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The Internationale

The Internationale
L'Internationale.jpg
L'Internationale in the original French.
International anthem of International Social Democratic Movement
International Socialist Movement
International Anarchist Movement
International Communist Movement
International Democratic Movement
Also known as L'Internationale (French)
Lyrics Eugène Pottier, 1871
Music Pierre De Geyter, 1888
Adopted 1890s
Music sample

The Internationale (L'Internationale in French) is a famous socialist, communist, social-democratic and anarchist anthem.

The Internationale became the anthem of international socialism. Its original French refrain is C'est la lutte finale / Groupons-nous et demain / L'Internationale / Sera le genre humain. (Freely translated: "This is the final struggle / Let us group together and tomorrow / The Internationale / Will be the human race.") The Internationale has been translated into many of the world's languages. It is sung traditionally with the hand raised in a clenched fist salute. The Internationale is sung not only by socialists but also (in many countries) by communists or social democrats, as well as anarchists.

From 1922 to 1944, The Internationale was the de facto national anthem of the Soviet Union.

Contents

[edit] Original French lyrics and copyright

The original French words were written in June 1871 by Eugène Pottier (1816â1887, previously a member of the Paris Commune)[1] and were originally intended to be sung to the tune of La Marseillaise.[2] Pierre De Geyter (1848â1932) set the poem to music in 1888.[3] His melody was first publicly performed in July 1888[4] and became widely used soon after.

In an unsuccessful attempt to save Pierre De Geyter's job as a woodcarver, the 6,000 leaflets printed by Lille printer Bolboduc only mentioned the French version of his family name (Degeyter). In 1904, Pierre's brother Adolphe was induced by the Lille mayor Gustave Delory to claim copyright, so that the income of the song would continue to go to Delory's French Socialist Party. Pierre De Geyter lost the first copyright case in 1914, but after his brother committed suicide and left a note explaining the fraud, Pierre was declared the copyright owner by a court of appeal in 1922.[5]

Pierre De Geyter died in 1932. His music of the Internationale is copyrighted in France until October 2017. The duration of copyright in France is 70 years following the end of the year when the author died, plus (for musical works) 6 years and 152 days to compensate for World War I, and 8 years and 120 days to compensate for World War II respectively.[6] In 2005, Le Chant du Monde, the corporation administering the authors' rights, asked Pierre Merejkowsky, the film director and an actor of Insurrection / résurrection, to pay â1,000 for whistling the song for seven seconds.[7]

However, as the Internationale music was published before 1 July 1909 outside the United States of America, it is in the public domain in the USA.[8] Pierre De Geyter's music is also in the public domain in countries and areas whose copyright durations are authors' lifetime plus 75 years or less. As Eugène Pottier died in 1887, his original French lyrics are in the public domain. Gustave Delory once acquired the copyright of his lyrics through the songwriter G B Clement having bought it from Pottier's widow.[9]

French lyrics Literal English translation
First stanza

Debout, les damnés de la terre
Debout, les forçats de la faim
La raison tonne en son cratère
C'est l'éruption de la fin
Du passé faisons table rase
Foule esclave, debout, debout
Le monde va changer de base
Nous ne sommes rien, soyons tout
 |: C'est la lutte finale
  Groupons-nous, et demain
  L'Internationale
  Sera le genre humain :|

Get up, damned of the earth
Get up, slaves of the hunger
Reason thunders in its crater
This is the eruption of the end
Of the past let us make a clean swipe
Enslaved masses, get up, get up
The world is about to change its foundation
We are nothing, let us be all
 |: This is the final struggle
  Let us group together, and tomorrow
  The International
  Will be the mankind :|

Second stanza

Il n'est pas de sauveur suprême
Ni Dieu, ni César, ni tribun
Producteurs, sauvons-nous nous-mêmes
Décrétons le salut commun
Pour que le voleur rende gorge
Pour tirer l'esprit du cachot
Soufflons nous-mêmes notre forge
Battons le fer quand il est chaud
 |: C'est la lutte finale
  Groupons-nous, et demain
  L'Internationale
  Sera le genre humain :|

There are no supreme saviour
Neither God, nor Caesar, nor tribune.
Producers, save us by ourselves
Declare the mutual salvation
So that the thief expires,
So that the spirit be got out of its cell,
Let us blow our forge ourselves
Strike the iron while it is hot
 |: This is the final struggle
  Let us group together, and tomorrow
  The International
  Will be the mankind :|

