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Olaudah Equiano

Olaudah Equiano (Olauda Ikwuano)
Born c. 1745
Essaka, Benin Empire
Died 31 March 1797 (1797-04-01) (aged 52)[1]
York PA
Other names Gustavus Vassa, Graves
Ethnicity Eboe
Occupation explorer, writer
Known for Influence over British abolitionists; autobiography
Spouse(s) Susannah Cullen
Children Joanna Vassa and Anna Maria Vassa

Olaudah Equiano [2](c. 1745 â 31 March 1797),[1] also known as Gustavus Vassa, was one of the most prominent Africans involved in the British movement of the abolition for the slave trade. His autobiography depicted the horrors of slavery and helped influence British lawmakers to abolish the slave trade through the Slave Trade Act of 1807. Despite his enslavement as a young man, he purchased his freedom and worked as an author, merchant and explorer in South America, the Caribbean, the Arctic, the American colonies and the United Kingdom.

Contents

[edit] Early life

Olaudah Equiano was born in Essaka, an Igbo village in the kingdom of Benin, in 1745. At the age of ten, he was kidnapped with a younger sister by kinsmen and forced into domestic slavery in another native village. The region had a chieftain hierarchy tied to slavery. Until then Equiano had never seen a European white man.[3][4] Equiano lived with five brothers and a sister, and was part of a large family before he and his sister were kidnapped. He was the youngest son with one younger sister.

[edit] Enslavement

When their parents were out, Equiano and his sister were stolen by African kinsmen and sold to native slaveholders. Equiano was sold again, to white European slave traders. After changing hands a few times, Equiano was transported with other enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to the English colony of Virginia. He was 48 when he claimed his freedom.

On arrival, he was bought by Michael Pascal, a lieutenant in the Royal British Navy. Pascal decided to rename him Gustavus Vassa, a Latinised form of the name Gustav Vasa, a Swedish noble who had become Gustav I of Sweden, king in the 16th century,[citation needed]. His wife's real name was Bambuka Mwaza Equiano or as Bambuka Susannah Vassa. Bambuka was born in Nigeria but was later shipped by the Spanish. Olaudah and Bambuka met in America. Renaming slaves was common practice among slaveholders when they purchased them. This was but one of many names Equiano had been given by slave owners through his life. This time Equiano refused and told his new owner that he would prefer to be called Jacob. His refusal, he says, "gained me many a cuff," that is, he was slapped or smacked, and eventually he submitted to the new name.

Equiano wrote in his narrative that slaves working inside the slaveholders' homes in Virginia were treated cruelly. They suffered punishments such as an "iron muzzle", used around the mouths to keep house slaves quiet, leaving them barely able to speak or eat. Equiano conveyed the fear and amazement he experienced in his new environment. He thought that the eyes of portraits followed him wherever he went, and that a clock could tell his master about anything Equiano would do wrong. In fact, Equiano was so shocked by this culture that he tried washing his face in an attempt to change its color.[5]

A disputed portrait of Equiano in the Royal Albert Memorial Museum, Exeter

[edit] Seven Years war

As the slave of a naval captain, Equiano received training in seamanship and traveled extensively with his master. This was during the Seven Years War with France. Although Pascal's personal servant, Equiano was also expected to assist in times of battle; his duty was to haul gunpowder to the gun decks. As one of Pascal's favourites, Equiano was sent to Ms. Guerin, Pascal's sister in Britain, to attend school and learn to read.

At this time Equiano decided to convert to Christianity. His master allowed George to be baptized in St. Margaret's Church, Westminster, in February 1759. Despite the special treatment, after the British won the war, Equiano did not receive a share of the prize money, as was awarded to the other sailors. Pascal had also promised his freedom but did not release him.[citation needed]

Later, Pascal sold Equiano to Captain James Doran of the Charming Sally at Gravesend, where he was transported to Montserrat, in the Caribbean Leeward Islands.

He was sold on to Robert King, a Quaker merchant from Philadelphia who traded in the Caribbean. Pascal had instructed Doran to ensure that he sold Equiano

"to the best master he could, as he told him I was a very deserving boy, which Captain Doran said he found to be true;"

King set Equiano to work on his shipping routes and in his stores. In 1765, King promised that for forty pounds, the price he had paid, Equiano could buy his freedom.[6] King taught him to read and write more fluently, guided him along the path of religion, and allowed Equiano to engage in profitable trading on his own as well as on his master's behalf. He enabled Equiano to earn his freedom, which he achieved by his early twenties.

