Marx and Engels Collected Works Volume 4
Marx and Engels 1844 - 1845

Marx, Karl; Engels, Friedrich
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Publisher:  Progress Publishers
Year Published:  1845  
Resource Type:  Book
Cx Number:  CX6407

Includes The Holy Family, or Critique of Critical Criticism, and The Condition of the Working-Class in England.

Abstract: 
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Table of Contents

1844-45

Preface xv
The Holy Family, or Critique of Critical Criticism. Against Bruno Bauer and Company. (Marx & Engels) 5

Foreword
7

Chapter I. "Critical Criticism in the Form of a Master-Bookbinder", or Critical Criticism as Herr Reichardt (by Engels)
9

Chapter II. "Critical Criticism" as a "Mill-Owner", or Critical Criticism as Herr Jules Fausber (by Engels)
12

Chapter III. "The Thoroughness of Critical Criticism", or Critical Criticism as Herr J. (Jungnitz?) (by Engels)
17

Chapter IV. "Critical Criticism" as the Tranquillity of Knowledge, or "Critical Criticism" as Herr Edgar
19

1) Flora Tristan's Union Ouviere (by Engels)
19

2) Beraud on Prostitutes (by Engels)
20

3) Love (by Marx)
20

4) Proudhon (by Marx)
23

Characterising Translation No. 1
24

Critical Comment No. 1
31

Critical Comment No. 2
34

Characterising Translation No. 2
38

Critical Comment No. 3
39

Characterising Translation No. 3
43

Critical Comment No. 4
48

Characterising Translation No. 4
50

Critical Comment No. 5
51

Chapter V. "Critical Criticism" as a Mystery-Monger, or "Critical Criticism" as Herr Szdiga (by Marx)
55

1) "The Mystery of Degeneracy in Civilisation" and "The Mystery of Rightlessness in the State"
56

2) The Mystery of Speculative Construction
57

3) "The Mystery of Educated Society"
61

4) "The Mystery of Probity and Piety"
69

5) "Mystery, a Mockery"
72

6) Turtle-Dove (Rigolette)
75

7) The World System of the Mysteries of Paris
76

Chapter VI. Absolute Critical Criticism, or Critical Criticism as Herr Bruno
78

1) Absolute Criticism's First Campaign (by Marx)
78

a) "Spirit" and "Man"
78

b) The Jewish Question No 1 The Setting of The Questions
87

c) Hinrichs No 1 Mysterious Hints on Politics, Socialism and Philosophy
90

2) Absolute Criticism's Second Campaign
92

a) Hinrichs No 2 "Criticism" and "Feuerbach". Condemnation of Philosophy (by Engels)
92

b) The Jewish Question No 2 Critical Discoveries on Socialist Jurisprudence and Politics (Nationality) (by Marx)
94

3) Absolute Criticism's Third Campaign (by Marx)
99

a) Absolute Criticism's Self-Apology Its "Political" Past
99

b) The Jewish Question No 3
106

c) Critical Battle against the French Revolution
118

d) Critical Battle against French Materialism
124

e) Final Defeat of Socialism
134

f) The Speculative Cycle of Absolute Criticism and the Philosophy of Self-Consciousness
136

Chapter VII. Critical Criticism's Correspondence
144

1) The Critical Mass (by Marx)
144

2) The "UnCritical Mass" and "Critical Criticism"
148

a) The "Obdurate Mass" and the "Unsatisfied Mass" (by Marx)
148

b) The "Soft-Hearted" Mass "Pining for Redemption" (by Engels)
151

c) Grace Bestowed on the Mass (by Marx)
154

3) The Un-Critically Critical Mass, or "Criticism" and the "Berlin Couleur" (by Marx)
144

Chapter VIII. The Earthly Course and Transfiguration of "Critical Criticism", or "Critical Criticism" as Rudolph, Prince of Geroldstein (by Marx)
162