Third stanza

L'État comprime et la loi triche
L'impôt saigne le malheureux
Nul devoir ne s'impose au riche
Le droit du pauvre est un mot creux
C'est assez, languir en tutelle
L'égalité veut d'autres lois
Pas de droits sans devoirs dit-elle
Égaux, pas de devoirs sans droits
 |: C'est la lutte finale
  Groupons-nous, et demain
  L'Internationale
  Sera le genre humain :|

The State squeezes and the law cheats
The tax bleeds the poor dry
No duty is imposed on the rich
The right of the poor is an empty word
Enough languishing in guardianship
Equality wants other laws:
No rights without duties, it says,
Equals, no duties without rights
 |: This is the final struggle
  Let us group together, and tomorrow
  The International
  Will be the mankind :|

Fourth stanza

Hideux dans leur apothéose
Les rois de la mine et du rail
Ont-ils jamais fait autre chose
Que dévaliser le travail ?
Dans les coffres-forts de la bande
Ce qu'il a créé s'est fondu
En décrétant qu'on le lui rende
Le peuple ne veut que son d».
 |: C'est la lutte finale
  Groupons-nous, et demain
  L'Internationale
  Sera le genre humain :|

Hideous in their apotheosis
The kings of the mine and of the railtrack
Have they ever done anything other
Than steal work?
Into the safeboxes of the gang,
What work had created melted down.
By ordering to give it back
The people wants no more than its due.
 |: This is the final struggle
  Let us group together, and tomorrow
  The International
  Will be the mankind :|

Fifth stanza

Les rois nous saoulaient de fumées
Paix entre nous, guerre aux tyrans
Appliquons la grève aux armées
Crosse en l'air, et rompons les rangs
S'ils s'obstinent, ces cannibales
À faire de nous des héros
Ils sauront bientôt que nos balles
Sont pour nos propres généraux
 |: C'est la lutte finale
  Groupons-nous, et demain
  L'Internationale
  Sera le genre humain :|

The kings made us drunk with fumes,
Peace among us, war to the tyrants!
Let the armies go on strike,
Gun butts up, and let us break the rows
If these cannibals are stubborn
On making heroes of us,
They will learn soon that our bullets
Are for our own generals
 |: This is the final struggle
  Let us group together, and tomorrow
  The International
  Will be the mankind :|

Sixth stanza

Ouvriers, paysans, nous sommes
Le grand parti des travailleurs
La terre n'appartient qu'aux hommes
L'oisif ira loger ailleurs
Combien de nos chairs se repaissent
Mais si les corbeaux, les vautours
Un de ces matins disparaissent
Le soleil brillera toujours.
 |: C'est la lutte finale
  Groupons-nous, et demain
  L'Internationale
  Sera le genre humain :|

Workers, peasants, we are
The great party of the labourers
The earth belongs only to men
The idler will go to reside elsewhere
How many get fed of our flesh,
But if the ravens and the vultures
Could disappear one of these days
The sun will shine forever
 |: This is the final struggle
  Let us group together, and tomorrow
  The International
  Will be the mankind :|

[edit] Translations into other languages

The Internationale in Chinese (simplified Chinese: ÅÉÆ; traditional Chinese: ÅÉšÆ; pinyin: Guójìgä), literally the International Song, has several different sets of lyrics. One such version served as the de facto anthem of the Communist Party of China,[10] the national anthem of the Chinese Soviet Republic[11], as well as a rallying song of the students and workers at the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989.[12] Versions of the song in Indian languages, particularly Bengali and Malayalam, have existed since the 1950s since the translation of the song for the people of the Indian state of Kerala by actor and social activist Premji for the united Communist Party of India (CPI). In the 1980s, more translations appeared, done by Sachidanandan, Mokeri Ramachandran and an unknown translator. The first two were sung by the activists of Janakeeya Samskarikavedi, an organisation connected with CPI(Marxist-Leninist) (CPI(ML), and the third one was for the activists of Students Federation of India (SFI), the student organisation associated with CPI(Marxist) (CPI(M).

