann Education Publishers. pp. 65. ISBN 0435327518. 
  28. ^ Reinhard Bendix (1978). Kings Or People: Power and the Mandate to Rule. Tucson, Arizona: University of California Press. pp. 324. ISBN 0-520-04090-2. 
  29. ^ a b Staff. Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre, Columbia Encyclopedia, Questia Online Library
  30. ^ Staff, Massacre of Saint Bartholomews Day (French history), Encyclopædia Britannica, Accessed 23 December 2007
  31. ^ Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre, CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA
  32. ^ Janell Broyles, A Timeline of the Jamestown Colony, p. 22, The Rosen Publishing Group, 2004
  33. ^ Alfred Abioseh Jarrett, The Impact of Macro Social Systems on Ethnic Minorities in the United States, Page 29, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2000
  34. ^ Bolton history
  35. ^ Lonely Planet
  36. ^ John Tincey, Marston Moor 1644: The Beginning Of The End: Osprey Publishing (March 11, 2003) ISBN 1841763349 p 33 "the `massacre at Bolton' became a staple of Parliamentarian propaganda"
  37. ^ Oxford English Dictionary Cites "a1715 BP. G. BURNET Hist. Own Time (1734) II. 156 The Massacre in Glencoe, made still a great noise." and "1957 ‘H. MACDIARMID’ Battle Continues 1 Franco has made no more horrible shambles Than this poem of Campbell's, The foulest outrage his breed has to show Since the massacre of Glencoe!"
  38. ^ a b Glencoe, engraved by W. Miller after J.M.W. Turner, Edinburgh University library
  39. ^ a b St. George's Field Riot
  40. ^ Zobel, The Boston Massacre, W.W.Norton and Co.(1970), 199–200.
  41. ^ Boston Massacre – Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  42. ^ Boston Massacre
  43. ^ Kenn Harper A Day in Arctic History: July 17, 1771 — Slaughter at Bloody Falls, Nunatsiaq News, 29 July 2005
  44. ^ Robin McGrath. Samuel Hearne And The Inuit Oral Tradition, University of New Brunswick, libraries Accessed 23 December 2007
  45. ^ Staff, Samuel Hearne and David Thompson, trekking in the footsteps, HighBeam Research, (From: Manitoba History Society| Date: 6/1/2005| Author: Binning, Alexander)
  46. ^ Bloody Falls, The Canadian Encyclopedia
  47. ^ a b Wright, Kevin W.. "OVERKILL: Revolutionary War Reminiscences of River Vale". Bergen County Historical Society. http://www.bergencountyhistory.org/Pages/baylormassacre.html. Retrieved 2008-10-31. 
  48. ^ Buford's Massacre
  49. ^ http://www.rsar.org/military/sherm055.pdf
  50. ^ a b "Gnadenhutten Massacre". Ohio History Central. http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=499. Retrieved June 5, 2009. 
  51. ^ Gnadenhutten Massacre (United States history) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  52. ^ Historywiz.com
  53. ^ David Andress, The Terror: The Merciless War for Freedom in Revolutionary France, Chapter 4, Macmillan, 2006
  54. ^ Dwyer, Phillip and McPhee, Peter (2002). The French Revolution and Napoleon: A Sourcebook. Routledge. pp. 66. ISBN 978-0415199070. 
  55. ^ a b c d "New plaque for massacre memorial", BBC, 17 August 2007. Retrieved 19 February 2008.
  56. ^ McCarthy, Justin (1996). Death and Exile: The Ethnic Cleansing of Ottoman Muslims, 1821–1922. Darwin Press, Incorporated. ISBN 0878500944. http://books.google.com/books?id=MDoFR3UJOSgC
  57. ^ a b National Centre for History Education (Australia)
  58. ^ "Frontier Conflict: The Australian Experience", Bruce Elder, Sydney Morning Herald, March 29, 2003
  59. ^ "Myall Creek Massacre", Parliament of New South Wales Hansard, June 8, 2000
  60. ^ FAQ "What was the Haun's Mill Massacre?" – Brigham Young University website (abstracted from "Haun's Mill Massacre," in Encyclopedia of Mormonism, ed. Daniel H. Ludlow, New York: Macmillan, 1992)
  61. ^ Historical Record, Jenson, Vol. 7 & 8, p 671.
