List of books banned by governments
Banned books are books to which free access is not permitted. The practice of banning books is a form of censorship, and often has political, religious or moral motivations.
Bans on books can be enacted at the national or subnational level, and can carry legal penalties for their infraction. Books may also be challenged at a local, community level. As a result, books can be removed from schools or libraries, although these bans do not extend outside of that area. Similarly, religions may issue lists of banned books – a historical example being the Roman Catholic Church's Index Librorum Prohibitorum – which do not always carry legal force.
"Almost every country places some restrictions on what may be published, although the emphasis and the degree of control differ from country to country and at different periods."
Books are banned for a variety of reasons. Materials are often suppressed due to the perceived notion of obscenity. This obscenity can apply to materials that are about sexuality, race, drugs, or social standing.
Governments have also sought to ban certain books it perceives to contain material that could threaten, embarrass, or criticize it. Governments may also ban books to protect the public from their contents, including materials that may endanger public safety.
Other leaders outside of the government have banned books, including religious authorities. Church leaders who prohibit members of their faith from reading the banned books may want to shelter them from perceived obscene, immoral, or profane ideas or situations.
But even religious materials have been subject to censorship. For example, various scriptures have been banned (and sometimes burned at several points in history). The Bible, and other religious scriptures have all been subjected to censorship and have been banned by various governments. Similarly, books based on the scriptures have also been banned, such as Leo Tolstoy's The Kingdom of God Is Within You, which was banned in Russia for being anti-establishment.
 List of banned books
||Type of Literature
|About a Silence in Literature
||Banned in Yugoslavia by court order in 1951.
|The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian
||autobiographical young adult novel
||Banned in high schools in Stockton, Missouri, USA, by the local school board after a parent complained about its content.
|A Feast for the Seaweeds
||Banned in Egypt and several other Arab states, and even resulted in a belated angry reaction from the clerics of Al-Azhar University upon reprinting in Egypt in the year 2000. The clerics issued a Fatwa banning the novel, and accused Haidar of heresy and offending Islam. Al-Azhar University students staged huge protests against the novel, that eventually led to its confiscation.
|Alice's Adventures in Wonderland
||Banned in the province of Hunan, China, beginning in 1931 for its portrayal of anthropomorphized animals acting on the same level of complexity as human beings.
|All Quiet on the Western Front
||Erich Maria Remarque
||Banned in Nazi Germany for being demoralizing and insulting to the Wehrmacht.
||Bret Easton Ellis
||Sale and Purchase banned in the Australian State of Queensland. Sale restricted to persons 18 years old or older in the other Australian states. 
||Progressive short stories
||Banned in India in 1936 by the British government.
||The author–s preface suppressed in nearly all of its editions. During 1940 - 45, Allied forces found this entire book to be critical of the U.S.S.R., and therefore the text was considered to be too controversial to print during wartime. Publishers were reluctant to print the novel then, and copies of it were withdrawn from circulation at libraries, etc. A play of Animal Farm was banned in Kenya in 1991, because it criticizes corrupt leaders. In 2002, the novel was banned in the schools of the United Arab Emirates, because it contained text or images that goes against Islamic and Arab values.
||Banned in the Kingdom of England for political reasons.
|A Spoon on Earth
||Banned for distribution within the South Korean military as one of 23 books banned there beginning on Aug 1, 2008.
||Type of Literature
|Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism
||Banned for distribution in South Korean military as one of 23 books banned from Aug 1st 2008.
|Big River, Big Sea – Untold Stories of 1949
||It sold over 100,000 copies in Taiwan and 10,000 in Hong Kong in its first month of release, but discussion of her work was banned in mainland China following the book launch.
||Banned in Ireland in 1958. The Irish Censorship of Publications Board was not obliged to reveal its reason but it is believed that it was rejected for its critique of Irish republicanism and the Catholic Church, and its depiction of adolescent sexuality. It was banned in Australia and New Zealand shortly after. It was allowed to be published in New Zealand in 1963. 
|Brave New World
||Banned in Ireland in 1932, due to alleged references of sexual promiscuity.
||Banned in South Africa in July, 1979 for going against the government's racial policies; the ban was reversed in October of the same year.