[edit] Russian lyrics

Инñеñнаñиона»
English: The Internationale
Internatsional
anthem of  Russian SFSR
 Soviet Union
Lyrics Arkady Yakovlevich Kots, 1902
Music Pierre De Geyter, 1888
Adopted 1918 (as anthem of Russian SFSR)
1922 (as anthem of Soviet Union)
Until 1944
Music sample

The Russian version was initially translated by Aron Kots (Arkady Yakovlevich Kots) in 1902 and printed in London in Zhizn, a Russian émigré magazine. The first Russian version consisted of three stanzas (as opposed to six stanzas in the original French lyrics, and based on stanzas 1, 2 and 6) and the refrain. After the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, the text was slightly re-worded to get rid of "now useless" future tenses - particularly the refrain was reworded (the future tense was replaced by the present, and the first person plural possessive pronoun was introduced). In 1918, the chief-editor of Izvestia, Yuri Steklov, appealed to Russian writers to translate the other three stanzas and in the end, the song was expanded into six stanzas.[13] In 1944, the Soviet Union adopted the Hymn of the Soviet Union as its national anthem. Prior to that time, the Internationale served as the principal musical expression of allegiance to the ideals of the October Revolution and the Soviet Union. (The Internationale continued to be recognized as the official song of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, and the post-1919 Soviet version is still used by the Communist Party of the Russian Federation.) The three stanzas by Kots were as follows:

Russian translation Latin alphabet transliteration Literal English translation
First stanza

Вññавай, ¿ñок»ñññем зак»еймñннñй,
Веññ миñ го»однññ и ñабов!
šи¿иñ наñ ñазñм возмñññннñй
И в ñмеññнñй бой веññи гоñов.
Веññ миñ наñи»ññ мñ ñазñññим
До оñнованññ, а заñем
Мñ наñ, мñ новñй миñ ¿оñññоим, â
šñо бñ» ниñем, ñоñ ññанеñ вñем.

Пñи¿ев:

 |: Эñо еñññ наñ ¿оñ»едний
  И ñеñиñе»ñнñй бой.
  ¡ Инñеñнаñиона»ом
  Воñ¿ññнеñ ñод »ñŽдñкой! :|


Vstavay, proklyat'yem zakleymyonniy
Ves' mir golodnykh i rabov
Kipit nash razum vozmushchonniy
I v smertniy boy vesti gotov.
Ves' mir nasil'ya my razrushim
Do osnovan'ya, a zatem
My nash my noviy mir postroim,
Kto byl nichem, tot stanet vsem!

Pripev:

 |: Èto yest' nash posledniy
  I reshitel'niy boy.
  S Internatsionalom
  Vospryanet rod lyudskoy. :|

Get up, you who are branded by a curse,
You, the world's starving and enslaved!
Our outraged minds are boiling,
Ready to lead us into a deadly fight.
We will destroy this world of violence
Down to the foundations, and then
We will build our new world.
He who was nothing will become everything!


CHORUS:  |: This will be the final
   and decisive battle.
   With the International
   the mankind will get up. :|

Second stanza

Никñо не даññ нам избав»енññ:
Ни бог, ни ñаññ и ни геñой!
Добññмññ мñ оñвобожденññ
¡воеñŽ ñобññвенной ññкой.
Чñоб ñвеñгнñññ гнññ ññкой ñме»ой,
žñвоеваññ ñвоñ добñо, â
Вздñвайñе гоñн и кñйñе ñме»о,
Пока же»езо гоñññо!
 |: Эñо еñññ наñ ¿оñ»едний
  И ñеñиñе»ñнñй бой.
  ¡ Инñеñнаñиона»ом
  Воñ¿ññнеñ ñод »ñŽдñкой! :|

Nikto ne dast nam izbavlen'ya
Ni bog, ni tsar' i ni geroy
Dob'yomsya my osvobozhden'ya
Svoyeyu sobstvennoy rukoy.
Chtob svergnut' gnyot rukoy umeloy,
Otvoyevat' svoyo dobro â
Vzduvayte gorn i kuyte smelo,
Poka zhelezo goryacho!
 |: Èto yest' nash posledniy
  I reshitel'niy boy.
  S Internatsionalom
  Vospryanet rod lyudskoy. :|

No one will grant us deliverance,
Not god, nor tsar, nor hero.
We will win our liberation,
With our very own hands.
To throw down oppression with a skilled hand,
To take back what is ours â
Fire up the furnace and hammer boldly,
while the iron is still hot!
 |: This will be the final
   and decisive battle.
   With the International
   the mankind will get up. :|