  62. ^ History of the Church, Vol. III, pp 182–186.
  63. ^ Gardner, P.D. (2001), Gippsland massacres: the destruction of the Kurnai tribes, 1800-1860, Ngarak Press, Essay, Victoria ISBN 1-875254-31-5
  64. ^ a b Gippsland Settlers and the Kurnai Dead - Patrick Morgan – Quadrant Magazine
  65. ^ Afghan and Northwest Border Wars 1834 to 1897
  66. ^ Summary: the First Anglo-Afghan War, 1838–42
  67. ^ Massacre of Elphinstone's army
  68. ^ a b Staff. Snake River Massacre Account by One of the Survivors, Oregon Historical Society, 2002.
  69. ^ Shannon, Donald H. (2004). The Boise Massacre. pp 73–102. Caldwell, ID: Snake Country Publishing. ISBN 0-9635828-1-X
  70. ^ Carleton, James Henry (1902). (Special Report on the Mountain Meadows Massacre. Washington: Government Printing Office. pp. 126. http://books.google.com/?id=MBYiwjNst6EC. 
  71. ^ Thompson, Jacob (1860). Message of the President of the United States: communicating, in compliance with a resolution of the Senate, information in relation to the massacre at Mountain Meadows, and other massacres in Utah Territory, 36th Congress, 1st Session, Exec. Doc. No. 42. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of the Interior. http://www.archive.org/details/messageofpreside00unitrich. .
  72. ^ Bagley, Will (2002). Blood of the Prophets: Brigham Young and the Massacre at Mountain Meadows. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-3426-7. .
    • Brooks, Juanita (1950). Mountain Meadows Massacre. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-2318-4. .
    • Denton, Sally (2003). American Massacre: The Tragedy at Mountain Meadows. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-375-41208-5. .
  73. ^ Roger A. Hall. Performing the American Frontier, 1870–1906, Published by Cambridge University Press, 2001, ISBN 0521793203. p 93
  74. ^ Bancroft, Hubert Howe; Bates, Alfred (1889). The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft: History of Utah, 1540–1886. San Francisco: History Company. pp. 868. LCC F826.B2 1889, LCCN 07018413. http://books.google.com/?id=2OwNAAAAIAAJ. (Chapter XX. pp 562–563) (Internet Archive versions).
  75. ^ a b Unruh, John D (1993). The Plains Across the Overland Emigrants and Trans-Mississippi West 1840–1860. University of Illinois Press. pp. 195. ISBN 978-0252063602. 
  76. ^ Shannon, Donald H. (2004). The Boise Massacre. pp 177–196. Caldwell, ID: Snake Country Publishing. ISBN 0-9635828-1-X
  77. ^ Shannon, Donald H. (2004). The Boise Massacre. pp 197–222. Caldwell, ID: Snake Country Publishing. ISBN 0-9635828-1-X
  78. ^ Unruh, John D (1993). The Plains Across the Overland Emigrants and Trans-Mississippi West 1840–1860. University of Illinois Press. pp. 149–150. ISBN 978-0252063602. 
  79. ^ Shannon, Donald H. (2004). The Utter Distaster. Caldwell, ID: Snake Country Publishing. ISBN 0-9635828-2-8
  80. ^ Paludan, Philip S. 1981. Victims: A True Story of the Civil War. Knoxville, TN: The University of Tennessee Press. 144 p.
  81. ^ Brigham D. Madsen (with forward by Charles S. Peterson), The Shoshoni Frontier and the Bear River Massacre, University of Utah Press (1985-hardcover 1995-paperback), trade paperback, 286 pages, pp. 190–192, ISBN 0-87480-494-9
  82. ^ Pages 183 to 194, The Shoshoni Frontier and the Bear River Massacre, by Brigham D. Madsen, forward by Charles S. Peterson, University of Utah Press (1985-hardcover 1995-paperback), trade paperback, 286 pages, ISBN 0-87480-494-9
  83. ^ William Quantrill and the Lawrence Massacre
  84. ^ Lawrence (Kansas, United States)
  85. ^ The Bloodiest Man In American History
  86. ^ Erastus D. Ladd's Description of the Lawrence Massacre, by Russell E. Bidlack, Summer 1963
  87. ^ Chapter 14: American Military History, Volume I
  88. ^ "Inquiry into the Sand Creek Massacre, November, 1864." The Wynkoop Family Research Library. Rootsweb.com: Freepages. Retrieved on 2008-02-19.