King urged Equiano to stay on as a business partner, but Equiano found it dangerous and limiting to remain in the British colonies as a freedman. For instance, while loading a ship in Georgia, he was almost kidnapped back into slavery. He was released after proving his education. Equiano returned to Britain where, after Somersett's Case of 1772, men believed they were free of the risk of enslavement.

[edit] Pioneer of the abolitionist cause

Equiano traveled to London and became involved in the abolitionist movement. The movement had been particularly strong amongst Quakers, but was by then non-denominational. Equiano was Methodist, having been influenced by George Whitefield's evangelism in the New World.

Front page of Equiano's autobiography

Equiano proved to be a popular speaker. He was introduced to many senior and influential people, who encouraged him to write and publish his life story. Equiano was supported financially by philanthropic abolitionists and religious benefactors; his lectures and preparation for the book were promoted by, among others, Selina Hastings, Countess of Huntingdon.

His account surprised many with the quality of its imagery, description, and literary style. Some who had not yet joined the abolitionist cause felt shame at learning of his suffering. Entitled The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African, it was first published in 1789 and rapidly went through several editions. It is one of the earliest known examples of published writing by an African writer. It was the first influential slave autobiography. Equiano's personal account of slavery and of his experiences as an 18th-century black immigrant caused a sensation when published in 1789. The book fueled a growing anti-slavery movement in Great Britain.

Equiano's narrative begins in the West African village where he was kidnapped into slavery in 1756. He vividly recalls the horror of the Middle Passage: "I now wished for the last friend, Death, to relieve me." The young Equiano was taken to a Virginia plantation where he witnessed torture. Slavery, he explained, brutalizes everyone â the slaves, their overseers, plantation wives, and the whole of society.

The autobiography goes on to describe how Equiano's adventures brought him to London, where he married into English society and became a leading abolitionist. His exposé of the infamous slave-ship Zong, whose 133 slaves were thrown overboard in mid-ocean for the owners to claim insurance money, shook the nation. Equiano's book proved his most lasting contribution to the abolitionist movement, as the book vividly demonstrated the humanity of Africans as much as the inhumanity of slavery.

The book not only was an exemplary work of English literature by a new, African author, but it made Equiano's fortune. The returns gave him independence from benefactors and enabled him to fully chart his own purpose. He worked to improve economic, social and educational conditions in Africa, particularly in Sierra Leone.

Equiano recalls his childhood in Essaka (an Igbo village formerly in southeast Nigeria), where he was adorned in the tradition of the "greatest warriors." He is unique in his account of traditional African life before the advent of the European slave trade. Equally significant is Equiano's life on the high seas, including travels throughout the Americas, Turkey and the Mediterranean. He also fought in major naval battles during the French and Indian War (Seven Years' War), and searched for a Northwest Passage, on the Phipps Expedition of 1772â73.

In 1776-77, Equiano was engaged by one Dr Irving to travel with him to establish two plantations, one in Jamaica, and the other on the Mosquito Shore in the Western Caribbean Zone. Equiano was to manage the Mosquito Shore plantation, and he chose slaves of "my own nation" presumably Igbo for this task. The plantation was established near Gracias a Dios in modern day Honduras, and he met and described the local Miskito leaders, as well as some information on the Miskitu themselves. After some time there Equiano returned to Jamaica, but was first partially enslaved and made to cut mahogany and nearly sold again as a slave. From Jamaica, after unsuccessfully attempting to collect his promised wages, he returned to Jamaica.[7]

Equiano records his and Granville Sharp's central roles in the British Abolitionist Movement. As a major voice in this movement, Equiano petitioned the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain in 1788. He was appointed to an expedition to resettle London's poor Blacks in Sierra Leone, a British colony on the west coast of Africa. He was dismissed after protesting against financial mismanagement.[8]

[edit] Conversion and criticism

Equiano's Interesting Narrative not only traces his path from enslavement to freedom, but his spiritual conversion. This conversion marks a distinctive disruption of the text. It is followed by a chapter of "Miscellaneous Verses", which relate the transformation from Equiano's enslaved "orphan state"[9] to an "epiphany" that his "soul and Christ were now as one---."[10] Scholars have debated the degree of Equiano's "conversion". Some critics read Equiano's conversion as an adoption of Christian discourse, which inevitably leads him towards assimilation in English society. Another calls Equiano's Christianity "nominal."[11] Another claims that Equiano's Christianity is rhetorical, used to âsituate himself at the heart of Englishness.â[12]

Scholars also read his account as portraying his life and conversion in terms of the old testament and new testament model. This type of narrative shows how Equiano could "read his life as a progress, without closing off the paths that circle back to where he began."[13] Another critic suggests Equiano's conversion is serious, and his "search for true religion stands as a central organizing principle of the life that he narrated, and it was in his second birth as a Christian that he believed himself to have archived true freedom.â[14] Equiano's spiritual freedom related to his desire for emancipation. This directs attention to the differences between the freedom of soul and body. Other scholars have tied an examination of Turkey and the Muslim world to analysis of Equiano's treatment of Christianity in the narrative.[15] Equiano clearly used Christian theological elements to show how they shaped him. His conversion demonstrated the paradox of enslaving fellow Christians. Further, he expressed the question of whether a black subaltern person could assimilate into a church controlled by a colonizing nation.