||Type of Literature
|Fanny Hill or Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure
||Banned in the U.S.A in 1821 for obscenity, then again in 1963. This was the last book ever banned in the U.S.A. See also Memoirs v. Massachusetts.
|The Federal Mafia
||An injunction was issued by a U.S. District Court in Nevada under 26 U.S.C. – 7408 against Irwin Schiff and associates Cynthia Neun and Lawrence Cohen, against the sale of this book by those persons as the court found that the information it contains is fraudulent.
|The Fugitive (Perburuan)
||Pramoedya Ananta Toer
||Banned in Indonesia in 1950, for containing "subversive" material, including an attempt to promote Marxist-Leninist thought and other Communist theories. As of 2006, the ban is still in effect.
||Type of Literature
|Polsko-angielsko-niemiecki glosariusz regionalny Wojewdztwa Opolskiego (The Polish-English-German Glossary of the Regional Terminology of the Opole Voivodeship)
||The first book banned in postcommunist Poland, on the orders of the Self-Governmental Regional Authority (Urzäd MarszaÅkowski) of the Opole Voivodeship, because, besides presenting the Polish and Soviet view that Poland–s new, post-World War II western border was fully recognized already in 1945, it also presented the view of West Germany and its allies that the border was finally recognized in light of international law only upon the ratification of the German-Polish Border Treaty (signed in 1990) in 1991.
|The God of Small Things
||Written in 1996, claimed to be portraying occasional interrelgious sex scenes involving a Christian woman and low caste-Hindu servant. Ban overturned in India in 1997.
|The Grapes of Wrath
||Was temporarily banned in many places in the US. In the region of California in which it was partially set, it was banned because it made the residents of this region look bad.
|The Gulag Archipelago
||Banned in the Soviet Union because it went against the image the Soviet Government tried to project of itself and its policies. This ban has been lifted. In 2009, the Education Ministry of Russia added The Gulag Archipelago to the curriculum for high-school students.
||Type of Literature
|How to make disposable silencers
||An example of a class of books banned in Australia that "promote, incite or instruct in matters of crime or violence".
||Copies of the first edition seized by San Francisco Customs for obscenity in March 1957; after trial, obscenity charges were dismissed.
||Type of Literature
|Islam - A Concept of Political World Invasion
||R. V. Bhasin
||Banned in Maharashtra, India in 2007, after its publishing on grounds that it promotes communal disharmony between Hindus and Muslims.
||Type of Literature
|The Peaceful Pill Handbook
||Philip Nitschke and Fiona Stewart
||Instructional manual on euthanasia
||Initially banned in New Zealand by Office of Film & Literature Classification since it was deemed to be objectionable. In May 2008 it was allowed for sale if sealed and an indication of the censorship classification was displayed. The book was initially restricted in Australia: after review the 2007 edition was banned outright.
|Putin. The Results. 10 Years On
||Boris Nemtsov and Vladimir Milov
||"Russian police seized 100,000 copies of a book critical of Prime Minister Vladimir Putin that activists planned to hand out at the Saint Petersburg International Economic Forum."
||Type of Literature
||Type of Literature
|The Satanic Verses
||Banned in the following countries for alleged blasphemy against Islam: Bangladesh, Egypt, India, Iran, Kenya, Kuwait, Liberia, Papua New Guinea, Pakistan, Senegal, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, and Thailand.
|Snorri the Seal
||Satirical book banned during the German occupation of Norway.
|Soft Target: How the Indian Intelligence Service Penetrated Canada
||Zuhair Kashmeri & Brian McAndrew
||Banned in India.
|The Song of the Red Ruby
||Banned in Norway in 1957 for its explicit sexual content. The ban was lifted by the Supreme Court in 1958.
||Banned frequently in the U.S.A following the Island Trees School District v. Pico case. It remains banned from school libraries and is the 76th entry in the American Library Association's "100 Most Frequently Challenged Books By Decade".
|Smash and Grab: Annexation of Sikkim
||Banned in India by government-sponsored legal harassment and unavailable for sale anywhere in the world. Describes the process of the annexation of the independent Buddhist kingdom of Sikkim by the Indian government of Indira Gandhi in 1975.