Third stanza

Лиññ мñ, ñабоñники вñемиñной
Ве»икой аñмии ñññда,
В»адеññ зем»ñй имеем ¿ñаво,
Но ¿аñазиññ â никогда!
И еñ»и гñом ве»икий гññнеñ
Над ñвоñой ¿ñов и ¿а»аñей, â
Д»ñ наñ вññ ñак же ñо»нñе ññанеñ
¡иñññ огнñм ñвоиñ »ññей.
 |: Эñо еñññ наñ ¿оñ»едний
  И ñеñиñе»ñнñй бой.
  ¡ Инñеñнаñиона»ом
  Воñ¿ññнеñ ñод »ñŽдñкой! :|

Lish' my, rabotniki vsemirnoy
Velikoy armii truda,
Vladet' zemlyoy imeyem pravo,
No parazity â nikogda!
I yesli grom velikiy gryanet
Nad svoroy psov i palachey, â
Dlya nas vsyo tak zhe solnitse stanet
Siyat' ognyom svoikh luchey.
 |: Èto yest' nash posledniy
  I reshitel'niy boy.
  S Internatsionalom
  Vospryanet rod lyudskoy. :|

Only we, the workers of the worldwide
Great army of labour,
Have the right to own the land,
But the parasites - never!
And if the great thunder rolls
Over the pack of dogs and executioners,
For us, the sun will forever
Shine on with its fiery rays.
 |: This will be the final
   and decisive battle.
   With the International
   the mankind will get up. :|

[edit] English lyrics

The traditional British version of The Internationale is usually sung in three verses, while the American version, authored by Charles Hope Kerr with five verses, is usually sung in two.[14][15] The American version is sometimes sung with the phrase "the internationale", "the international soviet", or "the international union" in place of "the international working class". In English, the traditional workers' pronunciation is not an imitation of the French [lÉÌtÉÊnasjÉnal(É)], but rather /ÉntÉrnæÊÉˈnæli/, rhyming with "valley".

The English versions are known to be notoriously difficult to sing, as the lyrics may appear sometimes forced and unnatural. British musician Billy Bragg, after talking to the American folk singer and activist Pete Seeger, agreed that the old lyrics were "archaic and unsingable". Bragg composed revised verses for the song, based on the British version. The recording was released on his album The Internationale along with reworkings of other socialist songs. A full, six-stanza translation can be found on the Wikisource page on The Internationale.

British Isles Translation Billy Bragg's Revision[16] American version
First stanza

Arise, ye workers from your slumber,
Arise, ye prisoners of want.
For reason in revolt now thunders,
and at last ends the age of cant!
Away with all your superstitions,
Servile masses, arise, arise!
We'll change henceforth the old tradition,
And spurn the dust to win the prize!
  So comrades, come rally,
  And the last fight let us face.
  The Internationale,
  Unites the human race.
  So comrades, come rally,
  And the last fight let us face.
  The Internationale,
  Unites the human race.

Stand up, all victims of oppression,
For the tyrants fear your might!
Don't cling so hard to your possessions,
For you have nothing if you have no rights!
Let racist ignorance be ended,
For respect makes the empires fall!
Freedom is merely privilege extended,
Unless enjoyed by one and all.
  So come brothers and sisters,
  For the struggle carries on.
  The Internationale,
  Unites the world in song.
  So comrades, come rally,
  For this is the time and place!
  The international ideal,
  Unites the human race.

Arise, you prisoners of starvation!
Arise, you wretched of the earth!
For justice thunders condemnation:
A better world's in birth!
No more tradition's chains shall bind us,
Arise you slaves, no more in thrall!
The earth shall rise on new foundations:
We have been nought, we shall be all!
  'Tis the final conflict,
  Let each stand in his place.
  The international soviet
  Shall be the human race
  'Tis the final conflict,
  Let each stand in his place.
  The international working class
  Shall be the human race

Second stanza

No more deluded by reaction,
On tyrants only we'll make war!
The soldiers too will take strike action,
They'll break ranks and fight no more!
And if those cannibals keep trying,
To sacrifice us to their pride,
They soon shall hear the bullets flying,
We'll shoot the generals on our own side.
  So comrades, come rally,
  And the last fight let us face.
  The Internationale,
  Unites the human race.
  So comrades, come rally,
  And the last fight let us face.
  The Internationale,
  Unites the human race.