1) Critical Transformation of a Butcher into a Dog, or Chourineur
165

2) Revelation of the Mystery of Critical Religion, or Fleur de Marie
166

a) The Speculative "Marguerite"
166

b) Fleur de Marie
168

3) Revelation of the Mysteries of Law
176

a) The Maitre d'ecole or the New Penal Theory. The Mystery of Solitary Confinement Revealed. Medical Mysteries
176

b) Reward and Punishment Double Justice (with a Table)
188

c) Abolition of Degeneracy Within Civilisation and of Rightlessness in The State
190

4) The Revealed Mystery of the "Standpoint"
191

5) Revelation of the Mystery of the Utilisation of Human Impulses, or Clemence d'Harville
195

6) Revelation of the Mystery of the Emancipation of Women, or Louie Morel
195

7) Revelation of Political Economic Mysteries
196

a) Theoretical Revelation of Political Economic Mysteries
196

b) "The Bank for The Poor"
197

c) Model Farm at Bouqueval
199

8) Rudolph, "the Revealed Mystery of All Mysteries"
201

Chapter IX. The Critical Last Judgment (by Marx)
210

Historical Epilogue
211
Continental Socialism (Engels) 212
Description of Recently Founded Communist Colonies Still in Existence (Engels) 214
Rapid Progress of Communism in Germany (Engels) 229
Speeches in Elberfeld (Engels) 245

February 8, 1845
245

February 15, 1845
256
Draft of an Article on Friedrich List's Book Das nationale System der politischen Oekonemie (Marx) 265

I. General Characterisation of List
265

II. The Theory of Productive Forces and the Theory of Exchange Values
277

III. From Chapter Three. The Problem of Land Rent
286

IV. Herr List and Ferrier
290
The Condition of the Working-Class in England. From Personal Observation and Authentic Sources (Engels) 295

To the Working Classes of Great Britain
297

Preface
302

Introduction
307

The State of the Workers before the Industrial Revolution.-The Jenny.-Emergence of the Industrial and the Agricultural Proletariat.- The Throstle, the Mule, the Power-Loom, the Steam Engine.-The Victory of Machinery Work over Hand-Work.-The Development of Industrial Might.-The Cotton Industry.-The Hosiery Manufacture.-The Manufacture of Lace.-Dyeing, Bleaching, Printing.- The Manufacture of Wool.-The Linen Trade.-The Manufacture of silk.-The Production and Manufacture of Iron.-Coal Mining.- The Production of Pottery.-Agriculture.-Roadways, Canals, Railroads, Steamboats.-Summary.-The Emergence of the Proletariat as a Factor of National Importance.-The Middle Class' View of the Workers.

The Industrial Proletariat
324

Classification of the Proletariat.-Centralisation of Property.-The Levers of Modern Manufacture.-Centralisation of Population

The Great Towns
328

The Impression Produced by London.-The Social War and the System of General Plundering.-The Last of the Poors-General Description of the Slums.-In London: St. Giles and the Adjoining Quarters.-Whitechapel.-The Interior of the Workers' Dwellings. The Homeless in the Parks.-Night Refuge.-Dublin.-Edinburgh.-Liverpool.-Factory Towns: Nottingham, Birmingham, Glasgow, Leeds, Bradford, Huddersfield.-Lancashire: General Description.-Bolton.-Stockport.-Ashton-under-Lyne.-Stalybridge.-Detailed Description of Manchester: the General System of Its Building.-The Old Town.-The New Town.- The Method of Construction of Working-Men's Quarters.-Courts and Side Street.- Ancoats.-Little Ireland.-Hulme.-Salford.- Summary.-Lodging Houses.-Overcrowdedness of Population.- Cellar Dwellings.-The Clothing of the Workers.-Food.-Tainted Meat.-Adulteration of Provision.-False Weights, etc.-General Conclusion

Competition
375

Competition among the Workers Determines the Minimum of Wages,Competition among the Property-Holding People Determines Their Maximum.-The Worker, the Slave of the Bourgeoisie, is Forced to Sell Himself by the Day, and by the Hour.-Surplus Population.- Commercial Crises.-A Reserve Army of Workers.-The Hard Lot of This Reserve Army during the Crisis of 1842