||Banned in the U.K 1985-1988 for revealing secrets. Wright was a former MI5 intelligence officer and his book was banned before it was even published in 1987.
||Withdrawn from print in Yugoslavia in 1964 because it contained stories by DragiÅ¡a Vasiä.
|Suicide mode d'emploi
||This book, reviewing recipes for committing suicide, was the cause of a scandal in France in the 1980s, resulting in the enactment of a law prohibiting provocation to commit suicide and propaganda or advertisement of products, objects or methods for committing suicide. Subsequent reprints were thus illegal. The book was cited by name in the debates of the French National Assembly when examining the bill.
||Type of Literature
|The True Furqan
||"Al Saffee" and "Al Mahdee"
||Import into India prohibited on the grounds of threatening national security.
|Tropic of Cancer
||Novel (fictionalized memoir)
||Banned in the U.S.A in the 1930s until the early 1960s, seized by US Customs for sexually explicit content and vulgarity. The rest of Miller's work was also banned by the United States. Also banned in South Africa until the late 1980s.
|The Turner Diaries
||William Luther Pierce
||Banned in Germany for its Nazi ideology theme and Pierce leadership in the National Alliance. Blamed for a number of crimes allegedly inspired by the novel.
||Type of Literature
||"Denounced by the Communists and Nationalists alike, Mr. Shen saw his writings banned in Taiwan, while mainland [China] publishing houses burned his books and destroyed printing plates for his novels. .... So successful was the effort to erase Mr. Shen's name from the modern literary record that few younger Chinese today recognize his name, much less the breadth of his work. Only since 1978 has the Chinese Government reissued selections of his writings, although in editions of only a few thousand copies. .... In China, his passing was unreported."
||Type of Literature
|Year 501: The Conquest Continues
||Banned for distribution in South Korean military as one of 23 books banned on Aug 1st 2008.
 See also
 Further reading
- Banned Books, 4 volumes, Facts on File Library of World Literature, 2006.
- ^ A.H. McLintock, An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand: Censorship of Books
- ^ Skold, Walter. "Ray Bradbury Condemns Cuban Book Burning; 'Fahrenheit 451' Author Takes Stance While U.S. Librarians Ignore Counterparts". WorldNetDaily. http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=45050. Retrieved 10 Jan 2009. "Among some of the many thousands of materials burned or destroyed by the Cuban Department of Interior were books on the United States Constitution, Martin Luther King, Jr., journalism manuals, a book called 'Fidel's Secret Wars,' and in one case, even a book by Jos Mart, the Cuban hero of independence beloved by most Cubans and often quoted by Castro."
- ^ "Index Librorum Prohibitorum". Encyclopedia Britannica Online.
- ^ a b Arsiä Ivkov, Marinko (2002-06-23). "Kriviäna estetika (32)" (in Serbian). Dnevnik (Novi Sad). http://www.dnevnik.rs/arhiva/23-06-2002/Strane/feljton.htm. Retrieved April 25, 2009.
- ^ http://www.stltoday.com/news/state-and-regional/missouri/article_3faa21e8-17bd-5743-8104-24b587cd4405.html
- ^ Al-Ahram Weekly | Culture | Off the shelf - and then where?. Weekly.ahram.org.eg (2001-02-07). Retrieved on 2010-05-09.
- ^ "Book fair opens amid controversy". BBC News. 25 January 2001. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/1135908.stm. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
- ^ "Cairo book protesters released". BBC News. 12 May 2000. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/746766.stm. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
- ^ Frequently Asked Questions - Lenny's Alice in Wonderland site. Alice-in-wonderland.net. Retrieved on 2010-05-09.
- ^ a b Grannis, Chandler B.; Haight, Anne (Lyon) (1978). Banned books, 387 B. C. to 1978 A. D. New York: R. R. Bowker. p. 80. ISBN 0-8352-1078-2.
- ^ http://www.oflc.gov.au/www/cob/find.nsf/d853f429dd038ae1ca25759b0003557c/2023ef4569c5697eca2576710078a49f!OpenDocument
- ^ Sajjad Zahir: The Voice of the Common Man. Chowk (2005-12-27). Retrieved on 2010-05-09.
- ^ Rodden, John (Winter2003). "Appreciating Animal Farm in the New Millennium". Modern Age 45 (1): 10. ISSN 00267457.