In addition to the criticism surrounding his Christian conversion scholars also criticize the legitimacy of his African birth. Small details in his personal narrative show concern, such as the presence of *corn in his African diet. Although it is plausible for trade of an American crop to reach what he claims was an area previously untouched by the British, it is not likely. An alternate theory of his birth taking place in America while he gained knowledge of African life by talking and interviewing other slaves which he was known to do extensively.

[edit] Family in Britain

At some point, after having travelled widely, Equiano decided to settle in Britain and raise a family. Equiano is closely associated with Soham, Cambridgeshire, where, on 7 April 1792, he married Susannah Cullen, a local girl, in St Andrew's Church. The original marriage register containing the entry for Equiano and Susannah is today held by Cambridgeshire Archives and Local Studies at the County Record Office in Cambridge.

He announced his wedding in every edition of his autobiography from 1792 onwards, and it has been suggested his marriage mirrored his anticipation of a commercial union between Africa and Great Britain. The couple settled in the area and had two daughters, Anna Maria, born 16 October 1793, and Joanna, born 11 April 1795.

Susannah died in February 1796 aged 34, and Equiano died a year after that on 31 March 1797,[1] aged 51 (some historians will say otherwise). Soon after, the elder daughter died, age four years old, leaving Joanna to inherit Equiano's estate, which was valued at â950: a considerable sum, worth approximately â100,000 today.[16] Joanna married the Rev. Henry Bromley, and they ran a Congregational Chapel at Clavering near Saffron Walden in Essex, before moving to London in the middle of the nineteenth century. They are both buried at the Congregationalists' non-denominational Abney Park Cemetery, in Stoke Newington.

[edit] Last days and will

Although Equiano's death is recorded in London, 1797, the location of his burial is unsubstantiated. One of his last London addresses appears to have been Plaisterer's Hall in the City of London (where he drew up his will on 28 May 1796).

Having drawn up his will, Olaudah Equiano moved to John Street, Tottenham Court Road, close to Whitefield's Methodist chapel. (It was renovated for Congregationalists in the 1950s. Now the American Church in London, the church recently placed a small memorial to Equiano.) Lastly, he lived in Paddington Street, Middlesex, where he died. Equiano's death was reported in newspaper obituaries.

In the 1790s, at the time of the excesses of the French Revolution and close on the heels of the American War for Independence, British society was tense because of fears of open revolution. Reformers were considered more suspect than in other periods. Equiano had been an active member of the London Corresponding Society, which campaigned to extend the vote to working men. His close friend Thomas Hardy, the Society's Secretary, was prosecuted by the government (though without success) on the basis that such political activity amounted to treason. In December 1797, apparently unaware that Equiano had died nine months earlier, a writer for the government-sponsored Anti-Jacobin, or Weekly Examiner satirised Equiano as being at a fictional meeting of the Friends of Freedom.

Equiano's will provided for projects he considered important. Had his longer-surviving daughter Joanna died before reaching the age of inheritance (twenty-one), half his wealth would have passed to the Sierra Leone Company for continued assistance to West Africans, and half to the London Missionary Society, which promoted "education" overseas. This organization had formed the previous November at the Countess of Huntingdon's Spa Fields Chapel. By the early nineteenth century, The Missionary Society had become well known worldwide as non-denominational, though it was largely Congregational.

[edit] Modern views

[edit] Controversy of origin

Scholars have disagreed about Equiano's origins. Some believe Equiano may have fabricated his African roots and his survival of the Middle Passage not only to sell more copies of his book, but also to help advance the movement against the slave trade.

Equiano was certainly African by descent. The circumstantial evidence that Equiano was also African American by birth and African British by choice is compelling but not absolutely conclusive. Although the circumstantial evidence is not equivalent to proof, anyone dealing with Equiano's life and art must consider it.