  89. ^ Hoig, Stan. (1977). The Sand Creek Massacre. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-1147-6
  90. ^ ABC-CLIO Schools | Washita Massacre
  91. ^ Andrist, Ralph K., The Long Death: The Last Days of the Plains Indians, University of Oklahoma Press, 2001, 371 pages, pp 157–162, ISBN 978-0806133089
  92. ^ Brown, Dee, Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee, Henry Holt and Co., 2007, 487 pages, pp 167–169, ISBN 978-0-8050-8684-3
  93. ^ Churchill, Ward, A Little Matter of Genocide: Holocaust and Denial in the Americas, 1492 to the Present, City Lights, 1997, 381 pages, p 236, ISBN 978-0-87286-323-1
  94. ^ Colorado Humanities | Sand Creek Memorial and Washita Sites
  95. ^ ExploreSouthernHistory.com - Washita Battlefield, Oklahoma
  96. ^ Giago, Tim - Honoring Those Who Died at Washita
  97. ^ Native American Netroots | The 140th Anniversary of the Washita Massacre of Nov. 27, 1868
  98. ^ PBS - THE WEST - Washita
  99. ^ The Saint Francis Herald, "Cherry Creek Massacre recognized in magazine", St. Francis, KS, November 17, 2005
  100. ^ Zeman, Scott C., Chronology of the American West from 23,000 B.C.E. through the Twentieth Century, ABC-CLIO, 2002, 381 pages, p 155, ISBN 978-1-57607-207-3
  101. ^ Greenway, Paul. (2002). Bulgaria: Centuries of History Ripe for Discovery. P141. Lonely Planet. ISBN 1864501480
  102. ^ Bousfield, Jonathan. (2002). The Rough Guide to Bulgaria. P352. Rough Guides. ISBN 1858288827
  103. ^ Crampton, R.J. (2007). Bulgaria. P92. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198205147
  104. ^ 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica: Bulgaria, History
  105. ^ John Chaput (2007). "Frog Lake Massacre". The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. University of Regina and Canadian Plains Research Center. http://esask.uregina.ca/entry/frog_lake_massacre.html. Retrieved 8 June 2010. 
  106. ^ W. B. Cameron, "Massacre at Frog Lake", University of Alberta Libraries, response by W. B. Cameron to "Massacre at Frog Lake", Edmonton Journal, 4 Apr 1939, accessed 2 Aug 2009
  107. ^ Camp Pilot Butte, National Register of Historic Places.
  108. ^ Larson, History of Wyoming, pp. 141–44.
  109. ^ Daniels, Asian America, pp. 61–63.
  110. ^ Ostler, Jeffrey, Conquest and the State, 65 Pacific Hist. Rev. 217, 248 n.52 (1996)(collecting estimates)
  111. ^ National Historic Landmarks Program: Wounded Knee National Park Service. Retrieved on 19 February 2008.
  112. ^ The Wounded Knee Massacre
  113. ^ a b Charny, Israel W. (1999). Encyclopedia of genocide (illustrated ed.). ABC-CLIO. pp. 287. ISBN 0874369282, 9780874369281.  "also known as the Hamidian Massacres, after the sultan", distinguishing the current name from what the events were previously known as: the Armenian Massacres.
  114. ^ Cohan, Sara (October 2005). "A Brief History of the Armenian Genocide". Social Education (National Science Teachers Association, 1840 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, VA 22201-3000) v69 (n6): 333. ISSN 0037-7724.  "They are now known as the Hamidian Massacres"
  115. ^ Totten, Samuel; Paul Robert Bartrop, Steven L. Jacobs (2008). Dictionary of genocide. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 23. ISBN 0313346429, 9780313346422.  "they are now often called the Hamidian massacres to distinguish them from the greater attrocities associated with the 1915 Armenian Genocide"
  116. ^ Western Cape Institute for Historical Research (1993-01-01). "Kronos". Kronos (University of the Western Cape) Issues 20–22: 57–60. http://books.google.com/?id=WR5zAAAAMAAJ. 