- ^ a b c d e f Karolides, Nicholas J. (c2006). Banned Books : Literature Suppressed on Political Grounds. New York, NY: Facts on File, Inc.. ISBN 0816062706.
- ^ Karolides et al., p. 16-20
- ^ a b c Military expands book blacklist
- ^ China Free Press Lung Ying-tai becomes an internet pariah in China. Chinafreepress.org (2009-09-18). Retrieved on 2010-05-09.
- ^ Brendan Behan, Irish writer and playwright, Borstal Boy. FileRoom.org. Retrieved on 2010-05-09.
- ^ Sova, Dawn B. (c2006). Banned Books : Literature Suppressed on Social Grounds. New York, NY: Facts on File. ISBN 0816062714.
- ^ a b "Banned Books Online". http://onlinebooks.library.upenn.edu/banned-books.html.
- ^ a b c d e f g Arsiä Ivkov, Marinko (2002-06-24). "Kriviäna estetika (33)" (in Serbian). Dnevnik (Novi Sad). http://www.dnevnik.rs/arhiva/24-06-2002/Strane/feljton.htm. Retrieved April 25, 2009.
- ^ "Da Vinci Code banned in Lebanon". BBC News. 16 September 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/3663344.stm. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
- ^ Assassination of Federico Garcia Lorca: Gibson, Ian - AbeBooks - 9780140064735: Courtyard Books BA. AbeBooks. Retrieved on 2010-05-09.
- ^ Church of Scientology blasts Russian government for ban on L. Ron Hubbard writings - Yahoo! News. News.yahoo.com (2010-04-22). Retrieved on 2010-05-09.
- ^ Marling, William. (2009-05-01) Why Jane Fonda Is Banned in Beirut - WSJ.com. Online.wsj.com. Retrieved on 2010-05-09.
- ^ Joanne Laurier (21 January 2006). "Not so much fun for Dick and Jane". http://www.wsws.org/articles/2006/jan2006/dick-j21.shtml.
- ^ Karolides et al., p. 40-45
- ^ CBC's The Current the whole show blow by blow.
- ^ a b Sova, Dawn B. (c2006). Banned Books : Literature Suppressed on Sexual Grounds. New York, NY: Facts on File. ISBN 0816062722.
- ^ "àààààààààààžààààààààààžàà¡àžà ààà à/àààà àààààà à«ààà¡àààààà à«ààààààààààààààà«àààààààààžàà¡àžà" (in Thai). Royal Gazette 123 (Special 23 à): 31. June 27, 2006. http://www.ratchakitcha.soc.go.th/DATA/PDF/2549/E/073/31.PDF.
- ^ Karolides et al., p. 45-50
- ^ See also footnote 1, United States v. Schiff, 2008-1 U.S. Tax Cas. (CCH) paragr. 50,111 (9th Cir. 2007), citing United States v. Schiff, 379 F.3d 621, 630 (9th Cir. 2004), regarding the Court's finding that the book The Federal Mafia: How the Government Illegally Imposes and Unlawfully Collects Income Taxes constituted "fraudulent commercial speech."
- ^ http://miasta.gazeta.pl/opole/1,35086,2062655.html, http://www.nto.pl/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20040508/REGION/105080095, Glosariusz idzie na przemiaÅ. 2004. Nowa Trybuna Opolska, May 14
- ^ "Top 10 "Obscene" Literary Classics". http://civilliberty.about.com/od/freespeech/tp/obscenenovels.htm.
- ^ Karolides et al., p 57-71
- ^ Karolides et al., p 71-78
- ^ Associated Press (10 September 2009). "Russia makes Gulag history". The Boston Globe (Massachusetts). http://www.boston.com/news/world/europe/articles/2009/09/10/russia_makes_gulag_history_required_reading/. Retrieved 14 November 2009.