Irish Immigration
389

The Causes and Figures.-Description by Thomas Carlyle.- Lack of Cleanliness, Crudeness and Drunkenness among the Irishmen.-The Influence of Irish Competition and of the Contacts with the Irish upon the English Workers

Results
393

Preliminary Remarks.-The Influence of the Above-Described Conditions on the Health of the Workers.-The Influence of Large Towns, Dwellings, Uncleanliness, etc.-The Facts.-Consumption.- Typhus, in Particular in London, Scotland and Ireland.-Digestive Troubles.-The Results of Drunkenness.-Quack Remedies.-"Godfrey's Cordial".- Mortality among Workers, Especially among Young Children.-Accusation of the Bourgeoisie of Social Murder.- Influence on the Mental and Moral Condition of the Workers.- Absence of the Necessary Conditions for Education.-Inadequacy of Evening and Sunday Schools.-Ignorance.-The Worker's Living Conditions Give Him a Sort of Practical Training.-Neglect of The Workers' Moral Training.-The Law as the Only Instructor in Morals. The Worker's Conditions of Life Tempt Him to Disregard Law and Morality.-The Influence of Poverty and Insecurity of Existence upon the Proletariat.-Forced Work.-The Centralisation of the Population.-Irish Immigration.-The Difference in Character between the Worker and the Bourgeois.-The Proletarian's Advantages over the Bourgeois.-The Unfavourable Sides of the Proletarian Character.-Drunkenness.-Sexual Irregularities.-Neglect of Family Duties.-Contempt for the Existing Social Order.-Crimes.- Description of the Social War.

Single Branches of Industry. Factory Hands
428

The Influence of Machinery.-Hand-Loom Weavers.-The Work of Men Being Superseded by Machinery.-Female Labour, the Distortion of the Family.-The Reversal of All Relations within the Family.- The Moral Consequences of the Mass Employment of Women in Factories.-Jus Primae Noctis.-The Work of Children.-The Apprentice System.-Subsequent Measures.-The Facts Related by the Factory Report.-Long Working-Day.-Night-Work. Cripples.- Other Deformities.-The Nature of Factory-Work.-Relaxation of the Whole Organism.-Special Diseases.-Testimony of the Commissioners.-Premature Old Age.-The Specific Influence of Factory Work upon the Female Physique.-Some Especially Injurious Branches.-Accidents.-The Bourgeoisie's Opinion of the Factory System.-Factory Laws and Agitation for the Ten Hours' Bill.- The Stupefying and Demoralising Nature of Factory-Work. Slavery.- Factory Regulations.-The Truck-System.-The Cottage System.- The Comparison of the Serf of 1145 with the Free Working-Man of 1845.

The Remaining Branches of Industry
479

Stocking Weavers.-The Lace Industry. Calico Printers.-Fustian Cutters.-Silk Weavers.-Metal-Wares.-Birmingham.- Staffordshire.-Sheffield.-Production of Machinery.-Potteries in the North of Staffordshire.-Manufacture of Class.- Handicraftsmen.- Dressmakers and Sewing-Women.

Labour Movements
501

Preliminary Remarks.-Crimes.-Revolts Against Machinery.- Associations, Strikes.-The Objects of the Unions and Strike.- Excesses Connected with Them.-The General Character of the Struggle Waged by the English Proletariat against the Bourgeoisie.- The Battle in Manchester in May 1845.-Respect for the Law is Alien to the Proletariat-Chartism.-The History of the Chartist Movement.-Insurrection of 1842.-The Decisive Separation of Proletarian Chartism from Bourgeois Radicalism.-The Social Nature of Chartism.-Socialism.-The Working-Men's Views

The Mining Proletariat
550

Cornish Miners.-Alston Moor.-Coal and Iron Mines.-The Work of Grown-up Men, Women and Children.- Special Affections.-Work in Low Shafts.-Accidents, Explosions, etc.-Mental Education.- Morals. -Laws Relating to the Mining Industry.-Systematic Exploitation of the Coal-Miners.-The Beginning of the Workers' Movement.- The Union of Coal-Miners.-The Great Campaign of 1844 in the North of England.-Roberts and the Campaign against Justices of the Peace and the Truck-System.-The Results of the Struggle.