  117. ^ Mark Twain, Weapons of Satire, pp. 168–178, Syracuse University Press, Syracuse, NY 1992
  118. ^ American Troops Killing Muslims: A Massacre to Remember, by Christine Gibson, AmericanHeritage.com, March 8, 2006
  119. ^ Byler, Charles A. Pacifying the Moros; Military Review, May–June, 2005
  120. ^ Creelman, James (August 22, 1909). "The Slaughter of Christians In Asia Minor". The New York Times. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F00812FF3F5A15738DDDAB0A94D0405B898CF1D3. 
  121. ^ Akcam, Taner. A Shameful Act. 2006, page 69–70: "fifteen to twenty thousand Armenians were killed"
  122. ^ "30,000 Killed in Massacres". The New York Times. April 25, 1909. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F50C10F93C5A15738DDDAC0A94DC405B898CF1D3. 
  123. ^ Century of Genocide: Eyewitness Accounts and Critical Views By Samuel. Totten, William S. Parsons, Israel W. Charny
  124. ^ Walker, 1980, pp.182–88
  125. ^ American Experience | The Rockefellers | Special Features | The Ludlow Massacre (PBS)
  126. ^ The Ludlow Massacre | United Mine Workers of America
  127. ^ Zinn, H. "The Ludlow Massacre", Excerpt from A People's History of the United States. pgs 346–349.
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  130. ^ a b T. Ryle Dwyer, The Squad and the intelligence operations of Michael Collins, Dublin, 2005
  131. ^ David Leeson, "Death in the Afternoon: The Croke Park Massacre, 21 November 1920," Canadian Journal of History, vol. 38, no. 1 (April 2003)
  132. ^ Florida Department of State, State Library & Archives of Florida, Rosewood Bibliography http://dlis.dos.state.fl.us/fgils/rosewood_bib.html
  133. ^ Federal Bureau of Investigation – Freedom of Information Privacy Act
  134. ^ Al Capone: Chicago's Most Infamous Mob Boss – The Crime library
  135. ^ a b Schoenberg, Shira, "The Hebron Massacre of 1929", Jewish Virtual Library, Retrieved March 3, 2010
  136. ^ "Safed Victims Put at 70 Killed and Wounded", New York Times, September 1, 1929
  137. ^ Safed Massacre of 1929
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  140. ^ a b 19 Were killed including 2 policemen caught in the cross-fire The Washington Post. Tuesday, December 28, 1999; Page A03. Apology Isn't Enough for Puerto Rico Spy Victims Retrieved July 8, 2009.
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  142. ^ Honda Katsuichi, The Nanjing Massacre, M.E. Sharp 1998
  143. ^ Fordham University webpage: Modern History Sourcebook
  144. ^ Matthew White Nanking Massacre, Accessed December 17, 2007. Cites eight sources directly and another ten indirectly. Lowest estimate Spence, The Search for Modern China: 42,000. Highest estimate Iris Chang, The Rape of Nanking (1997), citing James Yin & Shi Young: 400,000
  145. ^ Justin Harmon Student-Run Conference to Examine Nanking Massacre, Princeton University, November 12, 1997
  146. ^ John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr. In Denial: Historians, Communism, and Espionage. Encounter Books, 2003. ISBN 1-893554-72-4 p. 22
  147. ^ Aleksandr Shelepin's March 3, 1959 note to Khrushchev, with information about the execution of 21,857 Poles and with the proposal to destroy their personal files. Online
  148. ^ Beria's March 1940 proposal to shoot 25,700 Poles from Kozelsk, Ostashkov, and Starobels camps, and from certain prisons of Western Ukraine and Belarus bearing Stalin's signature (among others). proposal online
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  151. ^ a b Robert Gellately. Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe. Knopf, 2007 ISBN 1400040051 p. 391
  152. ^ (English) Richard Rhodes (2002). Masters of Death: The SS-Einsatzgruppen and the Invention of the Holocaust. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-375-40900-9. 