- ^ http://www.oflc.gov.au/www/cob/find.nsf/d853f429dd038ae1ca25759b0003557c/507ee7fcca76c71fca257671007b1e78!OpenDocument
- ^ a b http://www.oflc.gov.au/www/cob/rwpattach.nsf/VAP/(084A3429FD57AC0744737F8EA134BACB)~989+-+Decision+7+February+2007+-+The+Peaceful+Pill+Handbook.pdf/$file/989+-+Decision+7+February+2007+-+The+Peaceful+Pill+Handbook.pdf
- ^ Morgan, Bill; Nancy Joyce Peters (2006). Howl on trial: the battle for free expression. San Francisco: City Lights Books. pp. 2–3. ISBN 9780872864795. http://books.google.com/books?id=NXBfQdfp4CIC&pg=PA2#v=onepage&q=&f=false.
- ^ Book on Islam banned, author's house raided in Mumbai - Attacks | hindujagruti.org. Google.com. Retrieved on 2010-05-09.
- ^ http://bombayhighcourt.nic.in/data/judgements/2010/CRAPPLN142107.pdf
- ^ "Nadine Gordimer". South African History Online. http://www.sahistory.org.za/pages/people/bios/gordimer-n.htm. Retrieved 16 November 2009.
- ^ [|South African Government Online] (19 April 2001). "Asmal comments on Gauteng matriculation set works". Speeches and Statements. Ministry of Education. http://www.info.gov.za/speeches/2001/010420945a1006.htm. Retrieved 16 November 2009.
- ^ "India state bans book on Jinnah". BBC. 20 August 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/8211038.stm. Retrieved 2009-08-20.
- ^ Jaswant's book reaches stores in Gujarat after court order. Ndtv.com. Retrieved on 2010-05-09.
- ^ . Pakistaniat. 22 August 2009. http://pakistaniat.com/2007/09/11/wolperts-jinnah/. Retrieved 2009-08-22.
- ^ Collins, Nick (23 September 2009). "Special forces soldier's book causes storm in Denmark". London: Telegraph.co.uk. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/expat/6221728/Special-forces-soldiers-book-causes-storm-in-Denmark.html. Retrieved 2009-09-24.
- ^ Warrick-Alexander, James (February 6, 2006). Thailand Bars Univ. Website. Yale Daily News.
- ^ Cleland, John; Rembar, Charles; Miller, Henry (1986). The end of obscenity: the trials of Lady Chatterley, Tropic of cancer, and Fanny Hill. San Francisco: Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-097061-8.
- ^ Bangladesh Seeks Writer, Charging She Insults Islam New York Times, June 8, 1994.
- ^ Book Review New York Times, August 28, 1994.
- ^ "Banned Books". undated. http://www.sanftleben.com/Banned%20Books/collection7.html. Retrieved 2008-09-06.
- ^ "Banned Books". Time. 29 September 2008. http://www.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,1842832_1842838_1845288,00.html. Retrieved 8 May 2010.
- ^ Hyman, Stanley Edgar. "Introduction," Just an Ordinary Day. Bantam, 1995.
- ^ Madame Bovary - Gustave Flaubert. Classiclit.about.com (2009-10-19). Retrieved on 2010-05-09.
- ^ The Metamorphosis (Critical Overview): Information from. Answers.com. Retrieved on 2010-05-09.
- ^ Ringelblum, Emanuel; Joseph Kermish, Shmuel Krakowski. Polish-Jewish Relations During the Second World War. Northwestern University Press. p. 190. ISBN 0810109638.
- ^ "New World Order's Inquisition in Bosnia". http://www.truthinmedia.org/TruthinMedia/Bulletins/tim98-7-1.html.
- ^ http://www.iht.com/articles/2006/03/01/features/beats.php
- ^ Rodden, John (2002). George Orwell: the politics of literary reputation. Transaction. pp. 200–211. ISBN 9780765808967. http://books.google.com/books?id=zsXsBxHgC4kC&pg=PA200.
- ^ Notre ami le roi par Gilles Perrault
- ^ Andor Csizmadia, Adam Franz Koll¡r und die ungarische rechtshistorische Forschung. 1982.
- ^ Ferris, Geoff (February 2002). "One Day of Life". Western Michigan University. http://www.wmich.edu/dialogues/texts/onedayoflife.html. Retrieved December 12, 2008.