Let no one build walls to divide us,
Walls of hatred nor walls of stone.
Come greet the dawn and stand beside us,
We'll live together or we'll die alone.
In our world poisoned by exploitation,
Those who have taken, now they must give!
And end the vanity of nations,
We've but one Earth on which to live.
  So come brothers and sisters,
  For the struggle carries on.
  The Internationale,
  Unites the world in song.
  So comrades, come rally,
  For this is the time and place!
  The international ideal,
  Unites the human race.

We want no condescending saviors
To rule us from their judgment hall,
We workers ask not for their favors
Let us consult for all:
To make the thief disgorge his booty
To free the spirit from its cell,
We must ourselves decide our duty,
We must decide, and do it well.
  'Tis the final conflict,
  Let each stand in his place.
  The international soviet
  Shall be the human race
  'Tis the final conflict,
  Let each stand in his place.
  The international working class
  Shall be the human race

Third stanza

No saviour from on high delivers,
No faith have we in prince or peer.
Our own right hand the chains must shiver,
Chains of hatred, greed and fear.
E'er the thieves will out with their booty,
And to all give a happier lot.
Each at his forge must do their duty,
And we'll strike the iron while it's hot.
  So comrades, come rally,
  And the last fight let us face.
  The Internationale,
  Unites the human race.
  So comrades, come rally,
  And the last fight let us face.
  The Internationale,
  Unites the human race.

And so begins the final drama,
In the streets and in the fields.
We stand unbowed before their armour,
We defy their guns and shields!
When we fight, provoked by their aggression,
Let us be inspired by life and love.
For though they offer us concessions,
Change will not come from above!
  So come brothers and sisters,
  For the struggle carries on.
  The Internationale,
  Unites the world in song.
  So comrades, come rally,
  For this is the time and place!
  The Internationale,
  Unites the human race.


[edit] Instrumental recordings

[edit] Popular culture

The Internationale has also featured in numerous examples of popular culture:

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ The Guardian, Australia. "The International". pp. first paragraph. http://www.geocities.com/capitolhill/7078/inter.txt. [dead link]
  2. ^ David Walls, Sonoma State University. "Billy Bragg's Revival of Aging Anthems: Radical Nostalgia or Activist Inspiration?". http://www.sonoma.edu/users/w/wallsd/smm-aging-anthems.shtml#_ednref15. 
  3. ^ The Guardian, Australia. "The International". pp. ninth paragraph. http://www.geocities.com/capitolhill/7078/inter.txt. [dead link]
  4. ^ The Guardian, Australia. "The International". pp. 11th paragraph. http://www.geocities.com/capitolhill/7078/inter.txt. [dead link]
  5. ^ The Guardian, Australia. "The International". http://www.geocities.com/capitolhill/7078/inter.txt. [dead link]
  6. ^ Arts. L123-1, L123-8, and L123-9 in Chapter III of Title II of Book I of the Intellectual Property Code of France and its French version; see fr:Prorogations de guerre#Exception for commentary.
  7. ^ (French) Le Monde and Zalea TV.
  8. ^ Peter B. Hirtle. "Copyright Term and the Public Domain in the United States". http://www.copyright.cornell.edu/training/Hirtle_Public_Domain.htm. 
  9. ^ The Guardian, Australia. "The International". pp. 16th paragraph. http://www.geocities.com/capitolhill/7078/inter.txt. [dead link]
  10. ^ (Chinese) Xinhua Net: http://news.xinhuanet.com/politics/2008-01/28/content_7511238.htm
  11. ^ (Chinese) People's Daily: History of Chinese national anthems in a hundred years
  12. ^ Modern History Sourcebook: The Internationale
  13. ^ A.V. Lunacharskiy(ed). "The International (in Russian)". Fundamental'naya Elektronnaya Biblioteka. http://feb-web.ru/feb/litenc/encyclop/le4/le4-5401.htm. 
  14. ^ David Walls, Sonoma State University. "Billy Bragg's Revival of Aging Anthems: Radical Nostalgia or Activist Inspiration?". http://www.sonoma.edu/users/w/wallsd/smm-aging-anthems.shtml#_ednref20. 
  15. ^ The Internationale in 82 languages
  16. ^ Billy Bragg: Albums: The Internationale.

[edit] External links




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