  153. ^ a b Staff. The Holocaust Chronicle: Massacre at Babi Yar, The Holocaust Chronicle web site, Access 17 December 2007
  154. ^ Victoria Khiterer (2004). "Babi Yar: The tragedy of Kiev's Jews" (PDF). Brandeis Graduate Journal 2: 1–16. http://www.brandeis.edu/gsa/gradjournal/2004/khiterer2004.pdf. Retrieved 2008-01-20. 
  155. ^ "A survivor of the Babi Yar massacre". Heritage: Civilization and the Jews. Public Broadcasting System (PBS). http://www.pbs.org/wnet/heritage/episode8/documents/documents_13.html. Retrieved 2008-01-20. 
  156. ^ Wolfram Wette (2006). The Wehrmacht: History, Myth, Reality. Harvard University Press. p. 112. "The massacre at Babi Yar, near Kiev, which claimed the lives of more than thirty thousand Jewish victims on September 29 and 30, 1941, was the largest single mass killing for which the German army was responsible during its campaign against the Soviet Union." 
  157. ^ Jill Dougherty and Jim Bittermann (2001-06-25). "Pope visits Jewish massacre site". CNN. http://edition.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/europe/06/25/pope.babiyar/index.html. Retrieved 2008-01-20. 
  158. ^ a b Saff Fall of Ambon: Massacred at Laha, Australia's War 1939-145 An Australian government website.
  159. ^ Peter Stanley The defence of the 'Malay barrier': Rabaul and Ambon, January 1942 principal historian to Australian War Memorial
  160. ^ Times dispatch (March 28, 1953). Mau Mau Massacres 150 Natives In Night Raid Near Kenya Capital. New York Times. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F30614F9345E177B93CAAB1788D85F478585F9. 
  161. ^ Stephen Corradini (1999). Chief Luka and the Lari Massacre: Contrary Notions of Kikuyu Land Tenure and the Mau Mau War. University of Wisconsin-Madison. pp. 154. ISBN 0942615492. http://books.google.com/?id=7eIUAAAACAAJ. 
  162. ^ a b Katerina Zachovalova. War Crime To War Game, Time, September 17
  163. ^ David Vaughan. The Lidice massacre – atrocity and courage website of Czech Radio, 11 June 2002
  164. ^ Lidice memorial
  165. ^ Matthew J. Gibney, Randall Hansen, Immigration and Asylum, page 204
  166. ^ Timothy Snyder. (2003)The Causes of Ukrainian-Polish Ethnic Cleansing 1943, The Past and Present Society: Oxford University Press. pg. 220
  167. ^ Tadeusz Piotrowski, Poland's holocaust. Published by McFarland. Page 247
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  169. ^ Richard Owen. Ten convicted for 1944 massacre, The Times, 15 January 2007
  170. ^ a b Oradour Info – Oradour-sur-Glane 10th June 1944
  171. ^ The Oradour-sur-Glane Massacre
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  173. ^ – Robin Mackness's book, 'Oradour Massacre and Aftermath'
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  175. ^ Oxford Journals – Massacre at Oradour, France, 1944 by Stephanie Hare-Cuming
  176. ^ Martyred Village: Commemorating the 1944 Massacre at Oradour-sur-Glane. Sarah Farmer, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999. xvii + 300 pp. ISBN 978-0-520-21186-5.
  177. ^ The Malmedy Massacre Revisited – Henri Rogister, Joseph Dejardin et Emile Jamar – Website du C.R.I.B.A. (Centre de Recherches et d'Informations sur la Bataille des Ardennes) [1]
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  179. ^ *A 1961 Massacre of Algerians in Paris When the Media Failed the Test James J. Napoli
  180. ^ Yves Courrière, La guerre d'Algérie, tome 1 (Les fils de la Toussaint), Fayard, Paris 1969, ISBN 2213611181
  181. ^ * Jean Louis Planche, SΓ©tif 1945, histoire d'un massacre annoncΓ©, Perrin, Paris 2006
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  186. ^ An article (no title given) by R. Barkan from the Mapam newspaper Al Hamishmar, quoting a letter from eyewitness Dov Yirmiya and the Jewish Agency's response, translated in the Journal of Palestine Studies, vol. VII, no. 4 (summer 1978), no. 28, pp. 143-145.
