August 1914 and World War I
Publisher: Against the Current
Date Written: 01/09/2014
Year Published: 2014
Resource Type: Article
Cx Number: CX20811
Smaldone analyzes the political circumstances during WWI to explain why socialism as an international movement failed to take hold and ultimately collapsed.
At the beginning of the 20th century the European socialist movement appeared to be an unstoppable force. The establishment of parliamentary institutions in most countries during the last third of the 19th century had opened the door to the creation of new political organizations calling themselves "Socialist," "Social Democratic," or "Labor" parties, some of which soon had tens or even hundreds of thousands of dues-paying members and millions of voters.
Germanys Social Democratic Party (SPD) was the quintessential model. Equipped with a theoretical and practical program largely grounded in Marxist principles, the party called for the overthrow of the system of competitive capitalism based on private property and its replacement by a socialist order based on cooperation and public property.
In addition to its demands for immediate reforms in such spheres as social insurance, collective bargaining rights, education and workplace safety, it supported the democratization of political and economic life and called for the universal emancipation of workers, oppressed minorities and women. By 1913 the SPD had over one million members and the electoral support of one-third of the countrys 12 million voters.
On the national level, Europe's socialist parties had the backing of an even more rapidly-growing trade union movement, while their commitment to workers' internationalism was symbolized by their membership in the Socialist International, founded in 1889, to link the theoretical and practical aims of member parties around the world.(1) It appeared to many workers -- and even to many in the ruling classes -- that history was on the side of socialism and it was only a matter of time before the growing labor movement would bring capitalism to its knees.
Yet this powerful movement rapidly splintered and never fully recovered its strength. The outbreak of the First World War revealed a number of ideological and political tensions that had long been present within socialism but had never seemed divisive enough to challenge its fundamental unity.