The Agricultural Proletariat
545

Historical Survey.-Pauperism in the Country.-The Condition of the Wage-Workers.-Incendiarisms.-Indifference to the Corn Laws.- Religious State of the Agricultural Labourers.-Wales: Small Tenants.- "Rebecca" Disturbances.-Ireland: Subdivision of the Land.-Pauperisation of the Irish Nation.-Crimes.-Agitation for the Repeal of the Union with England.

The Attitude of the Bourgeoisie Towards the Proletariat
562

Demoralisation of the Engels Bourgeoisie.-Its Avarice.-Political Economy and Free Competition.-Pharisaic Charity.-The Hypocrisy of Political Economy and Politics in the Question of the Corn Laws.- Bourgeois Legislation and Justice.-The Bourgeoisie in Parliament.- A Bill Regulating the Relation of Master and Servant.-Malthus' Theory.-The Old Poor Law.-The New Poor Law.-Examples of the Brutal Treatment of the Poor in the Workhouses.-The Chances of the English Bourgeoisie

Postscript to The Condition of the Working-Class in England. An English Turnout (Engels)
554
Peuchet: On Suicide (Marx) 597
A Fragment of Fourier's on Trade (Engels) 613

I
616

II. Falseness of the Economic Principles of Circulation
620

III. Hierarchy of Bankruptcy
624

IV. Ascending Wing of Bankrupts
626

The Innocent.-The Honourable.-The Seductive

V. Centre.-Grandiose Hues
630

The Tacticians.-The Manoeuvrers.-The Agitators

VI. Descending Wing.-Dirty Hues
636

The Cunning Sneakers.-The Bunglers.-The False Brothers

VII. Conclusion
640
The Late Butchery at Leipzig.-The German Working Men's Movement (Engels) 645
Victoria's Visit.-The "Royals" at Loggerheads.-Row Betwixt Vic and the German Bourgeoisie.-The Condemnation of the Paris Carpenters (Engels) 649
"Young Germany" in Switzerland. (Conspiracy against Church and State) (Engels) 651
Persecution and Expulsion of Communists (Engels) 654
History of the English Corn Laws (Engels) 656


From the Preparatory Materials
Hegel's Construction of the Phenomenology (Marx) 665
Draft Plan for a Work on the Modern State (Marx) 666
Plan of the "Library of the Best Foreign Socialist Writers" (Marx) 667
From the Notebook (Marx) 668


Appendices
To the Readers of and Contributors to the Gesellschaftsspiegel 671
Contract Between Marx and the Leske Publishers in Darmstadt on the Publication of Kritik der Politik und Nationalokonomie. February 1, 1845 675
Marx to Leopold I, King of Belgium, in Brussels. February 7, 1845 676
Marx's Undertaking Not to Publish Anything in Belgium on Current Politics. March 22, 1845 677
Marx to Chief Burgomaster Gortz in Trier. October 17, 1845 678
Marx to Chief Burgomaster Gortz in Trier. November 10, 1845 679


Notes & Indexes
Notes 683
Name Index 723
Index of Quoted and Mentioned Literature 741
Index of Periodicals 757
Subject Index 763


Illustrations
Title-page of the first edition of The Holy Family by Marx and Engels 5
Reproduction of K. Hubner's painting, Weavers Delivering Finished Cloth. 1844 230
Cover of the first edition of Engels' The Condition of the Working-Class in England 299
First page of Engels' address To the Working-Classes of Great Britain 305
A page from The Condition of the Working-Class in England (1845), with Edward Mead's poem, "The Steam King", translated by Engels 475
Map of Manchester 515
The covers of the journals to which Engels contributed: Deutsches Bürgerbuch, Westphälische Dampfboot, Gesellschaftsspiegal 599-601

Subject Headings