  187. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/8023945.stm Malay massacre evidence to be reviewed by the UK government
  188. ^ BBC Malaysia Correspondent's account
  189. ^ Only one reference names this as "the Batang Massacre" rather than just a massacre at Batang
  190. ^ "λ―ΌÊ°„̝ΈÍ•™Ì‚΄ ÌšΈÌ‚°-λ¬ΈÊ²½ 두 ͌Ê²°λ¬Έ λΉ„Ê΅". ʲ½λ‚¨λ„λ―ΌÌΌλ³΄. 2009-02-16. http://www.idomin.com/news/articleView.html?idxno=279392. Retrieved 2010-07-08. (Korean)
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  195. ^ a b Soldiers scale Hill 303 in honor of fallen comrades 8th United States Army
  196. ^ "Ê°•Í™”Ê΅λ™λ„ ͕™Ì‚΄â€’1 'Ìš°Ì΅λ‹¨Ì²΄Ê°€ Ì£Όλ―Ό 212λͺ… Ì΄Ì‚΄' ʳ΅Ì‹Í™•ÌΈ ̜ Ì¡± Ì£ΌÌž₯ ̂¬Ì‹€λ¡œâ€¦". Kyeongin Ilbo. 2006-02-28. http://www.kyeongin.com/news/articleView.html?idxno=229411#. Retrieved 2010-07-12. (Korean)
  197. ^ "Ê°•Í™”̧€Ì—­ λ―ΌÊ°„̝Έ ͕™Ì‚΄ ͝¬ÌƒÌž ʳ Ìœ Ì œ 및 ÌΆ”λͺ¨Ì œ". Incheon Ilbo. 2009-10-20. http://incheon.kdlp.org/home2007/bbs/board.php?bo_table=c01_01&wr_id=2084&page=4. Retrieved 2010-07-12. (Korean)
  198. ^ a b "‘̂°Ì²­â·Í•¨Ì–‘ ̖‘λ―ΌÍ•™Ì‚΄â€™ ̱… ÍŽ΄λ‚Έ Ê°•Í¬Ê·Ό Ê΅Ìˆ˜". Newstoday21. 2008-11-07. http://newstoday21.co.kr/bbs/board.php?board=sub0501&page=2&command=body&no=141&PHPSESSID=5270f35da0cb0753ab185bafe835f5da. Retrieved 2010-07-11. (Korean)
  199. ^ a b ""ÍŽΈÍžˆ ̘λ©΄Í•˜Ì†ŒÌ„œ!'..ʱ°Ì°½Ì‚¬Ê±΄ ͝¬ÌƒÌž ̜„λ ΉÌ œ". Chosun Ilbo. 2009-04-17. http://www.chosun.com/site/data/html_dir/2009/04/17/2009041701135.html. Retrieved 2010-07-11. (Korean)
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  202. ^ Alessandra Stanley, Russian General Campaigns On Old-Time Soviet Values The New York Times, 13 October 1995
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  209. ^ "AIDS and Religious Practice in Africa", Felicitas Becker, Wenzel Geissler, p. 123, Volume 36 of Studies on religion in Africa
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  212. ^ Former Mexican president sheds light on 1968 massacre, CNN, 4 February 1998
  213. ^ a b Mexican Court Issues Warrant for Former President
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  216. ^ "These would be the first of many probes into what soon became known as the Kent State Massacre. Like the Boston Massacre almost exactly two hundred years before (March 5, 1770), which it resembled, it was called a massacre not for the number of its victims but for the wanton manner in which they were shot down." Philip Caputo (2005-05-04). "The Kent State Shootings, 35 Years Later". NPR. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4630596. Retrieved 2007-11-09. 
  217. ^ Rep. Tim Ryan (2007-05-04). "Congressman Tim Ryan Gives Speech at 37th Commemoration of Kent State Massacre". Congressional website of Rep. Tim Ryan (D-Ohio). http://timryan.house.gov/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=160&Itemid=48. Retrieved 2007-11-09. 