[17]

Baptismal records and a naval muster roll appear to link Equiano to South Carolina. Records of Equiano's first voyage to the Arctic state he was from Carolina, not Africa.[18] Equiano may have been the source for information linking him to Carolina, but it may also have been a clerk's careless record of origin. Scholars continue to search for evidence to substantiate Equiano's claim of birth in Africa. Currently, no separate documentation supports this story.

For some scholars, the fact that many parts of Equiano's account can be proven lends weight to accepting his story of African birth. "In the long and fascinating history of autobiographies that distort or exaggerate the truth. ...Seldom is one crucial portion of a memoir totally fabricated and the remainder scrupulously accurate; among autobiographers... both dissemblers and truth-tellers tend to be consistent."[19]

A recent work claimed that, in a Nigerian town known as Isseke, there was local oral history that told of Equiano's upbringing..[20] Prior to this work, however, no town bearing a name of that spelling had been recorded. Other scholars, including Nigerians, have pointed out grave errors in the research.[who?]

"Historians have never discredited the accuracy of Equiano's narrative, nor the power it had to support the abolitionist cause [...] particularly in Britain during the 1790s. However, parts of Equiano's account of the Middle Passage may have been based on already published accounts or the experiences of those he knew."[21]

[edit] Portrayal in mass media

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ a b c "Olaudah Equiano (c.1745 - 1797)". BBC. 31 Oct 2006. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/equiano_olaudah.shtml. "Equiano was an African writer whose experiences as a slave prompted him to become involved in the British abolition movement." 
  2. ^ (Olauda Ikwuano correct spelling of name by modern standards) http://emeagwali.com/letters/dear-professor-emeagwali-onye-igbo-ka-nbu.htm
  3. ^ Other biographies claim Equiano was born in colonial South Carolina, not in Africa (see: External links).
  4. ^ Equiano, Olaudah (2005). The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, Or Gustavus Vassa, The African. Gutenberg Project. 
  5. ^ Equiano, Olaudah (1789). The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, Or Gustavus Vassa, The African. (p. 109)
  6. ^ Walvin, James (2000), An African's life: the life and times of Olaudah Equiano, 1745-1797, Continuum International Publishing Group, p. 71, ISBN 9780826447043, http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=Nwv0y3PUuVAC 
  7. ^ Equiano, Interesting Narrative, chapter 11.
  8. ^ Longman Anthology of British Literature, Volume 2A: The Romantics and Their , p. 211.
  9. ^ The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, Ed. Shelly Eversley. New York: Modern Library, 203
  10. ^ The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, Ed. Shelly Eversley. New York: Modern Library, 205
  11. ^ Marren, Susan M. "Between Slavery and Freedom: The Transgressive Self in Olaudah Equiano's Autobiography", PMLA 108 (1993): 101.
  12. ^ Earley, Samantha M. "Writing from the Center of the Margins? Olaudah Equiano's Writing Life Reassessed", African Studies Review, Dec. 2003: 3.
  13. ^ Potkay, Adam. "Olaudah Equiano and the Art of Spiritual Autobiography", Eighteenth-Century Studies 27 (1994): 692.
  14. ^ Sidbury, James. âFrom Igbo Israeli to African Christian: The Emergence of Racial Identity in Olaudah Equianoâs Interesting Narrativeâ, Africas of the Americas: Beyond the Search for Origins in the Study of Afro-Atlantic Religions. Ed. Stephan Palmié. Leiden: Brill, 2008, 89.
  15. ^ Duffield, Ian and Paul Edwards, âEquiano's Turks and Christians: An Eighteenth Century View of Islamâ, Journal of African Studies, 2:4 (1975): 433-44.
  16. ^ Based on the retail prices index, â950 in 1796 would be worth â81,000 in 2008 using the calculator at measuringworth.com.
  17. ^ Carretta,2005
  18. ^ "The True Story of Equiano". The Nation. http://www.thenation.com/doc/20051121/blackburn. 
  19. ^ Adam Hochschild, Bury the Chains: Prophets and Rebels in the Fight to Free an Empireâs Slaves (Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 2006), 467 pp., paperback: ISBN 978-0-618-61907-8, p. 372.
  20. ^ Catherine Obianuju Acholonu, The Igbo Roots Of Olaudah Equiano: An Anthropological Research (1989)
  21. ^ "Olaudah Equiano". Soham. http://www.soham.org.uk/history/olaudahequiano.htm. 
  22. ^ "Grace Unshackled: The Olaudah Equiano Story". BBC. 15 April 2007. http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b007k3kk. Retrieved 15 January 2009. 

[edit] External links

[edit] Dramatic recreations

[edit] Birthplace dispute




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