- ^ Office of Film & Literature Classification - "The Peaceful Pill Handbook banned"
- ^ http://www.oflc.gov.au/www/cob/find.nsf/d853f429dd038ae1ca25759b0003557c/0805c534c8c481d7ca257671007b2ee0!OpenDocument
- ^ Office of Film & Literature Classification
- ^ http://www.oflc.gov.au/www/cob/find.nsf/d853f429dd038ae1ca25759b0003557c/b1721daed0983d5eca2576710079a73b!OpenDocument
- ^ "Police Seize 100,000 Anti-Vladimir Putin Books". The Telegraph (UK). 16 June 2010. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/russia/7833181/Police-seize-100000-anti-Vladimir-Putin-books.html. Retrieved 16 June 2010.
- ^ Self and Sovereignty: Individual and Community in South Asian Islam Since 1850 by Ayesha Jalal
- ^ Banned, Burned, Censored list. Listal.com. Retrieved on 2010-05-09.
- ^ "Singapore will not Allow Publication of Prophet Cartoons". Bloomberg.com. 2006-02-10. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=10000080&sid=a0i6xbGIysFQ&refer=asia. Retrieved 2007-06-14.
- ^ Bald, Margaret (c2006). Banned Books : Literature Suppressed on Religious Grounds. New York, NY: Facts on File. pp. 291–300. ISBN 0816062692.
- ^ Skarstein, Jakob. "Frithjof Slen". in Helle, Knut (in Norwegian). Norsk biografisk leksikon. Oslo: Kunnskapsforlaget. http://www.snl.no/.nbl_biografi/Frithjof_S%C3%A6len/utdypning. Retrieved 4 July 2009.
- ^ "Amazon Soft Target Book listing". http://www.amazon.com/Soft-Target-Intelligence-Service-Penetrated/dp/1550289047. Retrieved 2007-12-19.
- ^ "100 Most Frequently Challenged Books". American Library Association. http://www.ala.org/ala/issuesadvocacy/banned/frequentlychallenged/challengedbydecade/index.cfm. Retrieved 2010-08-04.
- ^ Zuckerman, Laurence (1987-08-17). "How Not to Silence a Spy". Time (Time Warner). http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,965233,00.html. Retrieved 2008-01-20.
- ^ 1987: Ban lifted on MI5 man's memoirs
- ^ Loi n–87-1133 du 31 dcembre 1987 tendant rprimer la provocation au suicide
- ^ [Proceedings http://archives.assemblee-nationale.fr/8/cri/1987-1988-ordinaire1/120.pdf] of the French National Assembly, 14 December 1987, first sitting
- ^ "Edict Against Arius". 333. http://faculty.wlc.edu/thompson/fourth-century/urkunden/trans33.htm.
- ^ Notification No. 78 /2005-Customs (N.T.)
- ^ From Henry Miller to Howard Stern, by Patti Davis, Newsweek, March, 2004
- ^ "'Turner Diaries' introduced in McVeigh trial". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/US/9704/28/okc/. Retrieved 8 May 2010.
- ^ Hubbard, Melissa A.. "Monday's Banned Book Spotlight: The Store Behind Banning Ulysses". Southern Illinois University School of Law Library. http://www.law.siu.edu/lawlib/Banned%20Books/ULY.asp. Retrieved 14 November 2009.
- ^ Freedom of expression - Secular Theocracy Versus Liberal Democracy (1998, edited by Sita Ram Goel) ISBN 81-85990-55-7
- ^ Prados, John; Meadows, Eddie; Burr, William; Evans, Michael (5 June 2001). "The Pentagon Papers: Secrets, Lies, and Audiotapes". The National Security Archive. The George Washington University. http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB48/. Retrieved 17 November 2009.
- ^ Gargan, Edward A. (13 May 1988). "Shen Congwen, 85, a Champion of Freedom for Writers in China". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1988/05/13/obituaries/shen-congwen-85-a-champion-of-freedom-for-writers-in-china.html. Retrieved 12 September 2009.
- ^ Smith, David (2005-01-02). "Lesbian novel was 'danger to nation'". The Observer (London). http://observer.guardian.co.uk/uk_news/story/0,,1382051,00.html. Retrieved 2006-10-09.
- ^ Bald, Margaret (c2006). Banned Books : Literature Suppressed on cultural grounds. New York, NY: Facts on File. pp. 354–358. ISBN 0816062692.
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