  218. ^ McCann, Eamonn (2006). The Bloody Sunday Inquiry – The Families Speak Out. London: Pluto Press. pp. 4–6. ISBN 0-7453-2510-6. 
  219. ^ Walker, Christopher; Barkham, Patrick (October 17, 2002). "Killing of 14 was not justified, says Bloody Sunday soldier". The Times (London). http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article1171893.ece. Retrieved July 22, 2009. 
  220. ^ Feemster, Ron (March 7, 2002). "Fitting Bloody Sunday Into the Present". The New York Times: p. 1. http://www.nytimes.com/2002/03/07/technology/fitting-bloody-sunday-into-the-present.html?pagewanted=1. Retrieved July 22, 2009. 
  221. ^ "Bloody Sunday killings 'unjustified and unjustifiable'", BBC News, June 15, 2010, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/northern_ireland/10320609.stm, retrieved June 15, 2010 
  222. ^ a b "In what became known as the Lod Airport Massacre three members of the terrorist group, Japanese Red Army, arrived at the airport aboard an Air France flight from Paris. Once inside the airport they grabbed automatic firearms from their carry-on cases and fired at airport staff and visitors. In the end, 26 people died and 80 people were injured." CBC News, The Fifth Estate, "Fasten Your Seatbelts: Ben Gurion Airport in Israel", 2007. Accessed June 2, 2008.
  223. ^ "The short-term impact of the Lod Airport massacre as a precursor to Munich..." Stephen Sloan, John C. Bersia, J. B. Hill. Terrorism: The Present Threat in Context, Berg Publisher, 2006, p. 50. ISBN 1845203445
  224. ^ "Two years later, just before the Lod Airport massacre, authorities uncovered the bodies of 14 young men and women on remote Mount Haruna, 70 miles northwest of Tokyo." "Again the Red Army", TIME, August 18, 1975.
  225. ^ "Those named by Lebanese officials as having been arrested included at least three Red Army members who have been wanted for years by Japanese authorities, most notably Kozo Okamoto, 49, the only member of the attacking group who survived the Lod Airport massacre." "Lebanon Seizes Japanese Radicals Sought in Terror Attacks", The New York Times, February 19, 1997.
  226. ^ "They were responsible for the Lod Airport massacre in Israel in 1972, which was committed on behalf of the PFLP." Jeffrey D. Simon, The Terrorist Trap: America's Experience with Terrorism, Indiana University Press, p. 324. ISBN 0253214777
  227. ^ CBS News (2002-09-05). "Munich Massacre Remembered". http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2002/09/05/world/main520865.shtml. .
  228. ^ Wolff, Alexander (2002-02-09). "When The Terror Began". Time Magazine (Sep. 2, 2002). http://www.time.com/time/europe/magazine/2002/0902/munich/index.html. Retrieved 2010-05-08. .
  229. ^ Sources describing the event as a "massacre":
    • "The day after the Ma'alot massacre, condemned by Pope Paul VI and most Western leaders as "an evil outrage," ..." Frank Gervasi. Thunder Over the Mediterranean, McKay, 1975, p. 443.
    • "The previous day Israel had been traumatized by the Ma'alot massacre, which had resulted in the deaths of numerous schoolchildren." William B. Quandt. Peace Process: American Diplomacy and the Arab-Israeli Conflict Since 1967, Brookings Institution Press, 2001, p. 432.
    • "Faced with a public outcry over the Ma'alot massacre, they demanded of Syria a pledge to forbid terrorist to cross the Golan into Israel." Milton Viorst. Sands of Sorrow: Israel's Journey from Independence, I.B.Tauris, 1987, p. 192.
    • "...Organization (PLO) crimes, like the massacre of Israeli athletes at the Munich Olympic Games in 1972 and the Ma'alot massacre of children in 1974." Richard J. Chasdi. Tapestry of Terror: A Portrait of Middle East Terrorism, 1994–1999, Lexington Books, 2002, p. 6.
    • "The PFLP was responsible for the Ma'alot massacre on May IS, 1974 during which 22 Israeli children were killed." Alex Peter Schmid, A. J. Jongman, Michael Stohl. Political Terrorism: A New Guide to Actors, Authors, Concepts, Data Bases, Theories, & Literature, Transaction Publishers, 2005, p. 639.
    • "On 22 November 1974, six months after the Ma'alot massacre, the United Nations General Assembly voted to accept the Palestine Liberation Organisation as an..." Martin Gilbert. The Jews in the Twentieth Century: An Illustrated History, Schocken Books, 2001, p. 327.
  230. ^ a b c Khoury, Jack. "U.S. filmmakers plan documentary on Ma'alot massacre", Haaretz, March 07, 2007.
  231. ^ Donna Carton (11 December 2005). "Miami Showband massacre files to stay under wraps". Sunday Mirror. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4161/is_20051211/ai_n15919127. Retrieved 2008-02-05. 
  232. ^ "Miami Showband massacre remembered". BreakingNews.ie. 30 July 2005. http://archives.tcm.ie/breakingnews/2005/07/30/story214127.asp. Retrieved 2008-02-05. 
  233. ^ "Miami Showband Memorial Unveiled". 4NI.co.uk. 10 December 2007. http://www.4ni.co.uk/northern_ireland_news.asp?id=69567. Retrieved 2008-02-05. 
  234. ^ "Ahern unveils Miami Showband memorial". The Irish Times. 10 December 2007. http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/breaking/2007/1210/breaking46.html. Retrieved 2008-02-05. 
  235. ^ Dillon, Martin (1991). The Dirty War. Arrow Books. pp. 174. ISBN 978-0099845201. 
  236. ^ a b Staff. 1976: Ten dead in Northern Ireland ambush, BBC, On this days series (5 January) (Accessed 23 December 2007)
  237. ^ Sam Knight and agencies, Ulster lukewarm about unsolved murders probe, The Times, 20 January 2006
  238. ^ a b Staff. (Accessed 17 May 2009)
  239. ^ Friedman, New York Times, Sep 20, 21, 26, 27, 1982
  240. ^ a b "Among the most notorious attacks was the coastal road massacre in Israel in March 1978. The attack left 35 civilians dead and 80 wounded." Ben Gad, Yitschak. Politics, Lies, and Videotape, Shapolsky Publishers, 1991, ISBN 1561710156, p. 94.
  241. ^ "1978, March 11. The Coastal Road Massacre" Richard Ernest Dupuy, Trevor Nevitt Dupuy. The Encyclopedia of Military History from 3500 B.C. to the Present, Harper & Row, 1986, ISBN 0061812358, p. 1362.
  242. ^ "Operation Litani is launched in retaliation for that month's Coastal Road massacre." Gregory S. Mahler. Politics and Government in Israel: The Maturation of a Modern State, Rowman & Littlefield, 2004, ISBN 0742516113, p. 259.
  243. ^ "So did the Coastal Road massacre of 1978, in which a POLO hijacking of an intercity bus ended with the deaths of thirty-five Israeli hostages." Binyamin Netanyahu. A Durable Peace: Israel and Its Place Among the Nations, Warner Books, 2000, ISBN 0446523062, p. 218.
  244. ^ El Salvador death squads
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  246. ^ Yemeni father's school slaughter, The Independent (March 31, 1997)
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  248. ^ Robert Fisk Another war on terror. Another proxy army. Another mysterious massacre. And now, after 19 years, perhaps the truth at last..., The Independent 28 November 2001
  249. ^ Cilina Nasser. Sharon role in massacre remembered, Al Jazeera, 5 March 2006
  250. ^ Amal Hamdan Remembering Sabra and Shatila, Al Jazeera, 16 September 2003
  251. ^ Peru: The killings of Lucanamarca BBC, 09-14-06
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  253. ^ Gresko, Jessica (July 18, 2004). "20 Years later, San Ysidro McDonald's massacre remembered". North County Times. Escondido, California. http://www.nctimes.com/news/local/article_2ba4343e-7009-54ce-98df-79a23ff8d0d7.html. Retrieved June 3, 2010 
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  256. ^ Staff. Documents Link Saddam To Massacre, Al Jazeera, March 3, 2006 cites source as Reuters
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  396. ^ Sen. Joe Lieberman calls Fort Hood massacre a 'terrorist' act
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